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List of tallest buildings

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The 828-metre (2,717 ft) tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai has been the tallest building since 2008.[1] The Burj Khalifa has been classified as Megatall.[2]
The tallest buildings in 2015

This list of tallest buildings includes skyscrapers with continuously occupiable floors and a height of at least 350 m. Non-building structures, such as towers, are not included in this list (see list of tallest buildings and structures).

Historically, the world's tallest man-made structure was the Great Pyramids of Giza in Egypt, which held the position for over 3,800 years until the construction of Lincoln Cathedral in England in 1311. Until the completion of the Washington Monument in 1884 the world's tallest buildings were churches and cathedrals, Christian places of worship, in Europe. The early skyscraper was pioneered in Chicago, forming the basis for which the United States would hold the position of the world's tallest building for much of the 20th century until 1998, when the Petronas Towers were completed. Since then only two more buildings have held the title: Taipei 101 and Burj Khalifa.

Since the beginning of the 21st century, Western Asia, China, as well as Southeast Asia have seen a boom in skyscraper construction.

Ranking criteria and alternatives

The international non-profit organization Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) was formed in 1969 and announces the title of "The World's Tallest Building" and sets the standards by which buildings are measured. It maintains a list of the 100 tallest completed buildings in the world.[3] The organization currently ranks Burj Khalifa in Dubai as the tallest at 828 m (2,717 ft).[3] However, the CTBUH only recognizes buildings that are complete, and some buildings included within the lists in this article are not considered finished by the CTBUH.

In 1996, as a response to the dispute as to whether the Petronas Towers or the Sears Tower was taller,[4] the council listed and ranked buildings in four categories:

  • height to structural or architectural top;
  • height to floor of highest occupied floor;
  • height to top of roof (removed as category in November 2009);[5] and
  • height to top of any part of the building.

Spires are considered integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, changes to which would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers, with their spires, are thus ranked higher than the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) with its antennas, despite the Petronas Towers' lower roofs and lower highest point.

Until 1996, the world's tallest building was defined by the height to the top of the tallest architectural element, including spires but not antennae. This led to a rivalry between the Bank of Manhattan Building and the Chrysler Building. The Bank of Manhattan Building (i.e. 40 Wall Street) employed only a short spire and was 282.5 m (927 ft) tall and had a much higher top occupied floor (the second category in the 1996 criteria for tallest building). In contrast, the Chrysler Building employed a very large 38.1 m (125 ft) spire secretly assembled inside the building to claim the title of world's tallest building with a total height of 318.9 m (1,046 ft), although it had a lower top occupied floor and a shorter height when both buildings' spires were excluded.

Upset by Chrysler's victory, Shreve & Lamb, the consulting architects of the Bank of Manhattan Building, wrote a newspaper article claiming that their building was actually the tallest, since it contained the world's highest usable floor, at 255 m (837 ft). They pointed out that the observation deck in the Bank of Manhattan Building was nearly 30 m (98 ft) above the top floor in the Chrysler Building, whose surpassing spire was strictly ornamental and inaccessible.[6]

At present, the Burj Khalifa tops the list by some margin, regardless of which criterion is applied.[7][8]

Tallest buildings in the world

As of 2019, this list includes all 64 buildings (completed and architecturally topped out) which reach a height of 350 metres (1,150 ft) or more, as assessed by their highest architectural feature. Of these, 32 (50%) are in China. Six of the last seven buildings to have held the record as 'tallest building' are still found in the list, with the exception being the North Tower of the original World Trade Center at 417 metres (1,368 ft) after its destruction in the September 11 attacks of 2001. If the twin towers were not destroyed and One World Trade Center never built, the WTC towers would rank 28 and 29 on the list today.

