Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited
|Government-owned corporation (BSE, NSE)|
|Industry||Bagasse-based paper mill|
|Headquarters||Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India|
|₹ 1025.68 Crore in 2009-10|
|Owner||Government of Tamil Nadu|
|Parent||Department of Industries (Tamil Nadu)|
The Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited (TNPL) was established by the Government of Tamil Nadu to produce newsprint and writing paper using bagasse, a sugarcane residue. The Government of Tamil Nadu listed the paper mill in April 1979 as one of the most environmentally compliant paper mills in the world under the provisions of the Companies Act of 1956. The factory is situated at Kagithapuram in the Karur District of Tamil Nadu. The registered office of the company is located in Guindy, Chennai.
- 1 History
- 2 Technology / process
- 3 Quality standards
- 4 Environment Protection Measures
- 5 Forestry research and development
- 6 Energy management policy
- 7 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in TNPL
- 8 TNPL’s products
- 9 Export network
- 10 Awards and accolades
- 10.1 Environmental Strategy of the Year Award
- 10.2 Green Business Leadership Award
- 10.3 The Energy & Resources Institute (TERI) Corporate Award
- 10.4 Excellence in Corporate Governance
- 10.5 Best Paper Mill 2001–02 and 2007–08
- 10.6 Certificate of Excellence
- 10.7 Environment protection
- 10.8 Export award (by Ministry of Commerce, Govt of India)
- 10.9 Rating by CRISIL and ICRA
- 10.10 Safety award
- 10.11 Energy award
- 10.12 Best Corporate Citizen
- 11 Criticism / controversy
- 12 Trivia
- 13 TNPL cement business
- 14 TNPL electricity business
- 15 TNPL tissue paper business
- 16 TNPL Drinking Plant
- 17 TNPL privatisation and shareholding
- 18 TNPL Management
- 19 References
- 20 External links
The Company commenced production in the year 1984 with an initial capacity of 90,000 tonnes per annum. TNPL has started the commercial production of newsprint on its new Paper Machine No. 2 from January 1996. The machine was supplied jointly by Voith Sulzer Paper Technology and its licensee in India, Larsen and Toubro Limited and has opened up new vistas for newsprint making. The machine is designed to run with 100% bagasse. Over the years, the production capacity has been increased to 2,45,000 tonnes per annum and the Company has emerged as the Largest bagasse based Paper Mill in the world consuming about one million tonnes of bagasse every year. The Company is in the process of implementing the Mill Expansion Plan for increasing the capacity to 4,00,000 tonnes per annum from July 2010.
Technology / process
TNPL has ventured with nearby sugar mills such as Sakthi Sugar Mills for continued supply of Bagasse for the Paper mill where Steam will be provided to the sugar mill in exchange of bagasse.
|Technology / process|
TNPL has obtained the ISO 9001 - 2000 certification from RWTUV of Germany for development, manufacture and supply of Newsprint and Printing & Writing Paper. TNPL uses automated process control facilities for various process till final packing and despatch. It is implemented by The Online Integrated Information System (OIIS) a mini ERP package developed by CMC Ltd for integrated flow of information from all the sections of the company covering production, materials, finance, marketing etc. The TNPL using Enterprise resource planning (ERP) business management software to integrate all facets of an operation, including product planning, development, manufacturing, sales, marketing etc., (from 2012 itself).
TNPL’s in-house Research and Development facility is recognized by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) New Delhi. The R&D department has sophisticated state-of-the art instruments and equipments. TNPL has recorded Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI) of about 7.01 to 7.50.
Environment Protection Measures
TNPL is accredited with ISO14001:2004 certification for an effective environmental management system. By using bagasse as primary raw material, TNPL preserves over ‘’40000 acres of forest land from depletion every year’’.
TNPL Effluent Water Lift Irrigation Society (TEWLIS)
Under the TNPL Effluent Water Lift Irrigation Scheme, the farmers will be provided treated effluent water for irrigation purpose. TNPL uses a state-of-the-art sludge treatment system for treatment of Effluent water. The treated effluent water is used to irrigate about 1,250-acre (5.1 km2) of dry land with about 250 farmers who belong to the TNPL Effluent Water Lift Irrigation Society. TNPL’s effluents have to comply with the norms set by the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board.
