The iconic globular statue of AVM Productions, the oldest surviving studio in India
|No. of screens||1571 (Tamil Nadu) and (Pondicherry)|
|Main distributors||AGS Entertainment|
Thenandal Studio Limited
Red Giant Movies
|Produced feature films (2017)|
|Gross box office (2013)|
|National films||India: ₹1,550 crore (US$220 million)|
Tamil cinema is the Indian filmmaking industry of Tamil-language motion pictures. It is based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, in the Kodambakkam neighbourhood, leading to the industry's nickname Kollywood, the word being a portmanteau of Kodambakkam and Hollywood.
The first Tamil silent film, Keechaka Vadham, was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1918. The first talking motion picture, Kalidas, was a multilingual (Where the hero spoke in Telugu, heroine spoke in Tamil and the other actors spoke either in Telugu or Hindi) in Telugu and Tamil directed by Telugu Director H M Reddy and was released on 31 October 1931, less than seven months after India's first talking motion picture Alam Ara. By the end of the 1930s, the legislature of the State of Madras passed the Entertainment Tax Act of 1939.
Tamil cinema later had a profound effect on other filmmaking industries of India, establishing Madras (now Chennai) as a secondary hub for Hindi cinema, other South Indian film industries, as well as Sri Lankan cinema. Over the last quarter of the 20th century, Tamil films from India established a global presence through distribution to an increasing number of overseas theatres in Singapore, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Japan, the Middle East, parts of Africa, Oceania, Europe, North America and other countries. The industry also inspired independent filmmaking in Sri Lanka and Tamil diaspora populations in Malaysia, Singapore, and the Western Hemisphere.
Life in Tamil Nadu
In 1897, M. Edwards first screened a selection of silent short films at the Victoria Public Hall in Madras. The films all featured non-fictional subjects; they were mostly photographed records of day-to-day events. The film scholar Stephen Hughes points out that within a few years there were regular ticketed shows in a hall in Pophams Broadway, started by one Mrs. Klug, but this lasted only for a few months. Once it was demonstrated as a commercial proposition, a Western entrepreneur, Warwick Major, built the first cinema theatre, the Electric Theatre, which still stands. It was a favourite haunt of the British community in Madras. The theatre was shut down after a few years. This building is now part of a post office complex on Anna Salai (Mount Road). The Lyric Theatre was also built in the Mount Road area. This venue boasted a variety of events, including plays in English, Western classical music concerts, and ballroom dances. Silent films were also screened as an additional attraction. Swamikannu Vincent, a railway draftsman from Tiruchirapalli, became a travelling exhibitor in 1905. He showed short movies in a tent in Esplanade, near the present Parry's Corner, using carbide jet-burners for projection. He bought the film projector and silent films from the Frenchman Du Pont and set up a business as film exhibitor. Soon, he tied up with Path, a well-known pioneering film-producing company, and imported projectors. This helped new cinema houses to sprout across the presidency. In later years, he produced talkies and also built a cinema in Coimbatore.
To celebrate the event of King George V's visit in 1909, a grand exhibition was organised in Madras. Its major attraction was the screening of short films accompanied by sound. A British company imported a Crone megaphone, made up of a film projector to which a gramophone with a disc containing prerecorded sound was linked, and both were run in unison, producing picture and sound simultaneously. However, there was no synched dialogue. Raghupathy Venkiah Naidu, a successful photographer, took over the equipment after the exhibition and set up a tent cinema near the Madras High Court. With this equipment, he screened the short films Pearl Fish and Raja's Casket in the Victoria Public Hall. When this proved successful, he screened the films in a tent set up in Esplanade. These tent events were the true precursors of the cinema shows. Venkiah travelled with this unit to Burma (now Myanmar) and Sri Lanka, and when he had gathered enough money, he put up a permanent cinema house in Madras—Gaiety, in 1914, the first cinema house in Madras to be built by an Indian. He soon added two more, Crown Theatre in Mint and Globe (later called Roxy) in Purasawalkam.
Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films. The first of its kind was established in Madras, called "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone". This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors.