bold Denotes building that is or was once the tallest in the world
Rank Name Image City Country Height[9] Floors Year Notes
m ft
1 Burj Khalifa Burj Khalifa.jpg Dubai  United Arab Emirates 828 2,717 163 2010
2 Shanghai Tower Shanghai tower dec 26, 2014.jpg Shanghai  China 632 2,073 128 2015 The tallest twisted building.
3 Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower Abraj-al-Bait-Towers.JPG Mecca  Saudi Arabia 601 1,971 120 2012 Tallest building with a clock face.
4 Ping An Finance Center Ping An Finance Center 201512.jpg Shenzhen  China 599 1,965 115 2017 Shares the record of the highest observation deck with Shanghai Tower (#2) at 562 m.
5 Goldin Finance 117 Goldin Finance 117 3.jpg Tianjin  China 596.6 1,957 128 2019
6 Lotte World Tower Lotte world tower.jpg Seoul  South Korea 554.5 1,819 123 2016
7 One World Trade Center One World Trade Center cropped2.jpg New York City  United States 541.3 1,776 104 2014
8 Guangzhou CTF Finance Center Canton CTF Finance Center (2017-08-30, Final).jpg Guangzhou  China 530 1,739 111 2016
9 Tianjin CTF Finance Center Tianjin CTF Finance Centre, 23 of 24 cropped.jpg Tianjin  China 530 1,739 98 2018
10 China Zun China Zun 05-11-2018.jpg Beijing  China 528 1,732 108 2018
11 Taipei 101 Taipei101.portrait.altonthompson.jpg Taipei  Taiwan 508 1,667 101 2004 The world's tallest building from 2004 to 2010.
12 Shanghai World Financial Center 上海国际金融中心.jpg Shanghai  China 492 1,614 101 2008 Was the tallest building in China until the completion of the adjacent Shanghai Tower.
13 International Commerce Centre International Commerce Centre 201008.jpg Hong Kong  China 484 1,588 118 2010
14 Wuhan Greenland Center Wuhan Greenland Center 201704.jpg Wuhan  China 475.6 1,560 97 2019
15 Central Park Tower CentralParkTowerSep20.jpg New York City  United States 472 1,550 99 2020 Tallest residential building in the world. Topped out in September 2019.[10]
16 Lakhta Center Das Lachta Zentr- Лахта Центр 2H1A5980WI.jpg Saint Petersburg  Russia 462 1,516 86 2018 Tallest building in Europe since 2018.[11]
17 Landmark 81 LM81 NhonHuynh 5-8-2018.jpg Ho Chi Minh City  Vietnam 461.2 1,513 81 2018
18 Changsha IFS Tower T1 长沙九龙仓国金中心.jpg Changsha  China 452.1 1,483 88 2017
19 Petronas Tower 1 Petronas Panorama II.jpg Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 451.9 1,483 88 1998 Tallest twin towers in the world; were the world's tallest buildings upon completion in 1998, and the first tallest building since 1908 outside of the United States.
Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 451.9 1,483 88 1998
21 Zifeng Tower Zifeng Tower 2017.jpg Nanjing  China 450 1,476 89 2010
Suzhou IFS Suzhou IFS 27-10-2018.jpg Suzhou  China 450 1,476 92 2017
23 The Exchange 106 Exchange 106 (5-6-2018).jpg Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 445.5 1,461 97 2018
24 Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) Willis Tower From Lake.jpg Chicago  United States 442.1 1,450 108 1974 Formerly known, and still commonly referred to, as the Sears Tower. It was the tallest building in the world from 1974 until 1998.
25 KK100 深圳“京基100”摩天大楼.jpg Shenzhen  China 442 1,449 100 2011
26 Guangzhou International Finance Center GZIFC.jpg Guangzhou  China 440 1,440 103 2010
27 Wuhan Center Wuhan Center Tower 201901 (view from the Central Square of Wuhan CBD).jpg Wuhan  China 438 1,437 88 2016
28 111 West 57th Street SteinwayOct25.jpg New York City  United States 435.3 1,428 82 2019
29 One Vanderbilt OneVanderbiltSep7.jpg New York City  United States 427 1,401 67 2020
30 Dongguan International Trade Center 1 Dongguan  China 426.9 1,401 88 2019
31 432 Park Avenue 432 Park Avenue, NY (cropped).jpg New York City  United States 425.5 1,396 88 2015 Third-tallest residential building in the world.[10]
32 Marina 101 Dubai  United Arab Emirates 425 1,394 101 2015
33 Trump International Hotel and Tower Chicago September 2016-2.jpg Chicago  United States 423.2 1,388 98 2009
