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Pig xenotransplant tramples upon Abrahamic religions[edit]

>patients have received pig heart valves so what....? i dont care. This is religiously discriminating (jews muslims excluded). Considering that the majority of medical doctors are of jewish and palestinian origin, one must wonder who developed this method?

patients who are against this practice can decline it's use on themselves. But saying that nobody should do it because jews and muslims are against it is trampling on every belief system that isn't jewish and islam. Pig transplants are used because these have the greatest success rates for compatibility in the human body. My daughter has a bovine xenograft on her pulmonary artery, she would likely not be alive today without it. I would say it is most certainly not crude, and not something to be regarded as distasteful. Who could be expected to control which types of tissue will and won't be compatible with human tissue? Using pig tissue is not discrimination, it is coincidence. bcatt 12:40, 19 January 2006 (UTC)

also —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 14:28, 7 January 2010 (UTC)

This is covered under Ethicality. Human life preservation is considered by both faiths to override dietary prohibitions. A common case of such a concern is heart valve replacements, where the choice is mechanical (and lifelong clot reducing medications, with their own complications), porcine heart valve or bovine heart valve. The preferred being the animal based valve, which is treated to remove proteins that could trigger the immune system. At the end of the day, it's the individual who needs to decide if they wish to live or not, as such current xenotransplants are life saving procedures.Wzrd1 (talk) 14:37, 14 March 2012 (UTC)


I've broken the article into sections. I've left the {{wikify}} there since I feel that the first part should be broken up a little(I was unable to figure out a good way to break it up). A picture would be nice as well. BioTube 04:08, 5 July 2006 (UTC)

This entry desperately needs more facts, citations, and more neutral and informative external links and needs caveats to that effect until such a time as it is rectified.

Human to animal xenografts[edit]

I am primarily interested in human to animal xenografts. In cancer research, for example, it is common to grow human tumour cells in rodents. There is nothing on this on the article, and I would be willing to bet that this type of xenograft is far more common by any measure (numbers, volume of transplanted tissue) than animal to human xenografts. 17:07, 14 November 2006 (UTC)


- Religious issues must be solved before xenotransplantation can become a regular operation. -

Who saids that? For example, contraceptives are recommended and contraceptives policies are enforced, yet the religious issues are definitively not resolved.

I would sign but i can't find the weird symbol Hey, i found it. BorisDelMas 22:43, 13 February 2007 (UTC)

Xenotransplantation IS a regular procedure in limited scopes. An example would be cardiac valves of bovine or porcine origin. Rejection is avoided by treating the tissue to remove proteins that are immune triggers.Wzrd1 (talk) 14:31, 14 March 2012 (UTC)

History and Quackery[edit]

A lot of money has been made by quacks performing xenotransplants which supposedly could restore physical stamina and intellectual vigour. Several well documented cases are already documented in wikipedia. John R. Brinkley is one of the most notorious. GregInCanada 23:10, 2 April 2007 (UTC)

These earlier "pre-scientific" procedures should be added to the history section with the customary caveats. Kortoso (talk) 19:39, 7 December 2016 (UTC)

New Section[edit]

Should this article mention a sci-fi horror book called "Ancestor," or is it not worth the effort? I only bring this up because the process of xenotransplantation is heavily featured in the plot. -- 18:25, 10 June 2007 (UTC)


> The tissue is harvested from agricultural animals that were already being butchered, which is less offensive to most people than the idea of raising a primate solely as an organ donor.

Wouldn't extraction of organs of animals at slaughterhouses, be somewhat un-hygienic? How about preservation of the organs? Delivery to patience? In addition, without genetic modification, said tissue would most likely be rejected, wouldn't it?

And if they WERE genetically modified, I don't think all that effort would be sent into common meat farm cows...wouldn't they be special created cows made 'solely as an organ donor'? FUCK


Isn't this why we need to further stem cell research in the first place? —The preceding unsigned comment was added by (talk) 07:33, August 23, 2007 (UTC)

WikiProject class rating[edit]

This article was automatically assessed because at least one WikiProject had rated the article as start, and the rating on other projects was brought up to start class. BetacommandBot 04:34, 10 November 2007 (UTC)

Inappropriate usage of genetic code[edit]

In its present form this article makes a very bad usage of the term genetic code. The genetic codes of humans, monkeys, rats and many other very distantly related living organisms are all absolutely identical. What the well intentioned editors wanted to mean instead of genetic code was probably genome. Please correct if I am right, and please explain if I am wrong. -- Sophos II (talk) 23:31, 5 February 2008 (UTC) nick makay is the cutest man to walk this earth.