Most of the films screened then were shorts made in the United States and Britain. In 1909, an Englishman, T. H. Huffton, founded Peninsular Film Services in Madras and produced some short films for local audiences. But soon, hour-long films, which narrated dramatic stories, then known as "drama films", were imported. From 1912 onwards, feature films made in Bombay (now Mumbai) were also screened in Madras. The era of short films had ended. The arrival of drama films firmly established cinema as a popular entertainment form. More cinema houses came up in the city.
Fascinated by this new entertainment form, an automobile dealer in the Thousand Lights area of Madras, R. Nataraja Mudaliyar, decided to venture into film production. After a few days' training in Pune with the cinematographer Stewart Smith, the official cinematographer of Lord Curzon's 1903 Durbar, he started a film production concern in 1916.
The man who truly laid the foundations of south Indian cinema was A. Narayanan. After a few years in film distribution, he set up a production company in Madras, the General Pictures Corporation, popularly known as GPC. Beginning with The Faithful Wife/Dharmapathini (1929), GPC made about 24 feature films. GPC functioned as a film school and its alumni included names such as Sundara Rao Nadkarni and Jiten Banerji. The studio of GPC was housed in the Chellapalli bungalow on Thiruvottiyur High Road in Madras. This company, which produced the most number of Tamil silent films, had branches in Colombo, Rangoon and Singapore.
The Ways of Vishnu/Vishnu Leela, which R. Prakasa made in 1932, was the last silent film produced in Madras. Unfortunately, the silent era of south Indian cinema has not been documented well. When the talkies appeared, film producers had to travel to Bombay or Calcutta to make films. Most films of this early period were celluloid versions of well-known stage plays. Company dramas were popular among the Madras audience. The legendary Otraivadai drama theatre had been built in 1872 itself in Mint. Many drama halls had come up in the city where short silent films were screened in the afternoon and plays were enacted in the night.
The scene changed in 1934 when Madras got its first sound studio. By this time, all the cinema houses in Madras had been wired for sound. Narayanan, who had been active during the silent era, founded Srinivasa Cinetone in which his wife worked as the sound recordist. Srinivasa Kalyanam (1934), directed by Narayanan, was the first sound film (talkie) produced in Madras. The second sound studio to come up in Madras was Vel Pictures, started by M. D. Rajan on Eldams Road in the Dunmore bungalow, which belonged to the Raja of Pithapuram. Before long, more sound studios came up. Thirty-six talkies were made in Madras in 1935.
The main impacts of the early cinema were the cultural influences of the country. The Tamil-language was the medium in which many plays and stories were written since the ages as early as the Cholas. They were highly stylised and nature of the spectacle was one which could attract the people. Along with this, music and dance were one of the main entertainment sources.
There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology, history, fairy tales and so on through song and dance. Whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant, Indian filmmakers made no attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation, an illusion, a fiction. However, they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day-to-day lives in complex ways. By the end of the 1930s, the State of Madras legislature passed the Entertainment Tax Act 1939.
In the year 1916 a studio, the first in south India[dubious ], was set up in Madras at 10 Millers Road, Kilpauk. He called it the India Film Company. Rangavadivelu, an actor from Suguna Vilasa Sabha, a theatre company then, was hired to train the actors. Thirty-five days later, the first feature film made in south India, The Extermination of Keechakan/Keechakavatham, based on an episode from the Mahabharata, was released produced and directed by R. Nataraja, who established the India Film Company Limited (The Destruction of Keechaka).
Despite a century of increasing box office takings, Tamil cinema remains informal and dominated by shell companies, or one-film wonders, born and dead in a matter of months. Nevertheless, there are few exceptions like Modern Theatres, Gemini Studios, AVM and Sri Thenandal Films that survived beyond 100 productions.
Exhibitor strike 2017
In 2017, opposing the dual taxation of GST (28%) and entertainment tax (30%), Tamilnadu Theatre Owners Association announced indefinite closure of all cinemas in the state from 3 July 2017. The strike has been called off and the cinemas will be playing the movies starting Friday 7 July 2017. Government has formed a committee to decide on the existence of state's 30% entertainment tax. It's reported that, per day business loss during the strike was around ₹ 20 crores.