34 Jin Mao Tower Jin Mao Tower.jpg Shanghai  China 421 1,380 88 1999
35 Princess Tower Princess Tower - Dubai.jpg Dubai  United Arab Emirates 414 1,358 101 2012
36 Al Hamra Tower Alhamra Tower.jpg Kuwait City  Kuwait 412.6 1,354 80 2011
37 International Finance Centre IFC, Hong Kong Island (2796343561).jpg Hong Kong  China 412 1,352 88 2003
38 Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower Busan  South Korea 411.6 1,352 101 2019
39 Nanning China Resources Tower Nanning  China 402.7 1,321 85 2018
40 Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1[12] Guiyang  China 401 1,316 79 2019
41 China Resources Headquarters China Resources Headquarters 03-10-2018.jpg Shenzhen  China 392.5 1,288 67 2017
42 23 Marina Dubai  United Arab Emirates 392.4 1,287 89 2012
43 CITIC Plaza Guangzhou CITIC Plaza DSC02461.jpg Guangzhou  China 390.2 1,280 80 1996
44 Shum Yip Upperhills Tower 1 Shenzhen  China 388.1 1,273 80 2017
45 30 Hudson Yards 30 Hudson Yards.jpg New York City  United States 386.6 1,268 73 2018
46 Capital Market Authority Headquarters Riyadh  Saudi Arabia 385 1,263 77 2016
47 Shun Hing Square Diwang Dasha 25.JPG Shenzhen  China 384 1,260 69 1996
48 Eton Place Dalian Tower 1 Dalian Eton Center.jpg Dalian  China 383 1,257 81 2015
49 Logan Century Center 1 Nanning  China 381.3 1,251 82 2017
50 Burj Mohammed bin Rashid Burj Mohammed bin Rahid, Abu Dhabi, UAE (from car).jpg Abu Dhabi  United Arab Emirates 381.2 1,251 88 2014
51 Empire State Building Empire State Building from the Top of the Rock.jpg New York City  United States 381 1,250 102 1931 Tallest building in the world from 1931 until 1972; tallest man-made structure in the world from 1931 to 1967; first building in the world to contain over 100 floors[17][18]
52 Elite Residence Dubai  United Arab Emirates 380.5 1,248 87 2012
53 Shenzhen Center Shenzhen  China 375.6 1,232 2019
54 Central Plaza Central-plaza2.jpg Hong Kong  China 373.9 1,226 78 1992
55 Federation Tower (East Tower) Federation-Tower in July, Moscow.jpg Moscow  Russia 373.7 1,226 95 2016
56 Dalian International Trade Center Dalianinternationaltradecenter.jpg Dalian  China 370.2 1,214 86 2018
57 Address Boulevard View from Burj Khalifah, Dubai (4).jpg Dubai  United Arab Emirates 370 1,214 72 2017
58 Haitian Center Tower 2 [13] Qingdao  China 369 1,211 72 2020
59 Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower A Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower A Under Construction.jpg Nanjing  China 368.1 1,208 76 2018
60 Bank of China Tower HK Bank of China Tower View.jpg Hong Kong  China 367 1,205 70 1990
61 Bank of America Tower OBP - Ext - 42nd East.jpg New York City  United States 365.8 1,200 56 2009
62 Almas Tower Aerial View of Jumeirah Lakes Towers.jpg Dubai  United Arab Emirates 363 1,191 68 2017
63 Vista Tower Chicago  United States 362.9 1,191 101 2019
64 Hanking Center Hanking Center under construction.jpg Shenzhen  China 358.9 1,177 65 2017
65 Gevora Hotel Gevora Hotel.jpg Dubai  United Arab Emirates 356.3 1,169 75 2012
66 JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 1 JW Marriott Marquis Dubai2.jpg Dubai  United Arab Emirates 356.3 1,166 82 2012
JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 2 Dubai  United Arab Emirates 355 1,166 82 2012
68 Emirates Office Tower Emirates Towers in Dubai at dawn.jpg Dubai  United Arab Emirates 354.6 1,163 54 2000
69 Raffles City Chongqing T3N 2018年7月建设中的重庆来福士广场.jpg Chongqing  China 354.5 1,163 79 2018
Raffles City Chongqing T4N Chongqing  China 354.5 1,163 79 2019
71 OKO Tower - South Tower Oko towers in 2016, Moscow.jpg Moscow  Russia 354 1,160 85 2015
72 The Marina Torch Marina Torch, Dubai.jpg Dubai  United Arab Emirates 352 1,155 86 2011
73 Forum 66 Tower 1 Forum 66, Shenyang, Oct2014.png Shenyang  China 350.6 1,150 68 2015
74 The Pinnacle The Pinnacle (Guangzhou, China) indexxrus.JPG Guangzhou  China 350.3 1,149 60 2012
75 Xi An Glory International Financial Center Xi An Glory under construction.jpg Xi'an  China 350 1,148 75 2017

