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WikiProject Middle-earth (Rated B-class, Mid-importance)
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This article is within the scope of WikiProject Middle-earth, which aims to build an encyclopedic guide to J. R. R. Tolkien, his legendarium, and related topics. Please visit the project talk page for suggestions and ideas on how you can improve this and other articles.

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I think we should include a glossary (in table form) of Sindarin roots commonly seen in geographic names, i.e. mor, duin, etc. I don't have time to do it today, but I think it would be a good idea.

I agree. A lot of the naming elements in Lord Of The Rings appear a number of times, so the more common ones should probably be characterised. Here's a short list (I don't have the skill yet for a full HTML table):
    Sindarin     English       Example
    amon         hill             Amon Sûl "Hill of Wind", Emyn Beraid "Tower Hills"
    ang          iron             Angband "Iron Prison"
    angren       of iron          Angrenost "Fortress of Iron", Ered Engrin "Mountains of Iron"
    annon        door, gate       Morannon "Black Gate"
    barad        tower            Barad-dûr "Dark Tower"
    celeb        silver           Celeborn "Silvertree"
    dôr          land             Gondor "Stone Land", Mordor "Black Land"
    duin         river            Anduin "Long River"
    dûr          dark             Durthang "Dark Oppression"
               void, abyss      Moria "Black Abyss"
    mith         grey             Mithrandir "Grey Pilgrim"
    mor          black            Morannon "Black Gate"
    orn          tree             Celeborn "Silvertree", Fangorn "Treebeard"
    orod         mountain         Orodruin "Red Flame Mountain"
    ril          brilliance       mithril "grey brilliance"
There's a big glossary of the more common terms in the back of the Silmarillion.

It would be nice to some examples in the 'Language Codes' section. The quenya article includes text examples in both Tengwar and Latin alphabets. I don't know enough about the language to do it myself... Jmejia 09:26, 6 February 2006 (UTC)

I might suggest putting such a 'glossary' on Wikibooks. --CBDunkerson 23:50, 1 March 2006 (UTC)


Is anyone interested in creating Babel templates for Sindarin/Quenya? UrbaneLegend 23:32, 1 March 2006 (UTC)

See Category:User_que for a start on that. --CBDunkerson 23:50, 1 March 2006 (UTC)

Uses in LOTR #1[edit]

On the Caradhras, Sindarin was the language Gandalf chanted back after hearing Sauruman's spell in Quenya. -- 04:03, 8 January 2007 (UTC)

How to write in Elvish?[edit]

I am a big fan of the Tolkein universe. I believe that we need a subarticle showing how to write it Sindarin, Quenya, and Feonorian (sp?). If nessecary I can aid in this. 01:33, 11 February 2007 (UTC)

You may be interested in the article on the Tengwar (and possibly Cirth). — The Storm Surfer 23:01, 13 August 2007 (UTC)

Everything2 link[edit]

I removed the "Reference" section that contained this:

Besides being a self-reference, this goes against the whole point of the GFDL. I'm frankly shocked that this has remained in this article, without comment, since the first edit — and that some editors have actually updated it! If I'm missing something here and this is not only allowed but somehow appropriate, by all means add it back, but please provide an explanation. --Sapphic 00:25, 1 June 2007 (UTC)

German diphthongs[edit]

"German-speakers would have an advantage, as ae and oe are pronounced like German ei/ai and eu/äu."

This isn't quite correct. Those German digraphs are pronounced [aɪ] and [ɔʏ], not [aɛ] and [ɔɛ] - German doesn't have any diphthongs like that. Unless someone objects, I'm just going to change it.

Also, somehow the fact that Sindarin possesses /y/ was overlooked.