Annual admissions in Chennai multiplexes and single screens averaged 11 million tickets with a standard deviation of ±1 million tickets during 2011–16. The Chennai film industry produced the first nationally distributed film across India in 1948 with Chandralekha. They have one of the widest overseas distribution, with large audience turnout from the Tamil diaspora alongside Hindi films. They are distributed to various parts of Asia, Africa, Western Europe, North America and Oceania.
Many successful Tamil films have been remade by other film industries. It is estimated by the Manorama Yearbook 2000 (a popular almanac) that over 5,000 Tamil films were produced in the 20th century. Tamil films have also been dubbed into other languages, thus reaching a much wider audience. There has been a growing presence of English in dialogue and songs in Chennai films. It is not uncommon to see movies that feature dialogue studded with English words and phrases, or even whole sentences. Some movies are also simultaneously made in two or three languages (either using subtitles or several soundtracks). Chennai's film composers have popularised their highly unique, syncretic style of film music across the world. Quite often, Tamil movies feature Madras Tamil, a colloquial version of Tamil spoken in Chennai.
Tamil film distribution territories
|Territory||Maximum Business (%)||Division|
|NSC||100||6 Northern districts - Cuddalore, Kanchipuram, Tiruvallur, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore and Viluppuram|
|Coimbatore||50||4 Western districts - Coimbatore, Erode, Nilgiris and Tiruppur|
|Chennai||37||1 Northern district - Chennai|
|MR||35||6 Southern districts - Dindigul, Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Sivaganga, Theni and Virudhunagar|
|TT||32||8 Central districts - Ariyalur, Karur, Nagapattinam, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur, Tiruchirappalli and Tiruvarur|
|Salem||28||4 Western districts - Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, Namakkal and Salem|
|TK||13||3 Southern districts - Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari|
|Rest of India||15|
|USA and Canada||119|
|Rest of the world||89|
The rest of India
Keechaka Vadham (1918) was the first silent film made in South India. Kalidas (1931) was the first Tamil talkie film made in 1931. Kalava was the first full-length talkie made entirely in Tamil. Nandanar (1935) was the first film for American film director Ellis R. Dungan. Balayogini released in 1937 was considered to be first children's film of South India. It is estimated by the Manorama Yearbook 2000 (a popular almanac) that over 5,000 Tamil films were produced in the 20th century. Tamil films have also been dubbed into other languages, thus reaching a much wider audience. There has been a growing presence of English in dialogue and songs in Chennai films.
In 1991, Marupakkam directed by K.S. Sethu Madhavan, became the first Tamil film to win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film, the feat was repeated by Kanchivaram in 2007. Tamil films enjoy significant patronage in neighbouring Indian states like Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and New Delhi. In Kerala and Karnataka the films are directly released in Tamil but in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh they are generally dubbed into Telugu where they have a decent market.
Tamil films have enjoyed consistent popularity among populations in South East Asia. Since Chandralekha, Muthu was the second Tamil film to be dubbed into Japanese (as Mutu: Odoru Maharaja) and grossed a record $1.6 million in 1998. In 2010, Enthiran grossed a record $4 million in North America.
Many Tamil-language films have premiered or have been selected as special presentations at various film festivals across the globe, such as Mani Ratnam's Kannathil Muthamittal, Vasanthabalan's Veyyil and Ameer Sultan's Paruthiveeran. Kanchivaram (2009) was selected to be premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival. Tamil films have been a part of films submitted by India for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language on eight occasions, next only to Hindi. Mani Ratnam's Nayakan (1987) was included in Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies list.
Average annual film output in Tamil film industry peaked in 1985. The Tamil film market accounts for approximately 0.1% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of the state of Tamil Nadu. For the purpose of entertainment taxes, returns have to be filed by the exhibitors weekly (usually each Tuesday).
The Government of Tamil Nadu made provisions for an entertainment tax exemption for Tamil films having titles in words from the Tamil-language only. This is in accordance with Government Order 72 passed on 22 July 2006. The first film to be released after the new Order was Unakkum Enakkum. The original title had been Something Something Unakkum Ennakkum, a half-English and a half-Tamil title. In July 2011, strict norms on entertainment tax were passed which stated that films which were given a "U" certificate by the Central Board of Film Certification alone were eligible for tax exemption and those with an "A" certificate could not fit into this category.
