Talk:Wood pasture

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Google Translation of German language Wikipedia Article[edit]

This article contains substantially more detail than the english language article, but IMO requires, not only quite a bit of editing, but also some fact checking about a) the development of wood pasture, and b) extent both within and outside Europe. For instance I believe that places like Sherwood Forest, Moccas Deer Park and Windsor Great Park all had elements of wood pasture. There is quite a lot in Richard Mabey's Woodlands (New Naturalist series 100). Relation to Vrba's thesis about ancient woodland is also relevant. Semudobia (talk) 14:26, 25 August 2013 (UTC)

A Hutewald, also called Hudewald or Hutung, is as a pasture unused forest .
The use of the forest as forest grazing (hat / Hude) took place primarily in areas where there are few or no open pastures - like earlier usually in western Central Europe - was. Clearings were also often too costly to use later these areas only for grazing. This produced over time by a grazing significantly suppressed or reduced offspring of trees and undergrowth and Keep it under certain, very old finally Nährbäume. Light up almost open, park-like forests emerged to wooded pastures so that gradually a smooth transition to Hutweide revealed.
In dry-warmer zones of vegetation ( tree - or bush savanna ( moist or dry savannah ), Mediterranean scrub forest ), where the forest cover also naturally less dense and also highly developed, created and produced some of today under similar management practices to Hutewäldern like willow forests and orchards where the trees also can take over the function of shadow donors.
In Western and Central Europe took the wood pasture as the other traditional forms of forest use there with the industrial revolution from, it was largely controlled by modern forestry displaced. The few wood-pastures and Hutewaldreste and evidence preserved in Central Europe today are usually under nature protection .
The word hat / Hutung derives from the same root word as (livestock) from guard - which is why some speak of hats forest or pasture. Hude is a Low German form, also found in northern German town and place names that not only finds the pure " Hude "(as in the case of Hude near Oldenburg - with even existierendem Hudewaldrest ) or Steinhude .
On the open pasture in the difficult terrain of the forest, the cattle had to be herded - often by a shepherd representative of the cattle owners of the village community, which was paid for with the hat money. The shepherds were often children, as in the world of cattle grazing entire communities in many countries still common today - and at least in the case of the Serviced in the Alpine region is also known in Europe today. The pasture used (or the forest) was either common property or belonged to the (feudal) landowners and was like to take advantage of the arable land for taxes. The hat (Hutung, hat / Hude) was therefore also a term of grazing rights .
The pasture justice developed a detailed Regularium. Normally, the owner of the Hutegrundstückes was entitled to Mithut. The pastures of different owners or members of a village community, for example, was the Koppelhut. Under certain circumstances, the privilege of the vanguard was claimed by the property owners.

