Talk:Stem cell

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Former good article Stem cell was one of the Natural sciences good articles, but it has been removed from the list. There are suggestions below for improving the article to meet the good article criteria. Once these issues have been addressed, the article can be renominated. Editors may also seek a reassessment of the decision if they believe there was a mistake.
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April 25, 2006 Good article nominee Listed
March 7, 2010 Good article reassessment Delisted
Current status: Delisted good article
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Generalize this Article?[edit]

This article is too focused on human and mammalian stem cells, and should leave those topics to specialized articles on those topics (and stem cell therapy / research). The Plant_stem_cell article should be merged with this one so that the single topic is covered in a single article. (talk) 03:19, 25 February 2014 (UTC)

Key research events section[edit]

The follow section is mostly unsourced, and what is sourced, is sourced from the research paper announcing the finding. This is a violation of WP:NPOV and WP:OR, since we need secondary sources saying that the event mattered - editors cannot determine that. I cut it from the article and am pasting here for discussion...

  • 1908: The term "stem cell" was proposed for scientific use by the Russian histologist Alexander Maksimov (1874–1928) at congress of hematologic society in Berlin. It postulated existence of haematopoietic stem cells.
  • 1960s: Joseph Altman and Gopal Das present scientific evidence of adult neurogenesis, ongoing stem cell activity in the brain; their reports contradict Cajal's "no new neurons" dogma and are largely ignored.
  • 1963: Becker, McCulloch and Till illustrate the presence of self-renewing cells in mouse bone marrow.
  • 1968: Bone marrow transplant between two siblings successfully treats SCID.
  • 1978: Haematopoietic stem cells are discovered in human cord blood.
  • 1981: Mouse embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass by scientists Martin Evans, Matthew Kaufman, and Gail R. Martin. Gail Martin is attributed for coining the term "Embryonic Stem Cell".[1]
  • 1992: Neural stem cells are cultured in vitro as neurospheres.
  • 1995: Indian scientist Dr. B.G. Matapurkar pioneers in adult stem-cell research with clinical utilization of research in the body and neo-regeneration of tissues and organs in the body. Received International Patent from US Patent Office (USA) in 2001 (effective from 1995). Clinical utilization in human body also demonstrated and patented in 60 patients (World Journal of Surgery-1999[2] and 1991[3]).
  • 1997: Dr. B.G. Matapurkar's surgical technique on regeneration of tissues and organs is published.[4] Regeneration of fallopian tube and uterus is published.[5]
  • 1997: Leukemia is shown to originate from a haematopoietic stem cell, the first direct evidence for cancer stem cells.
  • 1998: James Thomson and coworkers derive the first human embryonic stem cell line at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.[6]
  • 1998: John Gearhart (Johns Hopkins University) extracted germ cells from fetal gonadal tissue (primordial germ cells) before developing pluripotent stem cell lines from the original extract.
  • 2000s: Several reports of adult stem cell plasticity are published.
  • 2001: Scientists at Advanced Cell Technology clone first early (four- to six-cell stage) human embryos for the purpose of generating embryonic stem cells.[7]
  • 2003: Dr. Songtao Shi of NIH discovers new source of adult stem cells in children's primary teeth.[8]
  • 2004–2005: Korean researcher Hwang Woo-Suk claims to have created several human embryonic stem cell lines from unfertilised human oocytes. The lines were later shown to be fabricated.
  • 2005: Researchers at Kingston University in England claim to have discovered a third category of stem cell, dubbed cord-blood-derived embryonic-like stem cells (CBEs), derived from umbilical cord blood. The group claims these cells are able to differentiate into more types of tissue than adult stem cells.
  • 2005: Researchers at UC Irvine's Reeve-Irvine Research Center are able to partially restore the ability of rats with paralyzed spines to walk through the injection of human neural stem cells.[9]
Yong Zhao, University of Illinois at Chicago
  • August 2006: Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka publish evidence of Induced pluripotent stem cells in mice in the journal Cell.[10]
  • October 2006: Scientists at Newcastle University in England create the first ever artificial liver cells using umbilical cord blood stem cells.[11][12]
  • January 2007: Scientists at Wake Forest University led by Dr. Anthony Atala and Harvard University report discovery of a new type of stem cell in amniotic fluid.[13] This may potentially provide an alternative to embryonic stem cells for use in research and therapy.[14]
  • June 2007: Research reported by three different groups shows that normal skin cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic state in mice.[15] In the same month, scientist Shoukhrat Mitalipov reports the first successful creation of a primate stem cell line through somatic cell nuclear transfer[16]
    Martin Evans, a co-winner of the Nobel Prize in recognition of his gene targeting work.
