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External links modified[edit]

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Can you teach infants a faux language?[edit]

In the section "Children" this passage occurs:

"Sleep also influences language development. To test this, researchers taught infants a faux language and observed their recollection of the rules for that language.[64] Infants who slept within four hours of learning the language could remember the language rules better, while infants who stayed awake longer did not recall those rules as well."

Can this be an accurate report of the research? As I understand it, in the last of the stages of language acquisition, between the ages of 3 and 4 children can form simple, syntactically proper and complete sentences—and though they acquire the rules for proper syntactical forms, the adults around them can't be said to have taught the babies those rules. Are we then to understand that researchers can take babies before they have acquired the ability to utter syntactically proper and complete sentences in their mother tongue and, supposing that the babies' parents refuse to grant researchers very long custody of their children, in the space of twelve hours or so manage to teach the babies the rules of a faux language, a basic vocabulary, engage in conversations with them to determine by their responses whether the babies understand the rules, then have the babies sleep, and after waking them up, try to conduct a conversation again? Am I being thrown off because of the term infant which, however elastic in application to children of different ages, still connotes a child so young that it can't even walk, let alone talk? I don't think the report here can be helpful if it raises such basic questions; it needs revision and perhaps a link to a page on language acquisition where the experiments can be described in satisfactory detail.Wordwright (talk) 22:35, 29 August 2017 (UTC)

The two studies referenced in that section state that the "infants" are 15 months old and 12 & 18 months old. We could clarify the first study by including the 15 month age. The second includes some age figures already. Hope this helps. - Ryk72 'c.s.n.s.' 02:59, 30 August 2017 (UTC)
According to the abstract for the referenced paper, their study demonstrated that "infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language". And, according to the Child development article here in Wikipidia, "A child's receptive language, the understanding of others' speech, has a gradual development beginning at about 6 months. However, expressive language, the production of words, moves rapidly after its beginning at about a year of age, with a "vocabulary explosion" of rapid word acquisition occurring in the middle of the second year."
So, while "taught infants a faux language" may be a bit broad, 12 to 18 month old infants are quite capable of quickly grasping some new general grammatical patterns. Perhaps it would be more accurate to change it to more closely describe what the researchers did. (talk) 13:31, 20 September 2019 (UTC)

Tense problem under Process C subsection[edit]

Currently reads "Process C counteracts the homeostatic drive for sleep during the day (in diurnal animals) and to augment it at night." Should be "and augments it at night." Orbitalsquabbles (talk) 15:11, 6 September 2017 (UTC)

Ugh, that's not even called a tense problem, I'm going back to bed Orbitalsquabbles (talk) 15:12, 6 September 2017 (UTC)

 Done. Thanks. - Ryk72 'c.s.n.s.' 15:17, 6 September 2017 (UTC)

Sleep is good for health. — Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 23:39, 28 March 2018 (UTC)

Paleolithic perspective[edit]

Sleep as in palaeolithic perspective, was a type of rest. But the same applies to the modern scenario only thing is that people restrain from sleeping for monetary benefits rather than being killed by predatory animals. So sleep of a person is linked to productivity and in what way a person can contribute to the society and nation building.

"Why this Saudi man hasn't slept for 30 years". Retrieved 2018-08-09. Sachinthonakkara 06:54, 9 August 2018 (UTC)

I found a dead link[edit]

Hi [wikipedia],

I’m a big fan of your site! I found a broken link the other day and wanted to let you know about it.

The page where the link appears is [ "] and the anchor text is [ "Sleep-wake cycle: its physiology and impact on health" (PDF). National Sleep Foundation. 2006. Retrieved 24 May 2017.[permanent dead link]].

The broken URL is [1].

I found a similar page that even has a link from Wikipedia if you want to update the link.


Keep up the excellent work! Thanks!

