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Research findings on the Glymphatic System[edit]

Since breakthrough research in 2012 or so, our understanding of sleep has risen sharply. However, the popular understanding of sleep has been slow to catch up, and this wikipedia article is no exception. The glymphatic system has been discovered to sweep built-up waste products of neural activity away from the brain at a vastly increased rate during sleep. It is these very waste products that, as toxins, reduce brain function and thus make us feel tired and reduce our brain and nervous system function when we are sleep-deprived. In other words, this breakthrough reveals the essential function of sleep. In evolutionary terms, we can think of this as the "purpose" of sleep. All other benefits or effects of sleep can be seen as side benefits from this new perspective. This explains why sleep is common to almost all animals down to some of the simplest creatures such as nematodes and jellyfish, creatures for whom other more esoteric benefits of sleep do not matter.

Unfortunately, this is not reflected in the sleep article. This new research (not so new anymore, and no longer "a theory" but more like "the theory"), is only briefly mentioned, buried in the middle of the article, and is barely mentioned in the intro. I would like to work with others more active on this page to update this, giving prominent mention to this body of research, increasing the amount of text relating to it, and clearly referencing the further wikipedia article on the glymphatic system. Thoughts? Jaywilson (talk) 13:21, 10 October 2019 (UTC)

Semi-protected edit request on 12 October 2019[edit]

Sleep in older adults: In spite of the generally accepted expectation that older adults suffer from poor, disrupted or insufficient sleep, research does not necessarily confirm this belief. Many older adults, especially if they are active and healthy, enjoy restful and healthy sleep. Successful sleep in older adults may depend on a good sleep-hygiene such as regular sleep times, and environmental factors such as reduced noise- and light-levels. However, even if poor sleep and increased day-time sleepiness is not a given, many elderly people do suffer from sleep disturbances if the aging process is problematic. Improved understanding and treatment of sleep disturbances of older adults are continuously improved and promoted.[1] Stserof (talk) 16:15, 12 October 2019 (UTC)


  1. ^ Vitiello, Michael, V. (December 2009). "Recent Advances in Understanding Sleep and Sleep Disturbances in Older Adults: Growing Older Does Not Mean Sleeping Poorly". Current Directions in Psychological Science. Vol. 18, No. 6: pp. 316-320. |volume= has extra text (help); |page= has extra text (help)

 Done: Made this edit, although I did not use the outdated 2009 source you provided. --Zefr (talk) 17:34, 12 October 2019 (UTC)

Sleep problems in woman across the life cycle[edit]

Dear Editors, I would like to contribute following article on the Sleep page:

Requested addition

Sleep problems in woman across the life cycle

Subjective and objective data confirms women’s increased risk to suffer from sleeping problems of various kinds at different life stages.(1)(2)(3)(4)(5) Subjective and objective evidence supports the notion that various factors such as hormonal changes, ageing, psychosocial, physical and psychological as well as the presence of sleeping disorders may disturb women’s sleep.(1)(2)(3)(4)(5) Evidence from both subjective and objective measurements support the presence of disturbed sleep during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, the postpartum period and the menopausal transition.(1)(2)(3)(4)(5) The relationship between sleep and women's psychological well‐being suggests that underlying causes of sleep disturbances across a woman's lifespan are often multi‐factorial.(1)(2)(3)(4)(5⟩

Sleep during the menstrual cycle

Initial variations of sleep in women begin with the menstrual cycle.(2) However, most objective laboratory-based PSG measures of young healthy women do not confirm irregular sleep patterns, neither in sleep duration nor sleep quality across the menstrual cycle.(1) One exception is the reduction of REM sleep and markedly more so the increase of Stage 2 sleep during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.(1)(2) One actigraphy study reports a modest decline in Total Sleep Time of 25 min in late-reproductive woman during the premenstrual week.(1)

The measurement of subjectively reported sleep during the menstrual cycle differs.(1) 70% of women report a negative impact on their sleep.(1) Quantitatively, they report a decrease in sleep quantity of 2.5 days each month.(1) Qualitatively, poor sleep quality, connected with poor mood and menstrual pain, especially during the premenstrual week, are most likely to be reported.(1) Psychological factors influencing sleep quality in women, related to hormonal fluctuations, such as mood disorders and sleep disorders are often higher in woman after the onset menarche.(2)

Sleep during pregnancy

An estimated 46% of women experience subjectively poor sleep during pregnancy, increasing progressively during pregnancy. (2) Reasons vary according to the trimester, relating to hormonal changes and physical discomfort(5): anatomic changes, sleep fragmentation, fragmentation of breathing, metabolic changes which might increase sleep disorders such as Restless Leg Syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux, increase in overnight sodium excretion, changes in the musculoskeletal system, nocturnal uterine contractions, changes in iron and folate metabolism, and changes in the circadian and homeostatic regulation of sleep.(2)