TNPL Plantation Programme
As per the National Forest Policy, 1988, forest based Industries should raise the raw material needed for meeting their own requirements. In accordance with the law, TNPL has embarked upon development of a plantation in the year 2004-05 and launched two plantation schemes, namely Farm Forestry and Captive Plantation.
Under the farm forestry scheme, the Company motivates and facilitates the marginal and small farmer to take up pulpwood plantation. The salient features of the Scheme are a supply of quality planting material at subsidized cost, arranging credit facilities for the needy people through banks, providing timely technical advice through a team of qualified professionals, and buy back arrangement with minimum support prices or prevailing market rate at the time of felling, whichever is higher, and harvesting and transport of pulpwood from the farmer’s field to Factory at company’s cost.
In the captive plantation scheme, Captive plantations are raised in the lands belonging to the Company, Government Departments, and Educational institutions and in the large land-holding individuals on a revenue sharing basis or on a lease rental basis. The minimum criteria for captive plantation is that the land should be a block of 25 acres (100,000 m2) & above in a single location whereas less than25 acres (100,000 m2) is also considered only in the case of adjoining lands of existing captive plantations, provided the adjoining areas should be contiguous to the existing plantation. TNPL enters into a MoU with the owners of such lands for raising a Captive Plantation and undertaking the responsibility of land development, establishment of plantations, maintenance of plantation and harvesting the pulpwood at TNPL’s expense. The land would be taken either on long term lease spanning over a period of 6 to 30 years lease or on a gross revenue sharing basis. In the revenue sharing pattern, if the plantation is raised in a barren land, the produce is shared between TNPL and the landowner on a 70:30 basis and in case of wet lands, the revenue sharing pattern is 60:40. In the case of lease mode, the lease rent for a barren land is Rs.1000/- per acre, whereas for an irrigated land it is Rs.3000/- per acre every year paid to landowner and the entire product is taken by TNPL.
In the last five years of operation (2004-05 to 2008-09), TNPL has raised plantation in 37,556 acres (151.98 km2) involving 8235 farmers in twenty eight districts in Tamil Nadu under the Farm Forestry scheme and 2,735 acres (11.07 km2) under the Captive Plantation Scheme. In all, TNPL has established pulpwood plantations in about 40291 acres (as on 31 March 2009).
Clonal Propagation and Research Centre (CPRC)
To cater to the need for a huge amount of planting material to the tune of 15 million plants to cover 15,000 acres (61 km2) every year, TNPL established a state-of-the-art clonal propagation and research centre (CPRC) to achieve self-sufficiency in planting material and production of quality clonal/ seedling plants with a capacity of 15 million plants per annum. The clonal production centre was started with a mini clonal hedge garden of 4000 sq.m, a mist chamber of 8000 sq.m, 5300 sq.m of hardening chamber and 20000 sq.m of open nursery with updated technological innovations as per international standards. The clonal production center was established at an outlay of about 500 lakhs. This is considered to be a milestone in the plantation activities and assures quality planting material availability throughout the year The above plantation schemes are being implemented throughout Tamil Nadu through 10 regional offices in Karur, Manaparai, Tirunelveli, Karaikudi, Pudukottai, Namakkal, Trichy, Tanjore, Jayangondam and Panruti providing advice and technical assistance to tree growers.
Forestry research and development
TNPL has partnered with the NAIP-ICAR sponsored project titled "A value chain on industrial Agro-forestry in Tamil Nadu" for Promotion of tree husbandry with improved short rotation clones/genotypes through contract farming. Forest College & Research Institute (FC & RI), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Mettupalayam is the Consortium Leader of this project. This project is being implemented for raising 500 acres (2.0 km2) of cluster plantation in 10 Taluks covering 5 Districts in Tamil Nadu.