[Andi Rian Abiardi] — Preceding unsigned comment added by Andi Rian Abiardi (talkcontribs) 19:48, 26 September 2018 (UTC)

 Done Thanks. The HealthyChan site offered would not qualify as a WP:MEDRS source for the encyclopedia. --Zefr (talk) 01:07, 23 October 2018 (UTC)

Unnecessary Figures(Images)[edit]

The side of this article seems to have a number of figures which do not usefully contribute to the information of the article, and may be presented without a caption for context. Please discuss their inclusion, removal, or whether they should be relocated to somewhere else in the article here.Ethanpet113 (talk) 20:12, 3 December 2018 (UTC)

Permission for editing[edit]

I would like to have permission to edit the sleep article. I have a few ideas that I have been working on and believe they would be a good addition to the article, however, it said that it was semi-protected. Kwhitlow2413 (talk) 15:59, 10 March 2019 (UTC)

Hi Kwhitlow2413, and welcome to Wikipedia! Your account is over 4 days old, and you have more than 10 edits, so your account is now autoconfirmed--which is all that's required to edit a "semi-protected" page. Looking at your editing statistics, which are here, you're already autoconfirmed. (Under the top section "Basic information", third line down.) You should be able to see the "edit" tab at the top of the "Sleep" page, which will open the text editor. If it says "source", there are additional restrictions and you can only read the source. But if the tab says "edit", feel free to add your contributions!
Here's more info about user access levels; and here's more info about page protection policies. Leave a comment here if you have any other questions, or need more help. Happy editing! Big universe (talk) 04:48, 11 March 2019 (UTC)
Thank you so much for letting me know that.Kwhitlow2413 (talk) 04:15, 12 March 2019 (UTC)
You're very welcome! :) Big universe (talk) 06:01, 12 March 2019 (UTC)

Research findings on the Glymphatic System[edit]

Since breakthrough research in 2012 or so, our understanding of sleep has risen sharply. However, the popular understanding of sleep has been slow to catch up, and this wikipedia article is no exception. The glymphatic system has been discovered to sweep built-up waste products of neural activity away from the brain at a vastly increased rate during sleep. It is these very waste products that, as toxins, reduce brain function and thus make us feel tired and reduce our brain and nervous system function when we are sleep-deprived. In other words, this breakthrough reveals the essential function of sleep. In evolutionary terms, we can think of this as the "purpose" of sleep. All other benefits or effects of sleep can be seen as side benefits from this new perspective. This explains why sleep is common to almost all animals down to some of the simplest creatures such as nematodes and jellyfish, creatures for whom other more esoteric benefits of sleep do not matter.

Unfortunately, this is not reflected in the sleep article. This new research (not so new anymore, and no longer "a theory" but more like "the theory"), is only briefly mentioned, buried in the middle of the article, and is barely mentioned in the intro. I would like to work with others more active on this page to update this, giving prominent mention to this body of research, increasing the amount of text relating to it, and clearly referencing the further wikipedia article on the glymphatic system. Thoughts? Jaywilson (talk) 13:21, 10 October 2019 (UTC)

Semi-protected edit request on 12 October 2019[edit]

Sleep in older adults: In spite of the generally accepted expectation that older adults suffer from poor, disrupted or insufficient sleep, research does not necessarily confirm this belief. Many older adults, especially if they are active and healthy, enjoy restful and healthy sleep. Successful sleep in older adults may depend on a good sleep-hygiene such as regular sleep times, and environmental factors such as reduced noise- and light-levels. However, even if poor sleep and increased day-time sleepiness is not a given, many elderly people do suffer from sleep disturbances if the aging process is problematic. Improved understanding and treatment of sleep disturbances of older adults are continuously improved and promoted.[1] Stserof (talk) 16:15, 12 October 2019 (UTC)


  1. ^ Vitiello, Michael, V. (December 2009). "Recent Advances in Understanding Sleep and Sleep Disturbances in Older Adults: Growing Older Does Not Mean Sleeping Poorly". Current Directions in Psychological Science. Vol. 18, No. 6: pp. 316-320.CS1 maint: extra text (link)

 Done: Made this edit, although I did not use the outdated 2009 source you provided. --Zefr (talk) 17:34, 12 October 2019 (UTC)

Sleep problems in woman across the life cycle[edit]

Dear Editors, I would like to contribute following article on the Sleep page:

Requested addition

Sleep problems in woman across the life cycle

Subjective and objective data confirms women’s increased risk to suffer from sleeping problems of various kinds at different life stages.(1)(2)(3)(4)(5) Subjective and objective evidence supports the notion that various factors such as hormonal changes, ageing, psychosocial, physical and psychological as well as the presence of sleeping disorders may disturb women’s sleep.(1)(2)(3)(4)(5) Evidence from both subjective and objective measurements support the presence of disturbed sleep during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, the postpartum period and the menopausal transition.(1)(2)(3)(4)(5) The relationship between sleep and women's psychological well‐being suggests that underlying causes of sleep disturbances across a woman's lifespan are often multi‐factorial.(1)(2)(3)(4)(5⟩

Sleep during the menstrual cycle

Initial variations of sleep in women begin with the menstrual cycle.(2) However, most objective laboratory-based PSG measures of young healthy women do not confirm irregular sleep patterns, neither in sleep duration nor sleep quality across the menstrual cycle.(1) One exception is the reduction of REM sleep and markedly more so the increase of Stage 2 sleep during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.(1)(2) One actigraphy study reports a modest decline in Total Sleep Time of 25 min in late-reproductive woman during the premenstrual week.(1)

The measurement of subjectively reported sleep during the menstrual cycle differs.(1) 70% of women report a negative impact on their sleep.(1) Quantitatively, they report a decrease in sleep quantity of 2.5 days each month.(1) Qualitatively, poor sleep quality, connected with poor mood and menstrual pain, especially during the premenstrual week, are most likely to be reported.(1) Psychological factors influencing sleep quality in women, related to hormonal fluctuations, such as mood disorders and sleep disorders are often higher in woman after the onset menarche.(2)

Sleep during pregnancy

An estimated 46% of women experience subjectively poor sleep during pregnancy, increasing progressively during pregnancy. (2) Reasons vary according to the trimester, relating to hormonal changes and physical discomfort(5): anatomic changes, sleep fragmentation, fragmentation of breathing, metabolic changes which might increase sleep disorders such as Restless Leg Syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux, increase in overnight sodium excretion, changes in the musculoskeletal system, nocturnal uterine contractions, changes in iron and folate metabolism, and changes in the circadian and homeostatic regulation of sleep.(2)

First trimester

Laboratory based studies show that most women experience more disruption during night-time sleep and become sleepier. They sleep on average more during this time compared to pre-pregnancy sleep time.(1)(5) Total Sleep Time, however, decreases as the pregnancy progresses.(5) Nocturia and Musculoskeletal discomfort account for the physiological factors impacting sleep during the first trimester.(2)

Subjectively, women report an increase in night-time awakening and an increase in Total Sleep Time.(1) Pregnant women’s main physiological complaints during the first trimester which disrupt the quality of sleep are nausea and vomiting, urinary frequency, backaches, and feeling uncomfortable and fatigued; as well as tender breasts, headache, vaginal discharge, flatulence, constipation, shortness of breath, and heartburn.(1)(5) Other contributing factors for sleep quality are age, parity, mood disorders, anxiety and primary sleep disorders.(5)

Second trimester

Laboratory based measures during the second trimester show a further decrease in Total Sleep Time, Slow Wave Sleep and sleep quality.(1)(2) No changes in REM sleep have been observed.(1) Fetal movements, uterine contractions, Musculoskeletal discomfort and Rhinitis and nasal congestion account for the physiological factors which influence sleep.(2)

Self-reported Total Sleep Time and quality decreases during the second trimester.(2) Reported contributing factors are fetal movements, heartburn, cramps or tingling in the legs, breathing problems, and anxiety.(1) It is, however, curious that in spite of virtually all women experiencing poor sleep, only one third consider themselves to have current sleep problems.(5)

Third trimester

Objectively, Slow Wave Sleep and Total Sleep Time as well as general sleep quality decreases further progressively during the third trimester. (1)(2) More night-time awakenings are common.(1)(2) Sleep Onset Latency problems and napping becomes more frequent.(1) Physiological factors impacting sleep at this stage during the pregnancy are nocturia, fetal movement, uterine contractions, heartburn, orthopnea, leg cramps, rhinitis, nasal congestion, and sleeping position.(2)

Women at the third trimester report progressively reduced Total Sleep Time, and similarly to the second trimester, being uncomfortable, feeling fetal movements, heartburn, frequent urination, cramps and respiratory difficulties.(1) The last weeks before delivery influence sleep quality reportedly most markedly.(1)