I found this article very enriching, but I wish there were more examples in it. (talk) 13:44, 22 June 2008 (UTC)

Merge from Organ xenotransplantation[edit]

As discussed in Talk:Organ xenotransplantation, that article doesn't contain enough information specifically to organ xenotransplantation to justify more than being a subsection of this article. Rather, almost everything there is rather about xenotransplantation generally, and would thus be of more use in this article. Mikael Häggström (talk) 08:02, 16 August 2009 (UTC)

Reference list[edit]

I've made the merge now, but I'm not sure all the references came through, since I had to convert them from (name, year)-format to wiki style. The complete reference list is found below. Mikael Häggström (talk) 13:36, 20 March 2010 (UTC)

Abbas, A., Lichtman, A. 2005. Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 5th edition, pp 81, 330-333, 381, 386. Elsevier Saunders, Pennsylvania.

Armstrong, J., Porterfield J., De Madrid, A. 1971. C-type virus particles in pig kidney cell lines. J Gen Virol; 10: 195–198.

Candinas, D., Adams, D. 2000. Xenotransplantation: postponed by a millennium? Q J Med; 93: 63-66.

Deschamps J., Roux F., Saý P., Gouin E. 2005. History of xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation; 12: 91–109.

Dooldeniya, M., Warrens, A. 2003. Xenotransplantation: where are we today? J R Soc Med; 96: 11-117.

FDA. 2006. Xenotransplantation Action Plan: FDA Approach to the Regulation of Xenotransplantation. Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research.

Huang J., Gou D., Zhen C., et al. 2001. Protection of xenogeneic cells from human complement-mediated lysis by the expression of human DAF, CD59 and MCP. FEMS. Immunol Med Microbiol; 31: 203 -209.

LaTemple DC, Galili U. 1998. Adult and neonatal anti-Gal response in knock-out mice for alpha1,3galactosyltransferase. Xenotransplantation; 5:191 -196.

Michler, R. 1996. Xenotransplantation: Risks, Clinical Potential, and Future Prospects. EID 2(1).

Patience, C., Takeuchi, Y., Weiss, R. 1997. Infection of human cells by an endogenous retrovirus of pigs. Nat Med; 3: 282–286.

Rogel-Gaillard, C., Bourgeaux, N., Billault, A., Vaiman, M., Chardon, P. 1999. Construction of a swine BAC library: application to the characterization and mapping of porcine type C endoviral elements. Cytogenet Cell Genet; 85: 205–211.

Saadi, S., Platt, J. 1998. Immunology of Xenotransplantation. Life Sciences; 62(5): 365-387.

Sharma A., Okabe J., Birch P., et al. 1996. Reduction in the level of Gal(alpha1,3)Gal in transgenic mice and pigs by the expression of an alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 93:7190 -7195.

Takahashi, T., Saadi, S., Platt, J. 1997. Recent advances in the immunology of xenotransplantation. Immunol Res; 16(3): 273-297.

Takeuchi, Y., Weiss, R. 2000. Xenotransplantation: reappraising the risk of retroviral zoonosis. Current Opinion in Immunology; 12(5): 504-507.

Takeuchi, Y., Patience, C., Magre, S., Weiss, R., Banerjee, P., Le Tissier, P., Stoye, J. 1998. Host range and interference studies of three classes of pig endogenous retrovirus. J Virol; 72: 9986–9991

Taylor, L. 2007. Xenotransplantation. Emedicine online journal.

Vanderpool, H. 1999. Xenotransplantation: progress and promise. Student BMJ; 12: 422.

Writing Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) Consultation on Human Influenza A/H5. 2005. Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in Humans. N Engl J Med;353(13):1374-1385.

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Much earlier xenotransplants[edit]

The story of Dr. Serge Voronoff (circa 1910-1930) for instance.[1] Kortoso (talk) 19:36, 7 December 2016 (UTC)

Adding to History Section (Jan. 2017)[edit]

In the early 1960s, Keith Reemtsma kind of had some success transplanting chimp kidneys into end-stage kidney failure humans. For example, one person lived nine months(!). Now, this was before long-term dialysis. So, in a sense, offering someone a long shot was better than nothing at all. FriendlyRiverOtter (talk) 21:11, 12 January 2017 (UTC)

Heart to Heart: Can A Chimp Transplant Save Human Life?, New York Magazine, Nick Taylor, July 13, 1987.

A brief history of cross-species organ transplantation, Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings, David K. C. Cooper MD, PhD, 2012 Jan; 25(1): 49–57.

Xenotransplantation: A Historical Perspective, Keith Reemtsma, ILAR Journal [Institute for Laboratory Animal Research], (1995) 37 (1): 9-12, Jan. 1, 1995.

" . . Attempts to use cadaveric kidneys were inadequate. We were reluctant to press the use of volunteer humans for ethical, scientific, and legal reasons. Chronic dialysis was not available. . "

" . . In practice, all patients were terminal uremics, maintained on dialysis, who were presented with the following alternatives: (1) supportive treatment only, (2) an allograft from a relative, (3) a cadaveric allograft if available, or (4) a heterograft (xenograft). . "

" . . Between November 5, 1963, and February 10, 1964, six patients received renal heterotransplants from chimpanzees. . "

Not quite sure why short-term dialysis was available, but longer-term was not. But I guess that's the way it was back in 1963. FriendlyRiverOtter (talk) 19:47, 13 January 2017 (UTC)