Tameichi Hara

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Tameichi Hara
TameichiHara.jpg
Born October 16, 1900
Kagawa Prefecture, Japan
Died October 10, 1980(1980-10-10) (aged 79)
Allegiance Empire of Japan
Rank Captain
Unit Destroyer Amatsukaze
27th Destroyer Squadron
Cruiser Yahagi
Commands held  Imperial Japanese Navy
Battles/wars World War II
Battle of the Java Sea
Battle of Midway
Battle of the Eastern Solomons
Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands
Naval Battle of Guadalcanal
Battle of Vella Gulf
Naval Battle of Vella Lavella
Battle off Horaniu
Battle of Empress Augusta Bay
Operation Ten-Go

Tameichi Hara (原 為一 Hara Tameichi?, October 16, 1900 – October 10, 1980) was an Imperial Japanese naval commander during the Pacific War and the author of the IJN manual on torpedo attack techniques, notable for his skill in torpedo warfare and night fighting. Hara was the only IJN destroyer captain at the start of World War II to survive the entire war and his memoirs serve as an important source for historians.

Early life[edit]

Tameichi Hara was born on October 16, 1900 in a suburb of Takamatsu City on the island of Shikoku.[1] A native of Kagawa Prefecture and of samurai descent, Hara graduated with the 49th class from the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy at Etajima in 1921. In 1932 Hara was assigned as a surface warfare instructor and wrote a torpedo attack manual that was accepted as official doctrine. He began the war as the captain of destroyer Amatsukaze.

Military career[edit]

Amatsukaze (center bottom), under Hara's command, maneuvers at high speed to evade a high-level bomb attack by USAAF B-17 bombers on the disabled Japanese aircraft carrier Ryūjō (center right) during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons.

Hara commanded a Japanese destroyer or destroyer division in many significant Pacific sea battles. As captain of the Amatsukaze Commander Hara participated in the Battle of the Java Sea, the sinking of the submarine USS Perch (SS-176) and the occupation of Christmas Island.[2] He sank another submarine after detecting it at night when he saw a sailor on the surface light a cigarette four kilometers away.[3] On 13 November 1942 Hara’s Amatsukaze sank the USS Barton (DD-599) during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal but was severely damaged in turn after Hara left his searchlights on too long and drew intense fire from light cruiser USS Helena (CL-50).[4]

After Amatsukaze returned to Japan for repairs Hara was promoted to Captain and given the command of Destroyer Division 27, flying his flag aboard Shigure. While this was technically a four-ship formation the demands on the Imperial navy were such that Hara's ships rarely operated together. While serving aboard Shigure, Hara was involved in several fierce naval engagements during the latter part of the Solomon Islands Campaign. While on a re-supply mission through Blackett Straight on 2 August 1943, Hara noticed a fireball exploding near leading destroyer Amagiri and ordered Shigure's crew to shoot at the burning wreckage of Lt. John F. Kennedy's Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109.[5] During the Battle of Vella Gulf on 6–7 August Shigure was the only one of four Japanese destroyers to escape, though she was later found to have been hit by a torpedo that failed to explode.[6]

Although undamaged in the Bombing of Rabaul (November 1943), Shigure was ordered to back to Sasebo for a long overdue refit. Hara was relieved of his command and reassigned as Senior Torpedo Instructor at the Naval Torpedo School at Oppama near Yokosuka to teach students in the Imperial Japanese Navy's belated Motor Torpedo Boat program.[7] Hara was quickly frustrated with the lack of effective equipment as well as the lack of leadership in the Navy and Army. He hastily wrote a letter intended for Emperor Hirohito urging him to fire the heads of the army and navy and seek peace as the war was lost and hand delivered it to Hirohito's younger brother Nobuhito, Prince Takamatsu at the Navy Ministry. Despite the potentially grave consequences of this action Hara did not hear anything further on the matter.[8]

Hara's last sortie was as captain of the light cruiser Yahagi as flagship of the destroyer screen accompanying Yamato on her fateful last mission as part of Operation Ten-Go. He ended the war at Kawatana training Japanese sailors to operate Shinyo suicide boats, where he witnessed first hand the effects of the second atomic bombing.