Solid waste management
- Fly ash generated at the power boilers is being sold to the cement plants
- Effluent sludge is being sold to the Board manufacturing units
- Lime sludge generated is being recycled in the Lime Kiln
TNPL has obtained the prestigious ISO 14001 Certification from RMTUV, Germany for "Successfully establishing and applying environmental management system for development, manufacture and supply of paper". This certification duly acknowledges TNPL’s commitment for environment protection and sustained efforts to minimise the overall environmental impact.
- TNPL has commissioned the Bio-methanation plant, which generates around 23000 m3 of biogas (methane) per day, to be used as fuel in the lime-kiln in replacement of furnace oil. The biogas e replaces around 10-12 KL of furnace oil per day in the lime-kiln. During the year 2003-04, the bio- methanation plant generated 41.45 lakh m3 of methane gas and replaced the use of furnace oil worth Rs.2.48 crores
- TNPL obtained the 3 Leaves Award under the Green Rating project of the Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi during October 2004, in recognition of the Environment Management System.
Energy management policy
TNPL has installed its own power generating facility to make it 100% self-sufficient through the installation of 61.18 MW Power Generating equipments (TG Sets) installed at the paper mill site. The surplus power generated is being exported to the State Grid. TNPL also generates green power through the 18 MW wind farm installed at Devarkulam and Perungudi of Tirunelveli district. The entire power generated at the wind farm is being exported to the State Grid. The wind farm capacity has been enhanced to 21.75 MW in March 2004 by installing 3 wind turbine generators of 1250 kW capacity each. It has installed a Bio-methanation plant to generate methane gas from the effluent water (bagasse wash water) and use it as fuel as substitute for furnace oil in the lime kiln saving 10 KL of furnace oil every day. During the year 2004-05 TNPL generated 34.12 lakh m3 methane gas from its bio-methanation plant and used the same in lime-kiln replacing 1886 KL of furnace oil valuing Rs. 2.02 Crores. The confederation of Indian Industry has recognised the bio-methanation project implemented by TNPL as an Innovative Project. This project contributes to sustainable development in terms of generating in-house renewable energy and reducing green house gases.
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in TNPL
Registered CDM project
- Methane Extraction and fuel conservation Project
- 6.75 MW Small Scale Grid Connected Wind Electricity Generation Project
Methane extraction and fuel conservation project
TNPL commissioned a special kind of reactor concept for the "high rate" anaerobic treatment of wastewater called the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor which uses anaerobic granular sludge bed technology. The most common Bagasse Wash Water (BWW) treatment system used in India consists of a pond or a lagoon treatment system, which undergoes anaerobic digestion that releases a significant amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere. In addition, the project also involves a system for utilization of extracted biogas which gained CDM benefits for the project from the closed reactor as fuel in a lime kiln, which had been using furnace oil (fossil fuel). Installation of a closed reactor by TNPL for anaerobic digestion of BWW will have many environmental and sustainable development benefits.
- Replacement of the current wastewater treatment system by a closed anaerobic digester will mitigate large quantities of CH4, a potent GHG, from being emitted into the atmosphere.
- Controlled environment in which the BWW is treated will reduce strong odours being emitted from theputrescible and degradable components of BWW.
- By recovering the resulting biogas in the form of CH4 and using it as a renewable in-house fuel for heating equipment, the project activity will contribute to the development of renewable sources as per India's Sustainable Development objectives.
- The furnace oil which would be replaced by the biogas has a sulphur content of 3.49%. This would result in the emission of sulphur dioxide (SO2) gas which is responsible for acid rain.
- The use of domestically available biogas as an energy resource helps conserve foreign exchange, apart from creating local rural employment opportunities, by reducing the need to import fossil fuels to meet the country's growing energy requirements.
- Furnace oil saving will reduce the associated CO2 (GHG) emissions.
By registering with UNFCCC for CDM benefit, TNPL became the first paper mill in the country that has registered a CDM project with the UNFCC in waste management.
