|Emperor tamarin, a New World monkey|
18 species, see text
The tamarins are squirrel-sized New World monkeys from the family Callitrichidae in the genus Saguinus. They are the first offshoot in the Callitrichidae tree, and therefore are sister group of a clade formed by the lion tamarins, Goeldi's monkeys and marmosets.
Different tamarin species vary considerably in appearance, ranging from nearly all black through mixtures of black, brown and white. Mustache-like facial hairs are typical for many species. Their body size ranges from 13 to 30 cm (5.1 to 11.8 in) (plus a 25-to-44 cm-long (9.8-to-17.3 in) tail) and they weigh from 220 to 900 grams (7.8 to 31.7 oz). Tamarins differ from marmosets primarily in having lower canine teeth that are clearly longer than the incisors. In captivity, tamarins can live for up to 18 years.
Behavior and reproduction
Tamarins are inhabitants of tropical rainforests and open forest areas. They are diurnal and arboreal, and run and jump quickly through the trees. Tamarins live together in groups of up to 40 members consisting of one or more families. More frequently, though, groups are composed of just three to nine members.
Gestation is typically 140 days, and births are normally twins. The adult males, subadults, and juveniles in the group assist with caring for the young, bringing them to their mother to nurse. After approximately one month the young begin to eat solid food, although they aren't fully weaned for another two to three months. They reach full maturity in their second year. Tamarins are almost exclusively polyandrous.
Cottontop tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) breed cooperatively in the wild. Cronin, Kurian, and Snowdon tested eight cottontop tamarins in a series of cooperative pulling experiments. Two monkeys were put on opposite sides of a transparent apparatus containing food. Only if both monkeys pulled a handle on their side of the apparatus towards themselves at the same time would food drop down for them to obtain. The results showed that tamarins pulled the handles at a lower rate when alone with the apparatus than when in the presence of a partner. Cronin, Kurian, and Snowdon concluded from this that cottontop tamarins have a good understanding of cooperation. They suggest that cottontop tamarins have developed cooperative behaviour as a cognitive adaptation.
While tamarins spend much of their day foraging, they must be on high alert for aerial and terrestrial predators. Due to their small size compared to other primates, they are an easy target for predatory birds, snakes, and mammals.
The first classification of Saguinus tamarins contained ten different species, further divided into 33 morphotypes based on facial pelage. A later classification into two clades was based on variations in dental measurements. The latest classification postulates fifteen species with no subspecies. A genetic review in 2016 revealed that the oldest species groups first began diverging 11–8 million years ago (considerably earlier than the divergence between Callithrix, Cebuella and Mico), leading the authors to recommend moving the nigricollis group to a separate genus, Leontocebus. Other authors argued that the mystax group of tamarins is distinct enough to be classified in the subgenus Tamarinus.
- Genus Saguinus
- S. midas group
- S. nigricollis group
- Black-mantled tamarin, Saguinus nigricollis
- Spix's black-mantled tamarin, Saguinus nigricollis nigricollis
- Hernandez-Camacho's black-mantled tamarin Saguinus nigricollis hernandezi
- Graells's tamarin, Saguinus graellsi
- Brown-mantled tamarin or saddle-back tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis
- Spix's saddle-back tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis fuscicollis
- Geoffroy's saddle-back tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons
- Illiger's saddle-back tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis illigeri
- Andean saddle-back tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis leucogenys
- Red-mantle saddle-back tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis lagonotus
- Saguinus fuscicollis fuscus
- Avila Pires' saddle-back tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi
- Weddell's saddle-back tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli
- Cruz Lima's saddle-back tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai
- Saddle-back tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis primitivus
- Mura's saddleback tamarin, Saguinus fuscicollis mura
- White-mantled tamarin, Saguinus melanoleucus
- Golden-mantled tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus
- Black-mantled tamarin, Saguinus nigricollis
- S. mystax group
- S. bicolor group
- S. oedipus group
- S. inustus group
- Mottle-faced tamarin, Saguinus inustus
- Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 133–136. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.
- Rylands AB, Mittermeier RA (2009). "The Diversity of the New World Primates (Platyrrhini): An Annotated Taxonomy". In Garber PA, Estrada A, Bicca-Marques JC, Heymann EW, Strier KB. South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Springer. pp. 21–54. ISBN 978-0-387-78704-6.
- Garbino, Guilherme S.T.; Martins-Junior, Antonio M.G. (2018). "Phenotypic evolution in marmoset and tamarin monkeys (Cebidae, Callitrichinae) and a revised genus-level classification". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 118: 156–171. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2017.10.002. PMID 28989098.
- Hershkovitz, Philip (1977). Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini) : With an Introduction to Primates (1st ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226327884.
- Cronin, Katherine A.; Kurian, Aimee V.; Snowdon, Charles T. (2005). "Cooperative problem solving in a cooperatively breeding primate (Saguinus oedipus)". Animal Behaviour. 69 (1): 133–142. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.02.024. PMC 1483064. PMID 16804561.
- Miller, Lynne (2002). Eat or be Eaten. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-01104-4.
- Natori, M.; Hanihara, T. (1992). "Variations in dental measurements between Saguinus species and their systematic relationships". Folia Primatologica. 58 (2): 84–92. doi:10.1159/000156612. PMID 1612537.
- Ferrari, Stephen; Silva, Suleima. "Notes on the reproduction, behaviour and diet of Sanguinus niger (Primates: Callitrichidae) in a forest remnant at the National Primate Centre, Ananindeua, Pará". Retrieved 2016-07-12.
- Rylands, Anthony B.; Eckhard W. Heymann; Jessica Lynch Alfaro; Janet C. Buckner; Christian Roos; Christian Matauschek; Jean P. Boubli; Ricardo Sampaio; and Russell A. Mittermeier (2016). "Taxonomic Review of the New World Tamarins (Primates: Callitrichidae)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 177 (4): 1003–1028. doi:10.1111/zoj.12386.
- Gregorin, R.; De Vivo, M. (2013). "Revalidation of Saguinus ursula Hoffmannsegg (Primates: Cebidae: Callitrichinae)". Zootaxa. 3721 (2): 172–182. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3721.2.4.
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