Alternative measurements

Height to pinnacle (highest point)

Tallest buildings by pinnacle height, including all masts, poles, antennae, etc. in 2014

This measurement disregards distinctions between architectural and non-architectural extensions, and simply measures to the highest point. This measurement is useful for air traffic obstacle determinations, and is also a wholly objective measure. However, this measurement includes extensions that are easily added, removed, and modified from a building and are independent of the overall structure.

This measurement only recently came into use, when the Petronas Towers passed the Sears Tower (now named Willis Tower) in height. The former was considered taller because its spires were considered architectural, while the latter's antennae were not. This led to the split of definitions, with the Sears Tower claiming the lead in this and the height-to-roof (now highest occupied floor) categories, and with the Petronas claiming the lead in the architectural height category.

If the World Trade Center towers were still standing today they would occupy numbers 12 (North Tower at 526.7 m (1,728 ft))[14] and 37 on the list (or 11 and 36, for it can be assumed the rebuilt One World Trade Center would have never been built).

bold †Denotes building with pinnacle height higher than architectural
Rank Building City Country Height Floors Built
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai  United Arab Emirates 829.8 m 2,722 ft 163 2010
2 Shanghai Tower Shanghai  China 632 m 2,073 ft 128 2015
3 Abraj Al-Bait Towers Mecca  Saudi Arabia 601 m 1,971 ft 120 2012
4 Ping An Finance Center Shenzhen  China 599 m 1,965 ft 115 2016
5 Goldin Finance 117 Tianjin  China 596.6 m 1,957 ft 128 2019
6 Lotte World Tower Seoul  South Korea 555.7 m 1,823 ft 123 2016
7 One World Trade Center New York City  United States 546.2 m 1,792 ft 104 2014
8 Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre Guangzhou  China 530 m 1,739 ft 111 2016
8 Tianjin CTF Finance Centre Tianjin  China 530 m 1,739 ft 98 2018
10 China Zun Beijing  China 528 m 1,732 ft 108 2018
11 Willis Tower Chicago  United States 527 m 1,729 ft 108 1974
12 Taipei 101 Taipei  Taiwan 508 m 1,667 ft 101 2004
13 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai  China 494.3 m 1,622 ft 101 2008
14 International Commerce Centre Hong Kong  China 484 m 1,588 ft 118 2010
15 Wuhan Greenland Center Wuhan  China 475.6 m 1,560 ft 96 2019
16 Central Park Tower New York City  United States 472.4 m 1,550 ft 101 2020
17 Landmark 81 Ho Chi Minh City  Vietnam 469.5 m 1,513 ft 81 2018
18 Lakhta Center St. Petersburg  Russia 462 m 1,516 ft 86 2018
19 John Hancock Center Chicago  United States 456.9 m 1,499 ft 100 1969
20 The Exchange 106 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 453.5 m 1,488 ft 97 2018
21 Changsha IFS Tower T1 Changsha  China 452 m 1,483 ft 94 2017
22 Petronas Tower 1 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
22 Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