There are three major roles in the Tamil film value chain viz producer, distributor and exhibitor. The distributor purchases theatrical distribution rights from the producer for exhibiting the film in a defined territory. The distributor performs enhanced functions such as:
- part-financing of film (in case of minimum guarantee / advance based purchase of film rights)
- localised marketing of film
- selection of exhibition halls
- managing the logistics of physical print distribution
There are three popular approaches to transfer of distribution rights via distribution contracts:
- Minimum Guarantee + Royalty – Here, the producer sells the distribution rights for a defined territory for a minimum lump sum irrespective of the box office performance of the film. Any surplus is shared between the producer and distributor, in a pre-set ratio (typically 1:2) after deducting tax, show rentals, commission, print costs and publicity costs. Effectively, the distributor becomes a financier in the eyes of the market. This is the most common channel available to high budget producers.
- Commission – Here, the distributor pays the producer the entire box office collection after deducting commission. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the producer. This is the most common channel available to low budget producers. By the first decade of 21st century, about 90 per cent of the films were released on commission basis.
- Outright Sale – Here, the producer sells all distribution and theatrical exhibition rights for a defined territory exclusively to a distributor. Effectively, the distributor becomes a producer in the eyes of the market. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the distributor.
There are four popular approaches to transfer of exhibition rights via exhibition contracts:
- Theatre Hire – Here, the exhibitor pays the distributor the entire box office collection after deducting tax and show rentals. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the distributor. This is the most common channel for low-budget films, casting rank newcomers, with unproven track record. In Chennai, a moderate theatre with AC and DTS can fetch around ₹1 lakh as weekly rent
- Fixed Hire – Here, the exhibitor pays the distributor a maximum lump sum irrespective of the box office performance of the film. Rental is not chargeable per show. Any surplus after deducting tax is retained by the exhibitor. Effectively, the exhibitor becomes a distributor in the eyes of the market. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film remains with the exhibitor.
- Minimum Guarantee + Royalty – Here, the exhibitor pays the distributor a minimum lump sum irrespective of the box office performance of the film. Rental is not chargeable per show. Any surplus after deducting tax and show rental is shared in a pre-set ratio (1:2) between the distributor and exhibitor typically.
- Revenue Share – Here, the distributor shares with the exhibitor, in a pre-set ratio (typically 1:1), the entire box office collection of the film after deducting tax. Rental is not chargeable per show. So, the entire risk of box office performance of the film is shared between the exhibitor and distributor. This is the most common channel preferred by multiplex screens.
Highest-grossing Tamil films by year
Film studios in Chennai are bound by legislation, such as the Cinematography Film Rules of 1948, the Cinematography Act of 1952, and the Copyright Act of 1957. In Tamil Nadu, cinema ticket prices are regulated by the government. Single screen theatres may charge a maximum of ₹50, while theatres with more than three screens may charge a maximum of ₹120 per ticket.
- Filmfare Awards South
- IIFA Utsavam
- Mirchi Music Awards South
- SIIMA Awards
- Norway Tamil Film Festival Awards
- Tamil Nadu State Film Awards
- Vijay Awards
- International Tamil Film Awards
- Edison Awards
- Ananda Vikatan Cinema Awards
- South Scope Awards
- Cinema of the world
- Cinema of India
- Earliest color films in South India
- List of highest-grossing Indian films
- List of Tamil actors
- List of Tamil film actors
- List of Tamil film actresses
- List of Tamil music directors
- "STATEWISE NUMBER OF SINGLE SCREENS". Film Federation of India. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
- "The Digital March Media & Entertainment in South India" (PDF). Deloitte. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
- Hiro, Dilip (2010). After Empire: The Birth of a Multipolar World. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-56858-427-0.
- Bureau, Our Regional (25 January 2006). "Tamil, Telugu film industries outshine Bollywood". Business Standard. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
- "China's Film Industry and Its Bollywood Future".
