Madras Legislative Assembly election, 1962
The third legislative assembly election to the Madras state (presently Tamil Nadu) was held on 21 February 1962. The Indian National Congress party, led by K. Kamaraj, won the election. This was the last time that Congress won an election in Tamil Nadu. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam made significant inroads in the election and emerged as the second party for the first time by winning 50 seats.
Two member constituencies were abolished in 1961 by the Two-Member Constituencies(Abolition) Act, 1961. 38 two member constituencies were abolished and an equal number of single member constituencies were established and reserved for Scheduled Caste and Scheulde Tribe candidates. The total number of constituencies remained at 206.
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam was emerging as a major challenger to Indian National Congress party in Tamil Nadu. However, its popularity was limited to the urban areas surrounding Madras and North and South Arcot districts. It had no major support base in rural central and southern Tamil Nadu, a strong base of the Congress party. It won three city elections of the five largest cities, Madras, Madurai, Tiruchirappalli, Salem and Coimbatore in Madras state in alliance with the Communist Party of India in 1959 capitalising on its powerful urban base.
In the first two years following the 1957 elections, there was a growing dissatisfaction with C. N. Annadurai within the ranks of his party. While trying to clarify DMK's position on "North Indian domination", Annadurai said his party only meant that the existing Central Government was holding extraordinary powers over the States and his party only seeks to change this by "amendment of the Constitution through Constitutional methods'. Infuriated by the softening of DMK's position, E. V. K. Sampath condemned what he called Annadurai's "dictatorship".
Parties and issues
I am old. I may not live long. After I am gone, Kamaraj will safeguard the interest of the Tamils. He is my heir. Ultimately it is Kamaraj who counts-not others, candidates or even voters who are anyway unfit to judge what is right and good for them! Take my word, vote Congress and you will be well. If you dont, the ingenious Rajaji riding the DMK horse will trample you all without mercy.
Similar to the 1957 election, when Periyar began his criticism of Brahmans, Kamaraj was impelled to disclaim any association
Kamaraj fully made use of the popularity of E. V. Ramaswamy and identified himself with Tamil Nationalist aspirations. On February 1962, he introduced a bill Changing the name of Madras to Tamil Nadu for communications within the state and advocated to establish Madurai as the capital city of Madras.
As the 1962 election approached, the two wings of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam further polarised over the issue of electoral alliance. E. V. K. Sampath favoured alliance with Communist Party of India and Annadurai favoured alliance with the newly formed C. Rajagopalachari's Swatantra Party. Rajaji, the Chief Minister of Madras State between 1952 and 1954 had been a declared enemy of DMK and now he sought alliance with DMK. He said that the
Congress party is more communal than parties which are openly communal.
In 1961, Sampath left DMK to form his own party Tamil Nationalist Party with an objective and goal to establish an "autonomous Tamil State". Annadurai's idea to include Swatantra Party in the electoral alliance was not totally welcome in the DMK party and despite Rajaji's opposition DMK aligned with the Communist Party of India. It also formed coalition with Muthuramalinga Thevar's Forward Bloc and Mohammad Ismail's Muslim League.
Support from Tamil film industry
M. G. Ramachandran actively campaigned for Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. S. S. Rajendran, one of the popular actors contested and won from Theni Constituency. Shivaji Ganesan extended his support to Tamil Nationalist Party though he also warned artists to keep away from politics. Congress party made a movie Vakkurimai by popular film actors which was played all across Tamil Nadu.
Voting and results
Source: Election Commission of India
|Alliances||Party||Popular Vote||Vote %||Seats contested||Seats won||Change|
Seat Change: -12
Popular Vote: 5,848,974
Popular Vote %: 46.14%
|Indian National Congress||5,848,974||46.14%||206||139||-12|
Seat Change: +25
Popular Vote: 6,827,372
Popular Vote %: 53.86%
|Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||3,435,633||27.10%||143||50||+37|
|Communist Party of India||978,806||7.72%||68||2||-2|
|Praja Socialist Party||159,212||1.26%||21||0||-2|
|Indian Union Muslim League||89,968||0.71%||6||0||–|
|Tamil National Party||44,048||0.35%||9||0||–|
|Total||13 Political Parties||12,676,346||100%||—||206||—|
|K. Kamaraj||Chief Minister, Public, Planning and Development (including Local development Works, Women's Welfare, Community Projects and Rural Welfare), National Extension Scheme|
|M. Bhaktavatsalam||Finance and Education|
|Jothi Venkatachalam||Public Health, Women & Children's Welfare|
|S. M. Abdul Majeed||Local Administration|
|V. Ramaiah||Public Works and Revenue|
|N. Nallasenapathi Sarkarai Mandradiar||Cooperation and Forests|
|G. Bhuvaraghan||Publicity and Information|
List of elected members
|*||Elected as Chief Minister of Madras State|
- "The State Legislature - Origin and Evolution". Tamil Nadu Government. Retrieved 27 November 2009.
- Robert L. Hardgrave, Jr. (1964–1965). "The DMK and the Politics of Tamil Nationalism". Pacific Affairs 37 (4): 396–411. doi:10.2307/2755132. JSTOR 2755132.
- The Hindu 19 February 1962
- Lloyd I. Rudolph (May 1961). "Urban Life and Populist Radicalism: Dravidian Politics in Madras". The Journal of Asian Studies 20 (3): 283–297. doi:10.2307/2050816. JSTOR 2050816.
- 1962 Madras State Election Results, Election Commission of India accessed April 19, 2009
- Kandaswamy. P (2008). The political Career of K. Kamaraj. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 62–64.
- The Madras Legislative Assembly, Third Assembly I Session
- The Madras Legislative Assembly, Third Assembly II Session