24 Zifeng Tower Nanjing  China 450 m 1,476 ft 89 2009
25 Suzhou IFS Suzhou  China 450 m 1,476 ft 98 2017
26 Empire State Building New York City  United States 443.2 m 1,454 ft 102 1931
27 Kingkey 100 Shenzhen  China 442 m 1,449 ft 100 2011
28 Guangzhou International Finance Center Guangzhou  China 438.6 m 1,445 ft 103 2009
29 Wuhan Center Wuhan  China 438 m 1,437 ft 88 2017
30 111 West 57th Street New York City  United States 435.3 m 1,428 ft 82 2019
31 Dongguan International Trade Center 1 Dongguan  China 426.9 m 1,401 ft 88 2019
32 One Vanderbilt New York City  United States 427 m 1,401 ft 58 2019
33 432 Park Avenue New York City  United States 425.5 m 1,396 ft 85 2015
34 Marina 101 Dubai  United Arab Emirates 425 m 1,394 ft 101 2017
35 Trump International Hotel and Tower Chicago  United States 423.2 m 1,388 ft 96 2009
36 Jin Mao Tower Shanghai  China 421 m 1,381 ft 88 1998
37 Princess Tower Dubai  United Arab Emirates 414 m 1,358 ft 101 2012
38 Al Hamra Tower Kuwait City  Kuwait 412.6 m 1,354 ft 80 2010
39 Two International Finance Centre Hong Kong  China 412 m 1,352 ft 88 2003
40 Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower Busan  South Korea 411.6 m 1,352 ft 101 2019
41 Guangxi China Resources Tower Nanning  China 402.7 m 1,321 ft 85 2018
42 Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1[12] Guiyang  China 401 m 1,316 ft 79 2019

Height to occupied floor

This height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

Rank Building City Country Height Floors Built
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai  United Arab Emirates 584.5 m (1,918 ft) 163 2010
2 Goldin Finance 117 Tianjin  China 584.1 m (1,916 ft) 128 2019
3 Shanghai Tower Shanghai  China 583.4 m (1,914 ft) 128 2015
4 Ping An Finance Center Shenzhen  China 562.2 m (1,844 ft) 115 2016
5 China Zun Beijing  China 515 m (1,690 ft) 108 2018
6 Lotte World Tower Seoul  South Korea 497.6 m (1,633 ft) 123 2016
7 Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre Guangzhou  China 495.5 m (1,626 ft) 111 2016
8 Abraj Al-Bait Towers Mecca  Saudi Arabia 494.4 m (1,622 ft) 120 2012
9 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai  China 474 m (1,555 ft) 101 2008
10 Wuhan Greenland Center Wuhan  China 467 m (1,532 ft) 96 2019
11 International Commerce Centre Hong Kong  China 468.8 m (1,538 ft) 118 2010
12 Central Park Tower New York City  United States 442 m (1,450 ft) 101 2020
13 Tianjin CTF Finance Centre Tianjin  China 439.4 m (1,442 ft) 98 2018
14 Taipei 101 Taipei  Taiwan 438 m (1,437 ft) 101 2004
15 Changsha IFS Tower T1 Changsha  China 437.1 m (1,434 ft) 94 2017
16 KK100 Shenzhen  China 427.1 m (1,401 ft) 100 2011
17 Guangzhou International Finance Center Guangzhou  China 415.1 m (1,362 ft) 103 2010
18 Willis Tower Chicago  United States 412.7 m (1,354 ft) 108 1974
19 Suzhou IFS Suzhou  China 406.4 m (1,333 ft) 98 2017

Buildings under construction

This is a list of buildings taller than 350 m that are currently under construction.[15] More than half of the buildings are located in China.