6.75 MW Small Scale Grid Connected Wind Electricity Generation Project
TNPL has gained CDM benefits by generating green energy through renewable wind energy. The project activity involves the installation, operation and maintenance of seven grid connected wind electricity generators (WEG) owned by the project proponent, TNPL. The electricity generated from the seven WEGs will be exported to the Tamil Nadu state electricity board (TNEB) grid. The seven WEGs have been installed in two phases. The first phase involved installation of four NEG Micon 750 kW WEGs and the second phase involved the erection of three Suzlon Energy WEGs of 1.25 MW. All seven WEGs have been installed in the Thirunelveli district, in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
On 30 March 2001, TNPL commenced operations for the first phase of the project with the installation of the four 750 kW WEGs. The second phase of the project has commenced operations in March 2004. All 7 machines supply and sell power to the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB)grid.
By displacing the electricity from fossil fuel based electricity generating systems, average estimated GHG reduction from the project activity is expected to be 14431 tons CO2 per year.
Savings from CDM projects
|S.No||Title of the project Implemented||Year of Implementation||Total CO2 reduction (MT)||Total Annual Saving (Rs Million)|
|Registered CDM project I: Methane Extraction and fuel conservation Project||
|Registered CDM Project II: 6.75 MW Small Scale Grid Connected Wind Electricity Generation Project||
|CDM project III under validation: "Energy Efficiency Improvement in Recovery boiler."||
|CDM project IV under validation: 13.75 MW – Grid connected wind electricity generation project at Devarkulam by TNPL.||
|CDM project V under validation is : Methane extraction and utilization as fuel Biogas - II||
The paper produced by TNPL is eco- friendly as the pulp is manufactured out of renewable raw material and is subjected to Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) bleaching. As the paper is acid free, it has a longer colour stability and enhanced permanency in terms of strength characteristics. TNPL caters to the requirements of multifunctional printing processes like sheet-fed, web offset, and digital printers. The paper reels have uniform profile with strength properties to cope even with high speed machines. TNPL manufactures Printing and Writing Papers in substances ranging from 50 GSM to 90 GSM. Newsprint is normally manufactured in 49 Gsm reels and directly sold by the company to the various newspaper establishments such as The Hindu, Malayala Manorama, Ananda Bazaar Patrika and so on. Printing & Writing paper (PWP) is manufactured in reel and sheet forms with the Gsm (Grams per square meter – basis weight of the paper) varying from 50 to 80. Various sizes of reels and sheets are also cut to suit the customer requirements. Some of the major end-use segments of PWP are printing applications, note books, computer stationery, office stationery, etc.
- TNPL Ultra White Maplitho
- Radiant Printing
- Hardbound Notebook
- TNPL Offset Printing
- Cream wove
- Copy Crown
- TNPL Copier
- Students' Favorites
- Super Print Maplitho
- Perfect Copier
- Ace Marvel
TNPL is also exporting about 18% of the PWP production to 20 countries around the World.
- Sri Lanka
- South Africa
Symbolic of TNPL’s commitment to the environment, the ‘’’World Wide Fund for nature (WWF)’’’ has entered into a pact with TNPL to use the ‘’Panda’’ logo in TNPL’s branded products.
Awards and accolades
Environmental Strategy of the Year Award
TNPL won the Environmental Strategy award for the year 2011 at the PPI Annual Awards ceremony at Brussels.
Green Business Leadership Award
In recognition of its environmental conservation initiatives, the Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited (TNPL) has been awarded the Green Business Leadership Award in the Pulp and Paper Sector for the year 2009-2010.
The TNPL Managing Director, T.K. Ramachandran, received the award from the Union Minister for New and Renewable Energy, Farooq Abdullah, in the presence of TERI Chairman and eminent environmentalist R.K. Pachauri in New Delhi recently. The TNPL was adjudged the best performer at the national level in the Pulp and Paper category in EVI Green Business Survey conducted by The Financial Express and Emergent Ventures India, an integrated climate change company with the Indian School of Business, Hyderabad as the knowledge partner.