First trimester

Laboratory based studies show that most women experience more disruption during night-time sleep and become sleepier. They sleep on average more during this time compared to pre-pregnancy sleep time.(1)(5) Total Sleep Time, however, decreases as the pregnancy progresses.(5) Nocturia and Musculoskeletal discomfort account for the physiological factors impacting sleep during the first trimester.(2)

Subjectively, women report an increase in night-time awakening and an increase in Total Sleep Time.(1) Pregnant women’s main physiological complaints during the first trimester which disrupt the quality of sleep are nausea and vomiting, urinary frequency, backaches, and feeling uncomfortable and fatigued; as well as tender breasts, headache, vaginal discharge, flatulence, constipation, shortness of breath, and heartburn.(1)(5) Other contributing factors for sleep quality are age, parity, mood disorders, anxiety and primary sleep disorders.(5)

Second trimester

Laboratory based measures during the second trimester show a further decrease in Total Sleep Time, Slow Wave Sleep and sleep quality.(1)(2) No changes in REM sleep have been observed.(1) Fetal movements, uterine contractions, Musculoskeletal discomfort and Rhinitis and nasal congestion account for the physiological factors which influence sleep.(2)

Self-reported Total Sleep Time and quality decreases during the second trimester.(2) Reported contributing factors are fetal movements, heartburn, cramps or tingling in the legs, breathing problems, and anxiety.(1) It is, however, curious that in spite of virtually all women experiencing poor sleep, only one third consider themselves to have current sleep problems.(5)

Third trimester

Objectively, Slow Wave Sleep and Total Sleep Time as well as general sleep quality decreases further progressively during the third trimester. (1)(2) More night-time awakenings are common.(1)(2) Sleep Onset Latency problems and napping becomes more frequent.(1) Physiological factors impacting sleep at this stage during the pregnancy are nocturia, fetal movement, uterine contractions, heartburn, orthopnea, leg cramps, rhinitis, nasal congestion, and sleeping position.(2)

Women at the third trimester report progressively reduced Total Sleep Time, and similarly to the second trimester, being uncomfortable, feeling fetal movements, heartburn, frequent urination, cramps and respiratory difficulties.(1) The last weeks before delivery influence sleep quality reportedly most markedly.(1)


Total Sleep Time is objectively the lowest during the 1 month postpartum, however, increasing normally steadily.(1) Main contributing factors influencing sleep during the postpartum period are infant behaviours such as infant sleep and feeding patterns, bed-sharing and infant temperament.(1)(5) It appears that Slow Wave Sleep is preserved during the first weeks postpartum in spite and because of chronic sleep deprivation.(5) Frequent napping occurs.(5)

Recent studies suggest additionally a myriad of further contributing factors influencing postpartum sleep.(4)(5) It has been found that mulitparas sleep remained relatively stable while first time mothers experienced a decline in sleep efficiency.(5) Furthermore, mothers of bottle fed babies experienced less night time awakening than breast feeding mothers (4)(5). Parents general physical and psychological health should be considered as well, however by three months postpartum, mothers and infants sleep tend to stabilise and mothers sleep becomes more regular.(4)(5)

Menopausal transition

Poor sleep quality, sleep fragmentation and increased awakenings are common complaints during the menopausal transition. (1)(2)(3)(5) Reportedly, 31% to 42% of women suffer from chronic insomnia during their menopausal transition.(2) However, some objective PSG studies have not shown significant differences in sleep architecture in pre‐, peri‐, and postmenopausal women.(1)(2)(3)(5)

Nonetheless, quantitative and qualitative studies report elevated beta activity, resulting objectively and subjectively in a consistent coupling of sleep disturbances such as sleep fragmentation, increased waking after sleep onset and poor sleep efficiency with vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes.(1)(2)(3)(5) Besides vasomotor symptoms are changes in hormone levels such as estrogen, affective disorders, stress and perceived health, urinary problems, obesity, gastrointestinal problems, endocrine problems, and cardiovascular problems contributing factors to menopause’ associated sleeping problems and insomnia.(1)(2)(3)(4)(5) Sleep during the menopausal transition is furthermore influenced by pain disorders and specifically by comorbid physical and psychiatric conditions.(1)(2)(4) Other proposed causes for sleep problems during menopause are increased incidences of obstructive sleep apnea, increased sleep disordered breathing, and inadequate sleep hygiene.(4)(5)

Another important factor contributing to changed sleep patterns in ageing women in general is the circadian disruption, showing in disturbed regulation of body temperature at sleep onset and early morning cortisol levels.(2) Postmenopausal women tend to express a morning chronotype.(2) These changes in chronotype compared to premenopausal women require a different sleep hygiene.(1)

References/Sources: (1)Margaret Moline, Lauren Broch, Rochelle Zak (2004) "Sleep Problems Across the Life Cycle in Women", Current Treatment Options in Neurology 2004, 6:319–330 Current Science Inc. ISSN 1092-8480

(2)Bei Bei, Soledad Coo, Fiona C. Baker, John Trinder (2015) "Sleep in Women: A Review";

(3)Martino F. Pengo, Christine H. Won, Ghada Bourjeily (2018). "Sleep in Women Across the Life Span" Published online 2018 Apr 19. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2018.04.005 154(1): 196–206.