Building Planned architectural height Floors Planned completion Country City Ref.
Jeddah Tower 1,000 m (3,300 ft) 167+ ?  Saudi Arabia Jeddah [16]
Merdeka PNB118 644 m (2,113 ft) 118 2021  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur [17]
Greenland Centre 498 m (1,634 ft) 101 2024  China Xi'an [18]
Chengdu Greenland Tower 468 m (1,535 ft) 116 2021  China Chengdu
Corporate Avenue 1 468 m (1,535 ft) 99 2022  China Chongqing [19]
Tianshan Gate of the World 450 m (1,480 ft) 106 2025  China Shijiazhuang [20]
One Bangkok 436.1 m (1,431 ft) 92 2025  Thailand Bangkok [21]
Riverview Plaza 436 m (1,430 ft) 73 2021  China Wuhan
Chongqing Tall Tower 431 m (1,414 ft) 101 2022  China Chongqing [22]
Nanjing Financial City Tower 1 411 m (1,348 ft) 87 ?  China Nanjing [23]
Shandong IFC 428 m (1,404 ft) 86 2022  China Jinan [24]
Ningbo Center Tower 1 409 m (1,342 ft) 80 2023  China Ningbo [25]
Dongfeng Plaza Landmark Tower 407 m (1,335 ft) 100 2022  China Kunming [26]
One Tower 405 m (1,329 ft) 101 2024  Russia Moscow [27]
Chengmai Center 388 m (1,273 ft) 70 2022  China Shenzhen [28]
Iconic Tower 385 m (1,263 ft) 90 2023  Egypt Cairo [29]
Abu Dhabi Plaza 382 m (1,253 ft) 75 2020  Kazakhstan Nur-Sultan
Guiyang World Trade Center Landmark Tower 380 m (1,250 ft) ? 2021  China Guiyang [30]
Guangdong Business Center 375.5 m (1,232 ft) 60 2022  China Guangzhou [31]
Fairmont Kuala Lumpur Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 78 2022  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur [32]
Coronation Square Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 78 ?  Malaysia Johor Bahru [33]
Xujiahui Center Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 70 2023  China Shanghai [34]
Uptown Tower 370 m (1,210 ft) 78 2022  UAE Dubai [35]
Galaxy 1 369 m (1,211 ft) 84 2022  China Shenzhen [36]
Galaxy 2 369 m (1,211 ft) 84 2022  China Shenzhen [37]
Ciel Tower 365 m (1,198 ft) 77 2023  UAE Dubai [38]
Three Sixty West Tower B 361.2 m (1,185 ft) 90 ?  India Mumbai [39]
Ping An Finance Center Tower 1 360 m (1,180 ft) 74 2023  China Jinan [40]
Greenland Group Suzhou Center 358 m (1,175 ft) 75 2020  China Suzhou [41]
Il Primo Tower 1 356 m (1,168 ft) 88 2021  UAE Dubai [42]
Agricultural Development Center Tower 1 350 m (1,150 ft) ? ?  China Harbin [43]
East Gate Tower 350 m (1,150 ft) ? ?  China Guangzhou [44]

List by continent

The following list shows the tallest completed buildings located in each continent listed by greatest to least height (click on name of continent for continent-specific list):

Continent Building Height Floor count Completed Country City
Asia Burj Khalifa 828 m (2,717 ft) 163 2010  United Arab Emirates Dubai
North America One World Trade Center 541.3 m (1,776 ft) 104 2014  United States New York City
Europe Lakhta Center 462 m (1,516 ft) 86 2018  Russia St. Petersburg
Australia Q1 323 m (1,060 ft) 78 2005  Australia Gold Coast
South America Gran Torre Santiago[45] 300 m (980 ft) 64 2012  Chile Santiago
Africa The Leonardo 227 m (745 ft) 55 2019  South Africa Johannesburg[46][47]
Antarctica Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Payload Preparation Buildings[48] 15 m (49 ft) 2005[49] N/A McMurdo Station