  • October 2007: Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans, and Oliver Smithies win the 2007 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their work on embryonic stem cells from mice using gene targeting strategies producing genetically engineered mice (known as knockout mice) for gene research.[17]
  • November 2007: Human induced pluripotent stem cells: Two similar papers released by their respective journals prior to formal publication: in Cell by Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka, "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors",[18] and in Science by Junying Yu, et al., from the research group of James Thomson, "Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells":[19] pluripotent stem cells generated from mature human fibroblasts. It is possible now to produce a stem cell from almost any other human cell instead of using embryos as needed previously, albeit the risk of tumorigenesis due to c-myc and retroviral gene transfer remains to be determined.
  • January 2008: Robert Lanza and colleagues at Advanced Cell Technology and UCSF create the first human embryonic stem cells without destruction of the embryo.[20]
  • January 2008: Development of human cloned blastocysts following somatic cell nuclear transfer with adult fibroblasts[21]
  • February 2008: Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult mouse liver and stomach: these iPS cells seem to be more similar to embryonic stem cells than the previously developed iPS cells and not tumorigenic, moreover genes that are required for iPS cells do not need to be inserted into specific sites, which encourages the development of non-viral reprogramming techniques.[22]
  • March 2008-The first published study of successful cartilage regeneration in the human knee using autologous adult mesenchymal stem cells is published by clinicians from Regenerative Sciences[23]
  • October 2008: Sabine Conrad and colleagues at Tübingen, Germany generate pluripotent stem cells from spermatogonial cells of adult human testis by culturing the cells in vitro under leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) supplementation.[24]
  • 30 October 2008: Embryonic-like stem cells from a single human hair.[25]
  • January 2009: Yong Zhao and colleagues confirmed the reversal of autoimmune-caused type 1 diabetes by Cord Blood-Derived Multipotent Stem Cells (CB-SCs) in an animal experiment.[26][27]
  • 1 March 2009: Andras Nagy, Keisuke Kaji, et al. discover a way to produce embryonic-like stem cells from normal adult cells by using a novel "wrapping" procedure to deliver specific genes to adult cells to reprogram them into stem cells without the risks of using a virus to make the change.[28][29][30] The use of electroporation is said to allow for the temporary insertion of genes into the cell.[31][31][32][33]
  • 28 May 2009 Kim et al. announced that they had devised a way to manipulate skin cells to create patient specific "induced pluripotent stem cells" (iPS), claiming it to be the 'ultimate stem cell solution'.[34]
  • 11 October 2010 First trial of embryonic stem cells in humans.[35]
  • 25 October 2010: Ishikawa et al. write in the Journal of Experimental Medicine that research shows that transplanted cells that contain their new host's nuclear DNA could still be rejected by the individual's immune system due to foreign mitochondrial DNA. Tissues made from a person's stem cells could therefore be rejected, because mitochondrial genomes tend to accumulate mutations.[36]
  • 2011: Israeli scientist Inbar Friedrich Ben-Nun led a team which produced the first stem cells from endangered species, a breakthrough that could save animals in danger of extinction.[37]
  • January 2012: The human clinical trial of treating type 1 diabetes with lymphocyte modification using Cord Blood-Derived Multipotent Stem Cells (CB-SCs) achieved an improvement of C-peptide levels, reduced the median glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) values, and decreased the median daily dose of insulin in both human patient groups with and without residual beta cell function.[38][39] Yong Zhao's Stem Cell Educator Therapy appears "so simple and so safe"[40]
  • October 2012: Positions of nucleosomes in mouse embryonic stem cells and the changes in their positions during differentiation to neural progenitor cells and embryonic fibroblasts are determined with single-nucleotide resolution.[41]
  • 2012: Katsuhiko Hayashi used mouse skin cells to create stem cells and then used these stem cells to create mouse eggs. These eggs were then fertilized and produced healthy baby offspring. These latter mice were able to have their own babies.[42]
  • 2013: First time lab grown meat made from muscle stem-cells has been cooked and tasted.[43]
  • 2013: First time mice adult cells were reprogrammed into stem cells in vivo.[44]
  • 2013: Scientists at Scotland's Heriot-Watt University developed a 3D printer that can produce clusters of living human embryonic stem cells, potentially allowing complete organs to be printed on demand in the future.[45]
  • 2014: Adult mouse cells reprogrammed to pluripotent stem cells using stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP);[46] a process which involved bathing blood cells in an acid bath (pH 5.7) for 30minutes at 37 °C.[47] A little over a month after the publication of these findings, errors were discovered and the quality of the research has been widely questioned.[48] Further irregularities regarding the mice used have emerged as recently as June 2014.[49]