(4)D. Ameratunga, J. Goldin, M. Hickey (2012) "Sleep disturbance in menopause" First published: 31 January 2012

(5)Giulia Gava, Isabella Orsili, Stefania Alvisi, Ilaria Mancini, Renato Seracchioli and Maria Cristina Meriggiola (2019) "Review:Cognition, Mood and Sleep in Menopausal Transition: The Role of Menopause Hormone Therapy" published in medicina: Gynecology and Physiopathology of Human Reproduction, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy

Stserof (talk) 10:13, 17 January 2020 (UTC)

Not done. @Stserof: First, the writing quality of this is rather low, and it can't be added as is. That being said, there might be something in here worth adding. However, this is a fairly broad article, and this information might get a bit too detailed for it. One possibility is a short blurb here with more information in a more specific article (I didn't find an appropriate one with a quick search, but there might be). Perhaps editors here can give you some ideas if you start a new section to discuss this. You could also possibly ask at WT:MED if you don't get any feedback here. –Deacon Vorbis (carbon • videos) 15:26, 17 January 2020 (UTC)

about the source walled ":0"[edit]

It says that for this source :'This content is available under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.' How can we verify this ?Walidou47 (talk) 18:09, 9 February 2020 (UTC)

Sleep architecture redirects here…[edit]

…but the term doesn't appear in the body of the article. Seems like at a minimum there should be a definition of the term. There are currently 18 other articles that link here through the Sleep architecture redirect. --Theodore Kloba () 20:03, 11 February 2020 (UTC)

"SLumber" listed at Redirects for discussion[edit]


A discussion is taking place as to whether the redirect SLumber should be deleted, kept, or retargeted. It will be discussed at Wikipedia:Redirects for discussion/Log/2020 March 22#SLumber until a consensus is reached, and anyone, including you, is welcome to contribute to the discussion. The nomination will explain the policies and guidelines which are of concern. The discussion focuses on high-quality evidence and our policies and guidelines. Regards, SONIC678 22:24, 22 March 2020 (UTC)

"Kakovost spanja" listed at Redirects for discussion[edit]


An editor has asked for a discussion to address the redirect Kakovost spanja. Please participate in the redirect discussion if you wish to do so. Regards, SONIC678 04:31, 30 March 2020 (UTC)

Sleep and bedtime ..[edit]

Chelovek obladaet svoistvom govorenia. Ili xrapit.

No mojno daty ponewxaty ego noski !! Esli ne dЫsheet - mojno primenity defibrilator.

Esli je onogo pod rukoi ne okozalosy - primenity electroshoker !! ))) .. 

Nda .. ?? (talk) 10:37, 29 July 2020 (UTC)

Semi-protected edit request on 29 October 2020[edit]

Can I please have access to edit this site there is something wrong and I think it will make this article a lot better trust me. I have lots of practice with this stuff I can fix this and make it true. (talk) 17:20, 29 October 2020 (UTC)

 Not done: this is not the right page to request additional user rights. You may reopen this request with the specific changes to be made and someone will add them for you, or if you have an account, you can wait until you are autoconfirmed and edit the page yourself. ‑‑ElHef (Meep?) 17:25, 29 October 2020 (UTC)

Sleep Apnea[edit]

"Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition in which major pauses in breathing occur during sleep, disrupting the normal progression of sleep and often causing other more severe health problems. Apneas occur when the muscles around the patient's airway relax during sleep, causing the airway to collapse and block the intake of oxygen.[96]"

This isn't the 1970s, obstructive sleep apnea is not just pauses in breathing (despite the misleading name). ICSD-3 recognizes three respiratory disturbances in the diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Apneas (total cessation of breathing), Hypopneas (30-90% reduction in airflow, with either oxygen desaturation, cortical arousal, or both), and Respiratory Effort-Related Arousals (<30% drop in airflow associated with cortical arousal). Hypopneas and RERAs do not require drops in oxygen desaturation, and there are no pauses in breathing. The current language is misleading and should be changed to reflect the broad spectrum of sleep apnea, not just one extreme. Many people with sleep apnea exclusively have hypopneas or RERAs. Illorum (talk) 11:34, 8 April 2021 (UTC)