During the war Captain Hara participated in thirteen major actions:
- air raid against American naval base at Davao on Mindanao (Philippines), 8 December 1941, escorting aircraft carrier "Ryujo"; a complete fiasco, as no American ships were found (on "Amatsukaze")
- invasion of Davao on 20 December 1941, an easy Japanese victory, as the base was already almost completely evacuated (on "Amatsukaze")
- the invasion of Ambon Island, 30 January-3 February 1942, a Japanese victory (on "Amatsukaze")
- the first battle of Java Sea, 27–28 February 1942, a great Japanese victory (on "Amatsukaze")
- the invasion of Christmas Island, 31 March 1942, an easy Japanese victory as British garrison surrendered without resistance (on "Amatsukaze")
- the battle of Eastern Solomons, 24–25 August 1942, a serious Japanese defeat (on "Amatsukaze")
- the battle of Santa Cruz, 26 October 1942, a dearly paid Japanese victory (on "Amatsukaze")
- the first night battle of Guadalcanal, 13 November 1942, a Japanese tactical victory but paradoxally also a very serious strategic defeat (on "Amatsukaze")
- the battle of Vella Gulf, 6–7 August 1943, a crushing Japanese defeat (on "Shigure")
- the battle of Horaniu, 17 August 1943, a draw (on "Shigure")
- the battle of Vella Lavella, 6 October 1943, the last Japanese naval victory of the war (on "Shigure")
- the battle of Empress Augusta Bay, 1–2 November 1943, a heavy Japanese defeat (on "Shigure")
- operation Ten-Go, 7 April 1945, a crushing Japanese defeat (on "Yahagi")

List of Victories:[9]

USS Perch: A US submarine Hara's destroyer Amatsukaze damaged, and which was soon sunk by other Japanese destroyers. 2 March 1942, Java Sea.

USS Barton: A US destroyer Amatsukaze sank with a torpedo attack during the Battle of Guadalcanal, 12 November 1942.

USS Juneau: US Light Cruiser damaged by a torpedo from Amatsukaze, and sunk the next day by Japanese submarine I-26 as Juneau limped back to base. Battle of Guadalcanal, 13 November 1942.

USS Selfridge: US destroyer severely damaged and put our of action for six months by torpedoes fired by destroyers Amatsukaze and Samidare under Hara's command. Battle of Vella LaVella, 6–7 October 1943.

Approximately 10 US, British, and Australian aircraft shot down by destroyer Shigure and Light Cruiser Yahagi under Hara's command, though not all of these claims are verified by Allied sources.

Later life and memoirs[edit]

Postwar Hara commanded merchant ships which transported salt. Hara was the only IJN destroyer captain at the start of World War II who survived the war. This left him the sole surviving witness to several important meetings and conferences which he recounted in his memoirs. Hara's memoirs were translated into English and French and became an important reference for the Japanese perspective for historians writing about the Pacific Campaign of World War II. In his memoir, Hara objects to compulsory suicide as official doctrine, which he saw as a violation of bushido values. His personal doctrines demonstrate why he survived the war and the Japanese lost it —- they were inflexible, and he was not. His doctrines were "Never ever do the same thing twice" and "If he hits you high, then hit him low; if he hits you low, then hit him high," the latter was also a maxim of Douglas MacArthur's. Hara criticizes his superiors for using cavalry tactics to fight naval battles; never understanding the implications of air power; dividing their forces in the face of enemy forces of unknown strength; basing tactics on what they thought their enemy would do; failing to appreciate the speed with which the enemy could develop new weapons and accepting a war of attrition with a foe more capable of maintaining it.

Personal life[edit]

Hara had three children with his wife Chizu: two daughters Keiko and Yoko, and a son, Mikito, who was born shortly before the start of hostilities. Unlike the more than 400 sailors on the ship under Hara's command which sank after being bombed, he and all of his family survived the war.[10]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hara, Taeichi (1967). Japanese Destroyer Captain. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-59114-354-3. 
  2. ^ Hara, pp. 69-83
  3. ^ Hara, p.
  4. ^ Hara, pp. 140-144
  5. ^ Hara, p. 171
  6. ^ D'Albas, Andrieu (1965). Death of a Navy: Japanese Naval Action in World War II. Devin-Adair Pub. ISBN 0-8159-5302-X. 
  7. ^ Hara, p. 144
  8. ^ Hara, p. 251
  9. ^ Japanese Destroyer Captain, Captain Tameichi Hara, Ballatine Books, 1961.
  10. ^ Hara, Foreword

References[edit]

External links[edit]