- "Tamil films give Bollywood a run for its money". 3 January 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- "Metro Plus Chennai / Madras Miscellany : The pioneer'Tamil' film-maker". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). Tamil cinema: the cultural politics of India's other film industry. p. 2. ISBN 9780415396806.
- "THE TAMIL NADU ENTERTAINMENTS TAX ACT, 1939" (PDF). Government of Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- Indian Cinema: The World's Biggest And Most Diverse Film Industry (page 5)[permanent dead link] Written by Roy Stafford
- Pillai, Sreedhar. "A gold mine around the globe". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- "Eros buys Tamil film distributor". Business Standard. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
- "With high demand for Indian movies, Big Cinemas goes global". The Times of India. 12 June 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "SYMPOSIUM: SRI LANKA'S CULTURAL EXPERIENCE". Chennai, India: Frontline. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "Celebration of shared heritage at Canadian film festival". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- Muthukumaraswamy, M. D.; Kaushal, Molly (2004). Folklore, public sphere, and civil society. p. 116. ISBN 9788190148146.
- "Pioneers in Indian Cinema - Swamikannu Vincent". Indiaheritage.org. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Rajmohan, Joshi (2006). Encyclopaedia of Journalism and Mass Communication: Media and mass communication. p. 68. ISBN 9788182053663.
- "Tamil Cinema". India Times. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- "He brought cinema to South". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "Abhinay Deo – "All stories can be found in Mahabharata and Ramayana" – Bollywood Movie News". IndiaGlitz. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "Indian Films vs Hollywood". Theviewspaper.net. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). "'India' in Tamil silent era cinema". Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. Routledge. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-415-39680-6.
- IANS (30 June 2017). "GST effect: Tamil Nadu theatres to shut down from July 3". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 5 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- "Tamil Nadu theatre owners go on strike after GST, lose Rs 50 crore a day". www.deccanchronicle.com/. 4 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- "No local tax for now: Tamil Nadu theatres' owners call off strike". www.deccanchronicle.com/. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- "Tamil Nadu Theatre Owners Call Off Strike Over 30% Local Body Tax". NDTV.com. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- "Tamil Nadu theatre owners call off strike over double taxation". The Indian Express. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Vaitheesvaran, Bharani (6 July 2017). "Tamil Nadu screens to open tomorrow with no new movies". The Economic Times. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Singh, Sarina (2003). "Film Studios". India. Lonely Planet. p. 964. ISBN 978-1-74059-421-9.
Chennai's film industry now rivals that of Bollywood (Mumbai) for output
- "Film industry isn't high risk one: Kamal Haasan". Business Line. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- "Remembering a pioneer". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 9 May 2002. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- Gokulsing, K.; Wimal Dissanayake (2004). Indian popular cinema: a narrative of cultural change. Trentham Books. p. 24. ISBN 1-85856-329-1.
- "He drew inspiration from Shakespeare". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 18 April 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
- "He transcended barriers with aplomb". The Hindu. 1 February 2002. Archived from the original on 30 November 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- "Balayogini 1937". The Hindu. 10 April 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2019 – via www.thehindu.com.
- Baskaran, Sundararaj Theodore (2013). The Eye Of The Serpent: An Introduction To Tamil Cinema. Westland. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-93-83260-74-4.
- Movie Buzz (14 July 2011). "Tamil films dominate Andhra market". Sify. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "A few hits and many flops". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 29 December 2006.
- "Mutu: Odoru Maharaja" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Gautaman Bhaskaran (6 January 2002). "Rajnikanth casts spell on Japanese viewers". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 May 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
- "India's Oscar failures (25 Images)". Movies.ndtv.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Nayakan, All-Time 100 Best Films, Time, 2005
- "Superstars dominate". Hinduonnet.com. 28 December 2007. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "tnsalestax". www.tnsalestax.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "Va: Cutting of the Quarter! Why? - Tamil Movie Articles - Va-Quarter Cutting | Kallarai Manithan". Behindwoods.com. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Strict norms on entertainment tax - Tamil Movie News". Indiaglitz.com. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Microsoft Word - Draft RHP PSTL 31.07.06.doc" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Pillai, Sreedhar (27 February 2016). "Out with the old". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 December 2019 – via www.thehindu.com.