See also

Notes

A. ^ Destroyed buildings not included
B. ^ Topped out but not completed.

References

  1. ^ "Burj Dubai now a record 688m tall and continues to rise". Emaar Properties. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  2. ^ "The Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall". CTBUH. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  3. ^ a b "100 tallest completed buildings in the world". CTBUH. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  4. ^ Lynn S. Beedle. "Tallest: Petronas vs. Sears Tower Controversy". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 2014-08-24.
  5. ^ "CTBUH changes height criteria, Burj Khalifa height increases". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2009.
  6. ^ Binder, Georges (August 2006). 101 of the world's tallest buildings. Images Pub. p. 102. ISBN 978-1864701739.
  7. ^ "Tall Buildings In Numbers Vanity Height". Ctbuh.org. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  8. ^ "Most of the World's Tallest Buildings Game the System With 'Vanity Height' - Jenny Xie". The Atlantic Cities. 2013-09-09. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
  9. ^ "Create Lists/Graphics - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
  10. ^ Young, Michael (September 17, 2019). "Central Park Tower Officially Tops Out 1,550 Feet Above Midtown, Becoming World's Tallest Residential Building". New York YIMBY. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  11. ^ Prisco, Jacopo. "Europe's tallest skyscraper nears completion". CNN. Retrieved 2020-01-15.
  12. ^ a b "Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  13. ^ "Hai Tian Center Tower 2". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  14. ^ "One World Trade Center". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  15. ^ "All Global Buildings". CTBUH. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  16. ^ "Kingdom Tower in Saudi Arabia Will Soon Be the World's Tallest Building". Mashable.com. Retrieved 2014-12-28.
  17. ^ "Merdeka PNB118 - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2019-10-24.
  18. ^ "Greenland Centre". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  19. ^ "Corporate Avenue 1 : The Skyscraper Center". Skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  20. ^ "Tianshan Gate of the World Plots 27 and 28". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  21. ^ "One Bangkok O4H4". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  22. ^ "Chongqing Tall Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  23. ^ "Nanjing Financial City Phase II Plot C Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  24. ^ "Shandong IFC". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  25. ^ "Ningbo Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  26. ^ "Dongfeng Plaza Landmark Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  27. ^ "One Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  28. ^ "One Chengmai Center". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  29. ^ "Iconic Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  30. ^ "Guiyang World Trade Center Landmark Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  31. ^ "Guangdong Business Center". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  32. ^ "Fairmont Kuala Lumpur Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  33. ^ "Coronation Square Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  34. ^ "Xujiahui Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  35. ^ "Uptown Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  36. ^ "Galaxy Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  37. ^ "Galaxy Tower 2". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  38. ^ "Ciel Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  39. ^ "Oberoi Oasis Residential Tower;". CTBUH. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
  40. ^ {{ctbuh | id = 32086 | title = Ping An Finance Center Tower 1}
  41. ^ "Greenland Group Suzhou Center". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
  42. ^ "Il Primo Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  43. ^ "Agricultural Development Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  44. ^ "East Gate Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Center.
  45. ^ "Costanera Center es oficialmente el edificio más alto de Latinoámerica". La Segunda. 2012-02-14.
  46. ^ "New Sandton skyscraper is the tallest building in Africa - it offers a view of Magaliesberg". Fin24. September 20, 2019.
  47. ^ "Leonardo in Sandton will be Africa's tallest building | Pretoria News". www.iol.co.za.
  48. ^ Pacheco, Luis Eduardo. "McMurdo Station, Antarctica - Stratospheric balloon launches". stratocat.com.ar. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  49. ^ Jones, W. Vernon. "Report on the Balloon Program" Archived 2016-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, NASA Astrophysics Subcommittee Meeting. 16 April 2013.

External links