The Energy & Resources Institute (TERI) Corporate Award
TNPL has been awarded second prize in the prestigious "TERI Corporate Environmental Award 2008" at 7th TERI Corporate Awards Ceremony : 31 May 2008, New Delhi in recognition of its various initiatives taken in Corporate Environment Management
Excellence in Corporate Governance
The Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI), New Delhi has conferred on TNPL, the "ICSI National Award of Excellence in Corporate Governance" for the year 2004 in the Public Sector category . This is the first time such a prestigious award in Corporate Governance has been given to a State Public Sector Undertaking. So far, in the last two years, only major Central Public Sector Undertakings, viz. ONGC and IBP got the award.
Best Paper Mill 2001–02 and 2007–08
TNPL has been given the prestigious award Paper Mill of the year 2001-2002 & 2007-08 for TNPL’s overall performance, approaches for meeting social obligations, ensuring global competitiveness, sustainable development & technology options by the Indian Paper Manufacturers’ Association, New Delhi.
Certificate of Excellence
TNPL won the Certificate of Excellence in Productivity, Quality, Innovation and Management from the "Institute of Economic Studies", New Delhi.
Need to take more attention for environmental protection. However near outside people are getting heavy noise due to the new plant. Requested to them to take necessary action to keep the outside people environment safely. Recognising TNPL’s concern for the environment, the Rotary Club of Chennai (East) and Earth Care bestowed the "Dr M.S. Swaminathan Award for Environment Protection 2002" on TNPL.
Export award (by Ministry of Commerce, Govt of India)
TNPL has secured the CAPEXIL "SPECIAL EXPORT AWARD" for eight consecutive years for its outstanding export performance during the year 2003-04. The Government of India has given "TRADING HOUSE" status to TNPL recognising the export performance. TNPL has been bestowed the " Niryat Shree Award" by Federation of Indian Export Organisation (FIEO) for the high degree of excellence it has demonstrated in exports.
Rating by CRISIL and ICRA
Credit Rating Information Services of India Ltd (CRISIL) has reaffirmed the rating of "FAA+" for TNPL’s Fixed Deposit Program, indicating the high degree of safety. ICRA Ltd has reaffirmed the highest rating of "A1+" for TNPL’s Commercial Paper program.
TNPL was awarded the commendation award on "CII Leadership & Excellence in Safety, Healthy & Environment (SH&E) year 2002" during the month of February 2003.
TNPL won the National Energy Conservation Award for the year 2001 from Government of India, in recognition of its outstanding achievement in energy management.
Best Corporate Citizen
Loyola Institute of Business Administration (LIBA) Chennai has adjudged TNPL as the " Best Corporate Citizen 1999" and bestowed the Mother Theresa Award by recognising its
- Outstanding social commitment
- Exploring eco-friendly technology
- Professional Management
- Customer friendly and community caring enterprise.
Criticism / controversy
On 14 September 2009, General Farmers’ Association of Pugalur, the Pugalur Consumer Protection Council and the Pugalur Channel Aycutdars’ Association have alleged that the TNPL had released the effluents "on a large scale" into the channel. The "excessive" discharge resorted to by the TNPL on that day has caused consternation among the public in the area who "are afraid of the ill effects of the effluents" that flowed down the channel.
- Punjai Thottakurichi
- Punjai Kadambankurichi
- Nanniyur Pudur
Vangal areas in Karur district. On the other side of the TNPL paper mill, areas such as
have also been affected due to the pollution caused by the TNPL. Moreover, the agricultural lands in the Karur District is well affected. The area around the Paper mill is seems to have some bad smell.
Reacting to the claims, the TNPL has claimed that no water or effluent was being let into the Pugalur Channel as alleged. TNPL Managing Director Mohammed Nasimuddin informed that "The TNPL has implemented a Mill Development Plan at a capital outlay of Rs. 600 crore mainly for incorporating various environmental improvement measures such as switching over to Elemental Chlorine Free Bleaching and reduction in water consumption. In this system the use of chlorine is totally eliminated and the bleaching is carried out only by chlorine dioxide"
- First CDM project in world in Pulp and Paper industry
- First CDM project in India in the Waste Management Sector registered with UNFCCC
- Largest Bagasse based Paper Mill in the world consuming about one million tones of bagasse every year
- The only paper mill in India assisted by the World Bank
- By using bagasse as primary raw material, TNPL preserves over 40,000 acres (160 km2) of forest land from depletion every year
- TNPL has installed Tallest Chemical Recovery Boiler of large capacity in India
TNPL cement business
TNPL has started its new 600 TPD Cement Plant production in January 2013 at a cost of Rs 100 crore. It will supply under the brand "TNPL Cement Ltd"
TNPL electricity business
TNPL has captive power plant of 103.63 MW capacity
TNPL tissue paper business
TNPL will commence its new 100 TPD Tissue Paper Plant production at a cost of Rs 200 crore..
