Tamá National Natural Park
|Parque Nacional Natural Tamá|
|Tamá National Natural Park|
|Location||Eastern Ranges, Andes|
|Nearest city||Pamplona, Colombia|
|Area||480 km2 (190 sq mi)|
|Established||6 June 1977|
The Tamá National Natural Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional Natural (PNN) Tamá) is a national park located in the Tamá Massif of the Andean Region of Colombia, between the municipalities Toledo and Herrán, in the department of Norte de Santander, in the northeastern part of the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes. One of the main attractions of the park is a 820-metre-high (2,690 ft) waterfall, one of the world's highest.
The park is connected to El Tamá National Park in Venezuela via the borders to the Venezuelan states Táchira and Apure, together they form a larger protected area with an additional 1,390 km2 (540 sq mi). On the Colombian side, 47,550 hectares (117,500 acres) (99%) of the park is located in Toledo and 450 hectares (1,100 acres) in Herrán. It was established on 6 June 1977 for conservational, scientific and recreational reasons.
The altitude varies between 800 and 3,800 metres (2,600 and 12,500 ft) above mean sea level, with the majority of the park located higher than 2,500 metres (8,200 ft). The average temperature is between 6 and 25 °C (43 and 77 °F).
Flora and fauna
The forests are included in the Venezuelan Andes montane forests ecoregion, which also covers the Venezuelan Andean cordillera. Tamá has four types of natural environments: tropical rainforest, sub-Andean forest, Andean forest and páramo. Notable flora include: Weinmannia pubescens, Wettinia microcarpa, Befaria glauca, Mexican alder and endemic Espeletia uribei which grows higher than metres. Palms prosper in the lower-altitudes, and moss of the genus Sphagnum grows in the swamps.
The fauna is varied, notable mammals found in the area include: spectacled bear, opossum, deer, mountain lion and anteater. Notable birds include: oilbird, endangered northern helmeted curassow and flame-winged parakeet, a species endemic to the region. Tamá harlequin frog and Helena's marsupial frog are endemic to the Páramo de Tamá.
- "Turismo" (in Spanish). Gobernación de Norte de Santander. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- "Resolucion 0162 de 6 de junio de 1977" (PDF) (in Spanish). Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- "Parque Nacional Natural Tamá" (in Spanish). Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- "Turismo: Parque Nacional Natural Tamá" (in Spanish). El municipio de Herrán. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- IUCN 1982, p. 140
- Bonaccorso, Elise, Northern South America: Northwestern Venezuela into Colombia, WWF: World Wildlife Fund, retrieved 2017-04-18
- "Naturaleza y Ciencia del Parque Nacional Natural Tamá" (in Spanish). Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
- La Marca, E. & García-Pérez, J.E. (2004). "Atelopus tamaense". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T54558A11167366. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- La Marca, E., Ardila-Robayo, M.C. & Rueda, J.V. (2004). "Gastrotheca helenae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2004: e.T54558A11167366. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- IUCN (1982), IUCN directory of neotropical protected areas (in Spanish and English), IUCN, ISBN 978-0-907567-62-2.
- (in Spanish) Parque Nacional Natural Tamá