The Dropper 22:16, 13 August 2007 (UTC)

Yes, please do remove the information if it is inaccurate. — The Storm Surfer 23:06, 13 August 2007 (UTC)

Pedo mellon a minno[edit]

I think there should be a discussion about Pedo mellon a minno - there is an obscure (for the readers, not for the characters) grammatical error in Gandalf's rendering of this expression as "Speak, friend, and enter!". Albmont (talk) 19:13, 11 February 2008 (UTC)

How do you know it's an error? What would be the correct Sindarin for "Speak, friend, and enter"? —Tamfang (talk) 06:11, 5 January 2011 (UTC)
It's not an error, it's just ambiguous. [1] Double sharp (talk) 14:25, 27 July 2013 (UTC)

Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative[edit]

The note on the ortography of the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative should include <ll> when comming from older <lt>, as described in The Two Phonetic Values of ll in Elvish Sindarin in The Lord of the Rings. It should also be noted that <lh> only has that sound initially, as medially it is pronounced separately (alveolar lateral approximant + voiceless glottal transition). Rjaroszewski (talk) 16:20, 26 March 2008 (UTC)

Are Sindarin C/P/T Aspirated?[edit]

  • Just out of curiosity, are Sindarin c/p/t aspirated as in English cap/pop/top? Any evidence or statement by Tolkien himself? Bellenion (talk) 06:42, 7 December 2009 (UTC)
    • If I remember correctly, there isn't much information about this, but they were most likely not, although I'm too tired to cite the reasons, although it was about old ph th ch becoming fricatives from being aspirated plosives.-- (talk) 21:02, 11 January 2010 (UTC)
AFAIK in LotR era Sindarin (and Quenya) c/p/t are unaspirated in standard language, but aspiration doesn't convey any meaning, so saying c/p/t as aspirated just means you have a strange accent. --Jhattara (Talk · Contrib) 22:26, 11 January 2010 (UTC)
      • Thanks all, I already got the answer from Elfling!--Bellenion (talk) 07:29, 14 January 2010 (UTC)

Umlaut plural "clearly shows the influence of the Germanic languages"?[edit]

I put a {{fact}} tag on the claim that the umlaut plural of Sindarin "clearly shows the influence of the Germanic languages", because it's actually much more like the umlaut plural of Welsh. In particular, in Welsh and Sindarin, but not Germanic, vowels can be affected in two syllables rather than just one: Sindarin has galadh/gelaidh, just like Welsh alarch/elairch ("swan/swans") or dafad/defaid ("sheep (sg.)/sheep (pl.)"). Is there evidence Tolkien was inspired by Germanic rather than Welsh for this, because it seems to me to be the other way around. +Angr 18:07, 19 April 2010 (UTC)

Tolkien was generally inspired by Welsh while inventing Sindarin so I can't see a connection to Germanic languages either. One could compare the pronounciation of some diphtongs to modern German umlauts but I think that's all. Going to look for some odd reference for the Germanic claim though. De728631 (talk) 18:34, 19 April 2010 (UTC)
Did I already link affection (linguistics)? —Tamfang (talk) 06:12, 5 January 2011 (UTC)


As it now stands, the article gets overexcited in rejecting the efforts of David Salo and others to extrapolate Sindarin grammar. Perhaps someone more informed than me could tone it down some. —Tamfang (talk) 06:18, 5 January 2011 (UTC)

choices of words[edit]

I am rarely as tempted to edit-war as I am today.

I changed this to "Tolkien struggled to ..." and reverted. I'd like to know why considers the progressive aspect, and the jumping on one foot, so essential.

I questioned this a couple of weeks ago and no one defended it, but .240 reverted my deletion. Who needs it?