TNPL Drinking Plant
TNPL will set up a drinking plant with a capacity of 300 TPD at an investment of Rs 175 crore
- In the wake of new policies of Government of India such as Liberalization, Globalization and Privatization the Government of Tamil Nadu had started to implement Liberalization, Globalization and Privatization scheme in TNPL.
- As the first step towards Liberalization, Globalization and Privatization Government of Tamil Nadu listed TNPL shares in following organizations
- TNPL became a share market listed company from the year 1997.
- Presently Government of Tamil Nadu holds 35.32% (Out of 100%) of Equity shares in TNPL as of 31.3.2012 as per 
- Government of Tamil Nadu declared TNPL as "Other Companies" List from previous "Government of Tamil Nadu's Public Sector Undertakings" List after the year 1997
- Dr. N Sundaradevan, IAS - Chairman
- Thiru. Md. Nasimuddin, I.A.S - Managing Director from 31.5.2012
- Thiru. A. Velliangiri - Deputy Managing Director
- Thiru. S.Krishnan, I.A.S - Director
- Thiru. N Mathivanan, I.A.S - Director
- Thiru. V. Narayanan - Director
- Thiru. M.R. Kumar - Director
- Thiru. N. Kumaravelu - Director
The Above details as per tnpl.com
- TNPL's Press Release (20 May 2010). "Total Revenue_Press Release" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Limited (TNPL). "TNPL's Official Website". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Govt of Tamil Nadu's Official Website indicating TNPL (TNPL). "Govt of Tamil Nadu Subsidy". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Voith Sulzer Paper Technology. "Voith Paper Media Release (Refer Page.No14)" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Financial Express (8 June 2002). "TNPL: Turning Over A New Leaf". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- RWTÜV Official Site. "RWTÜV, "TÜV" technical inspection organization". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Business Line, The Hindu. "Farm forestry programme & Contract farming". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- The Hindu (5 February 2010) (5 February 2010). "TNPL harvests benefits". Chennai, India. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- The Hindu (28 January 2008) (28 January 2008). "New clonal research centre inaugurated". Chennai, India. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- National Agricultural Innovation Project, ICAR. "Value Chain on Industrial Agroforestry in Tamil Nadu" (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- TNPL awarded Three Green Leaves by Centre for Science and Environment (1 Jan 2009). "Green Rating Programme". Retrieved 6 July 2010.
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). "CDM Benefits for Methane Extraction and Fuel Conservation". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Economic Times (18 August 2006) (18 August 2006). "TNPL into carbon trading". The Times Of India. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Business Line (21 January 2006). "TNPL becomes eligible to trade carbon credits". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). "CDM Benefits for 6.5 MW project". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Business Line. "TNPL to expand wind farm capacity". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). "Energy Efficiency Improvement at TNPL". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). "13.75 MW Grid connected Wind Electricity generation Project by TNPL". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- The Hindu (9 June 2010). "Conservation initiatives earn green award for TNPL". Chennai, India. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- The Energy & Resources Institute Corporate Awards (31 May 2008). "7th TERI Corporate Awards". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Indian Paper Manufacturers’ Association Awards. "IPMA Awards 2007-08". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- ICRA Limited (Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India Limited). "ICRA Credit Rating for TNPL" (PDF). Retrieved 5 July 2010.[dead link]
- The Hindu (18 September 2009) (18 September 2009). "Farmers allege pollution of Pugalur channel". Chennai, India. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
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