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  20. ^ Chung Y, Klimanskaya I, Becker S, Li T, Maserati M, Lu SJ, Zdravkovic T, Ilic D, Genbacev O, Fisher S, Krtolica A, Lanza R (2008). "Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Generated without Embryo Destruction". Cell Stem Cell 2 (2): 113–117. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.12.013. PMID 18371431. 
  21. ^ French AJ, Adams CA, Anderson LS, Kitchen JR, Hughes MR, Wood SH (2008). "Development of human cloned blastocysts following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with adult fibroblasts" (PDF). Stem Cells Express 26 (2): 485–93. doi:10.1634/stemcells.2007-0252. PMID 18202077. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-25. 
  22. ^ Aoi T, Yae K, Nakagawa M, Ichisaka T, Okita K, Takahashi K, Chiba T, Yamanaka S (2008). "Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult mouse liver and stomach cells". Science 321 (5889): 699–702. Bibcode:2008Sci...321..699A. doi:10.1126/science.1154884. PMID 18276851. 
  23. ^ Centeno CJ, Busse D, Kisiday J, Keohan C, Freeman M, Karli D (2008). "Increased knee cartilage volume in degenerative joint disease using percutaneously implanted, autologous mesenchymal stem cells". Pain Physician 11 (3): 343–53. ISSN 1533-3159. PMID 18523506. 
  24. ^ Conrad S, Renninger M, Hennenlotter J, Wiesner T, Just L, Bonin M, Aicher W, Bühring HJ, Mattheus U, Mack A, Wagner HJ, Minger S, Matzkies M, Reppel M, Hescheler J, Sievert KD, Stenzl A, Skutella T (2008). "Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult human testis". Nature 456 (7220): 344–9. Bibcode:2008Natur.456..344C. doi:10.1038/nature07404. PMID 18849962. 
  25. ^ Baker M (2008). "Embryonic-like stem cells from a single human hair". Nature Reports Stem Cells. doi:10.1038/stemcells.2008.142. 
  26. ^ Zhao Y, Lin B, Darflinger R, Zhang Y, Holterman MJ, Skidgel RA (January 19, 2009). "Human cord blood stem cell-modulated regulatory T lymphocytes reverse the autoimmune-caused type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice" (PDF). PLoS ONE 4 (1): e4226. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.4226Z. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004226. PMC 2627485. PMID 19156219. 
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  43. ^ Alok Jha, science correspondent (5 August 2013). "Anyone for a stem-cell burger?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
  44. ^ jobs (11 September 2013). "Stem cells created in living mice". Nature News & Comment. Retrieved 2014-02-04. 
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  46. ^ Kerry, Grens (29 January 2014). "New Method for Reprogramming Cells". Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  47. ^ Bazian (30 January 2014). NHS Choices, ed. "Breakthrough in stem cell creation using acid bath". U.K. National Health Service. Retrieved 2014-02-06. They put them in a weak acid solution (pH 5.7) for 30 minutes at 37°C, and then put them into petri dishes and grew them at normal pH. 
  48. ^ Cyranoski, David (18 March 2014). "Stem-cell method faces fresh questions". Retrieved 2014-07-21. 
  49. ^ Cyranoski (17 June 2014). "Gene tests suggest acid-bath stem cells never existed". Retrieved 2014-07-21. 

Happy to discuss Jytdog (talk) 21:31, 11 July 2015 (UTC)