The (abc) are unnecessary clutter, so naturally my deletion of them was reverted. —Tamfang (talk) 21:13, 24 January 2011 (UTC)

I've removed the (abc) again, let's see how long it lasts. De728631 (talk) 22:04, 24 January 2011 (UTC)


When the Neo- stuff was removed from the body text, I didn't notice these in the External Links:

... which are now cryptic. Perhaps the section could instead say something like "Note that the lessons linked here are based on different interpretations of Sindarin grammar." —Tamfang (talk) 18:46, 27 July 2013 (UTC)

Use of Sindarin[edit]

In relation to the above topic "choices of words" there is a discussion ongoing at Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Middle-earth#"neo-language" regarding that paragraph and the use of "Neo-languages" in general. Please join us there and wait for the outcome before you edit that paragraph. De728631 (talk) 18:07, 9 February 2011 (UTC)


The template on the top right says "none, after the death of Tolkien," but I seriously doubt that. As there are many interested in learning it, some should be fluent enough to speak it. Yel D'ohan (talk) 09:09, 27 February 2011 (UTC)

I'm not sure there are enough words known to let anyone achieve fluency... Double sharp (talk) 14:47, 21 March 2015 (UTC)

Plural of êl[edit]

Elin as plural of êl is listed as one of the few words that form the plural with a suffix. This is actually false. As Helge Kåre Fauskanger explains (, it's a case of the plural evolving in a different way than the singular, thus making it irregular. That is, the -in part is not a suffix appended to the singular, it's a result of the different development of the primitive regular plural. (talk) 20:10, 28 March 2012 (UTC)

Old Sindarin consonant and vowel chart[edit]

From [2]:

  Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
plain lateral
Plosive p b t d       k ɡ (ʔ)
Nasal m ()   n     ŋ  
Fricative f v θ ð s ɬ   x (ɣ) h
Trill     r        
Approximant       l j ʍ w  
Vowels Front Back
Close i y u
Open-mid ɛ (œ) ɔ
Open   ɑ (ɔː)

Except [ɔː] (written ǭ by Tolkien, online mostly å due to character limitations), all vowels may be short, long, or overlong (not sure about [œ]).

Diphthongs: [ɑi], [ɛi], ([œi]), [ui], [ɑɛ], [ɒɛ], [ɑu]. Double sharp (talk) 10:57, 3 September 2013 (UTC)


1 êr, min; 2 tad; 3 neleð; 4 canad; 5 leben; 6 eneg; 7 odo, odog; 8 toloð; 9 neder; 10 pae; 11 minib; 12 ýneg. As for higher numbers, we have the example 30 nelchaen from the King's Letter, but that uses the old root KAYAN, KAYAR for 10: perhaps it would be updated to *nelfaen? (I don't know Þindarin anywhere near as well as Quenya, so I'm just guessing.) The distinction between êr and min seems to be "single" vs. just "one", "first": so perhaps something like the difference between Greek μόνος and εἷς? We also have ordinals: 1 mein, main, minui; 2 taid, tadui; 3 neil, nail, nelui; 4 canthui; 5 levnui; 6 enchui, enecthui; 7 othui, odothui; 8 tollui; 9 nedrui; 10 paenui. Double sharp (talk) 08:56, 1 March 2015 (UTC)

Tolkien also gives CE forms for 13 and 14 nelekwe and kanakwe, which allows us to reconstruct the Sindarin forms. Since minikwe "11" yields S minib, I'd expect *neleb and *canab. Double sharp (talk) 08:34, 30 March 2015 (UTC)

Chronology of publications of Elvish texts[edit]

As this section includes examples of Quenya, is there any reason to have it here rather than in Elvish languages (Middle-earth)? —Tamfang (talk) 10:14, 1 March 2015 (UTC)

Quenya or Qenya?[edit]

Which is it? Kortoso (talk) 02:39, 19 April 2015 (UTC)

Qenya in earliest writings, Quenya later. —Tamfang (talk) 05:39, 19 April 2015 (UTC)

Short vs. Long Vowel Quality[edit]

In "The Road Goes Ever On," 3rd. ed., p. 71, Professor Tolkien uses the following words to describe the quality of the short vowels in Sindarin: "sick, bed, hot, foot." This indicates a difference in vowel quality between the short and long i, and short and long u (Appendix E having indicated that a, e, and o have the same quality regardless of length). The word "sick" likely indicates ɪ, and the word "foot" likely indicates ʊ.