Total Sleep Time is objectively the lowest during the 1 month postpartum, however, increasing normally steadily.(1) Main contributing factors influencing sleep during the postpartum period are infant behaviours such as infant sleep and feeding patterns, bed-sharing and infant temperament.(1)(5) It appears that Slow Wave Sleep is preserved during the first weeks postpartum in spite and because of chronic sleep deprivation.(5) Frequent napping occurs.(5)

Recent studies suggest additionally a myriad of further contributing factors influencing postpartum sleep.(4)(5) It has been found that mulitparas sleep remained relatively stable while first time mothers experienced a decline in sleep efficiency.(5) Furthermore, mothers of bottle fed babies experienced less night time awakening than breast feeding mothers (4)(5). Parents general physical and psychological health should be considered as well, however by three months postpartum, mothers and infants sleep tend to stabilise and mothers sleep becomes more regular.(4)(5)

Menopausal transition

Poor sleep quality, sleep fragmentation and increased awakenings are common complaints during the menopausal transition. (1)(2)(3)(5) Reportedly, 31% to 42% of women suffer from chronic insomnia during their menopausal transition.(2) However, some objective PSG studies have not shown significant differences in sleep architecture in pre‐, peri‐, and postmenopausal women.(1)(2)(3)(5)

Nonetheless, quantitative and qualitative studies report elevated beta activity, resulting objectively and subjectively in a consistent coupling of sleep disturbances such as sleep fragmentation, increased waking after sleep onset and poor sleep efficiency with vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes.(1)(2)(3)(5) Besides vasomotor symptoms are changes in hormone levels such as estrogen, affective disorders, stress and perceived health, urinary problems, obesity, gastrointestinal problems, endocrine problems, and cardiovascular problems contributing factors to menopause’ associated sleeping problems and insomnia.(1)(2)(3)(4)(5) Sleep during the menopausal transition is furthermore influenced by pain disorders and specifically by comorbid physical and psychiatric conditions.(1)(2)(4) Other proposed causes for sleep problems during menopause are increased incidences of obstructive sleep apnea, increased sleep disordered breathing, and inadequate sleep hygiene.(4)(5)

Another important factor contributing to changed sleep patterns in ageing women in general is the circadian disruption, showing in disturbed regulation of body temperature at sleep onset and early morning cortisol levels.(2) Postmenopausal women tend to express a morning chronotype.(2) These changes in chronotype compared to premenopausal women require a different sleep hygiene.(1)

References/Sources: (1)Margaret Moline, Lauren Broch, Rochelle Zak (2004) "Sleep Problems Across the Life Cycle in Women", Current Treatment Options in Neurology 2004, 6:319–330 Current Science Inc. ISSN 1092-8480

(2)Bei Bei, Soledad Coo, Fiona C. Baker, John Trinder (2015) "Sleep in Women: A Review";

(3)Martino F. Pengo, Christine H. Won, Ghada Bourjeily (2018). "Sleep in Women Across the Life Span" Published online 2018 Apr 19. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2018.04.005 154(1): 196–206.

(4)D. Ameratunga, J. Goldin, M. Hickey (2012) "Sleep disturbance in menopause" First published: 31 January 2012

(5)Giulia Gava, Isabella Orsili, Stefania Alvisi, Ilaria Mancini, Renato Seracchioli and Maria Cristina Meriggiola (2019) "Review:Cognition, Mood and Sleep in Menopausal Transition: The Role of Menopause Hormone Therapy" published in medicina: Gynecology and Physiopathology of Human Reproduction, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy

Stserof (talk) 10:13, 17 January 2020 (UTC)

Not done. @Stserof: First, the writing quality of this is rather low, and it can't be added as is. That being said, there might be something in here worth adding. However, this is a fairly broad article, and this information might get a bit too detailed for it. One possibility is a short blurb here with more information in a more specific article (I didn't find an appropriate one with a quick search, but there might be). Perhaps editors here can give you some ideas if you start a new section to discuss this. You could also possibly ask at WT:MED if you don't get any feedback here. –Deacon Vorbis (carbon • videos) 15:26, 17 January 2020 (UTC)