Will and Engineering

In Hutewäldern the cattle, not only was pigs and goats , but also cattle and sheep and even horses , grazing in the forest, where it is of the plants of the herb layer - including the growth cycle , ie the renewable trees , their stems and buds as well as the forest fruits, especially acorns and beechnuts , but also wild fruit or mushrooms , malnourished. The pasture is not hard, herbaceous vegetation was pushed back, the species composition changed towards light-loving ground vegetation, which further improved the pasture.
By grazing associated with the destruction of the young tree growth emerged since the Neolithic period , especially about the Middle Ages sparse forests with little undergrowth and big-crowned, old trees. This preserved because of their nutritive function, and partly funded (hat) trees were massive input into different today some "spilled" areas of culture , such as, among other things ( romantic ) notions of medieval or even ancient forest to the myth of the "German Oak" .
In addition to the exploitation and suppression of vegetation, often exacerbated by the use of " litter "for the stables, the hat / forest grazing led to pre conflicts with the fauna of the forest and their users: competition with herbivorous wildlife for food and habitat, competition with the " robbers "- the carnivorous wild - the cattle as substitutes for the natural prey and, depending also compete with the "land (or forest) owners" ( feudal lords ) to the (displaced) huntable game.
Right from the spread of farming in Europe in prehistoric time, but all the more in the ancient world - first in the Mediterranean , from the largest expansion of Rome and exacerbated by the migration of peoples in the northern West - and in Central Europe - was the hat, the grazing of forests, usually the first step in transforming the natural ("Ur" -) vegetation in cultivated land . Even after the development phase in the Middle Ages they stood next to the Niederwald use the "classical" critical forest use form of the "little man", ie mainly the serf peasants , dar. With the gradual replacement of forest grazing by livestock housing were in modern times , most wood-pastures in Economic frontste converted. However, some forests have been, especially in difficult times, until well into the first half of the 20th Century used as pasture and certain forests in the 19th Century, yet in such a way that their trees developed under favorable grazing conditions.
The Hutung is an ancient form of cattle, which was operated prior to the antiquity. In the Mid::dle Ages it was expanded in the vicinity of settlements. In the High Middle Ages, wood-pastures covered in densely populated Central Germany large areas between settlements and open fields. Of particular economic importance of the forest was pasture by pigs, they introduced the single most important source of food for the animal population; The value of a wood has been measured primarily by how many pigs could propel him into the mast. The selection of trees with edible fruits for pigs changed the composition of tree species (oak and beech were promoted, all conifers, lindens, maples, etc., were pushed back). Numerous wood-pastures originated at the beginning of the 16th By the beginning of the new century mining in central Germany. The lords awarded extensive economic privileges, liberties mountain called to recruit miners. The mountain freedom permitted, inter alia, the forest pasture. For this purpose cooperatives of miners who drove their cattle herders (Huten or Huden) for self-sufficiency in forest formed.
After the waste places of the periods with plague and after the Thirty Years War, the cattle were driven into the woods again strengthened, so that a new "Hutewaldperiode" began, which is detectable by pollen analysis. The end of the wood-pastures began in the 17th Century. Due to the ban unregulated forest uses wood was scarce, wood-pastures were cleared or because of Holznot reforested. Agriculture developed further, rising prices made intensive farming more rewarding - former wood-pastures were cleared later. Since the 19th Century almost all the forest grazing was prohibited by law because of their harmful impact on forests in Central Europe, today there are only a few wood-pastures.
In the UK in particular was Waldhute Kroneigentum, as common rights (German commons ) a privilege of certain farmers and ranchers, the "commoners".
In the Reinhard Forest in northern Hesse were at the beginning of the 19th Century large areas by excessive Pasture devastated (destroyed), so they were partially deforested. As a result of oak wood-pastures were created specifically to ensure the cattle are fed by their mast and should produce wood. The trees were planted in a federation of 12 mx 8 m or 12 mx 6 m. Even today, this time from about 600 ha Hutebestände available, which are under protection.
Today's wood-pastures
Hutewald "Hallo" in the Nature Park basement Edersee
Dehesa in Spain
The oak forests of Langaa (Græsningsegeskov), Denmark, is now grazed only for nature protection purposes.
The area with the greatest amount of survivors and relics of the old (and younger) wood-pastures, some still living witnesses of the historical forest management is probably the Reinhard Forest in the extreme north of Hesse . There are Hutewaldreste find individual Hutebäumen up to several acres of forest land in every conceivable environment, or use the form, of the clear-cutting, windthrow and afforestation on spruce forests, oak groves, forests, natural forests to still used as pasture - but hardly as forest areas to be designated ( Beberbecker hat + Tierpark Sababurg [1] ).
Also in the north adjacent Solling Hutewaldrelikte still exist, so the castle Nienover or the nature reserve at Eichenhudewälder Lauenberg .
Further south, also has the basement Forest addition to their other interesting woods on some tracks of the hat. As the actual forests ( jungle areas near the Eder slopes ) of the area, these are not, however, in the National Park . The "Hallo" is located in the Natural Park basement Edersee southeast of the park. The cultural heritage is one of the sights of bathroom Wildunger district in northern Hesse Albert sculpting. The small grove located about 1 km above the village center.
In the Bentheim Forest there since 2012 a project for the recovery of the historical forest use. The forest was the 14th since at least the written tradition Century used as Hutewald. According to estimates of forest area was originally about 5,000 acres. Now this was resumed from NLWKN, the Prince of Bentheimschen domain chamber, the county and the county of Bentheim Nordhorn Zoo covers an area of ​​26 hectares for the protection and promotion of Hutewaldes. From April to November the grazed Nordhorn Zoo the project area with Galloway cattle, goats and Dutch Country Country Bentheim sheep.
In some parts of Europe there are still economically important wood-pastures, for example in central and south-western Spain . There they are dehesa called and serve mainly the production of acorns for food Iberian pigs (traditional acorn ). The typical tree is the oak .
The former wood-pastures of Central Europe are due to their importance for a variety of endangered species mostly under protection. Wood-pastures are particularly important for endangered species, the large-scale trees with high proportion of dead wood need: Typical totholzbewohnende beetles are as hero Bock , Bock grains , stag beetle and the hermit . Some butterflies, such as the oak wool moths belong to. A typical species of wood-pastures is the middle spotted woodpecker seeks his food in a rough bark in the canopy of mature trees.
The " jungle Sababurg "in Reinhardswald and Hasbruch in Oldenburg are former wood-pastures of nature and landscape protection . Here the habitat is mostly in its natural state - particularly with old (but not (ur) typical forest) trees - returned.