- "Screening a movie - an eye-opener!, Unnaipol Oruvan, kamal haasan". www.behindwoods.com. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "Vijay's 'Bigil' becomes the highest-grossing Tamil film of the year". The Week. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- G, Ezekiel Majello (23 December 2019). "2019, a superhit year for Tamil cinema!". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- Vijayaprakash R (16 January 2019). "2.0 exclusive exhibition in Chennai: Original costumes of Rajinikanth, Akshay Kumar attract visitors". Times Now. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
- "Tamil Movies 2018 Box Office Report: Biggest Blockbusters And Hits Of This Year!". Filmibeat. 24 December 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "Top Worldwide Figures – All Formats And Hindi". Box Office India. 2 November 2018.
- "TOP 10 Highest grossing TAMIL FILMS OF 2017". Indiaglitz. 8 January 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "Rajinikanth's 'Kabali' smashes all box office records, earns Rs 250 crore in India on first day - The Economic Times". The Economic Times. 23 July 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Top 10 Highest Grossing Tamil Movies 2016". Filmibeat. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- Hooli, Shekhar (1 May 2017). "Baahubali 2 3-day worldwide box-office collection: SS Rajamouli's film crosses Rs 500 cr mark in 1st weekend". International Business Times.
- "Kollywood 2015: Top 10 Highest Grossing Tamil Movies in the Year". International Business Times. 16 December 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "All Time Highest Grossing Tamil films - Photos". Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Mehta, Ankita (13 March 2013). "'Vishwaroopam' Box Office Collection: Kamal Haasan Starrer Earns ₹220 Crores". Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Upadhyaya, Prakash (13 November 2017). "Mersal box office collection: Vijay crowned the king of Rs 100 crore club; consistent performer than Rajinikanth, Ajith". International Business Times. India. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
- "Vijay's Thuppakki makes 180 crore! - Times of India". Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Mankatha total Box-Office Collection – 130 Crores | Tamil Cinema News › Kollywood Movie News Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Kollyinsider.com (23 December 2011). Retrieved 22 November 2015.
- "Mankatha's Total Collections - Mankatha - Ajith - Arjun - Venkat Prabhu - Trisha - Lakshmi Rai - - Tamil Movie News - Behindwoods.com". www.behindwoods.com. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- Hooli, Shekhar H (19 July 2015). "2nd Saturday Box Office Collection: Baahubali Beats Endhiran's Lifetime Record in 9 Days". Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Suriya: Bollywood's hottest six-pack - Livemint". 2 October 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "A rendezevous with Kamal Haasan - The Economic Times". The Economic Times. 4 April 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "All Time Highest Grossing Tamil films - Photos". Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "The boss, no doubt - Business Today - Business News". 6 June 2014. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Year 2004 — a flashback". The Hindu. 31 December 2004. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- thmrn (9 May 2003). "The Hindu : "Saami"". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Kamath, Sudhish. "Kollywood crackers". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- Kumar, S. R. Ashok. "Hits and misses of the year that was". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- "BUSINESS TODAY". Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Thangavelu, Dharani (1 July 2016). "Rajinikanth's track-record at the box office". Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Setting the Cash Registers Ringing. The Top Ten Grossers So Far". Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "The Indian Express - Recherche d'archives de Google Actualités". Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "The Indian Express - Google News Archive Search". Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Southern Supernova". Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "actor/articleshow/48215004.cms?from=mdr". Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- "dinakaran". 18 January 2000. Archived from the original on 18 January 2000. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "MGR's 1971 blockbuster film Rickshawkaran to be restored!". 30 July 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "50வது ஆண்டில் 'அன்பே வா'! - Anbe Vaa in 50th Year". 29 June 2016. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Jeshi, K. (2 September 2011). "Following a star". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "சாவித்ரி - 2. காதல் மந்திரவாதி! - Dinamani - Tamil Daily News". 11 June 2015. Archived from the original on 11 June 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Jeshi, K. (10 September 2012). "Blockbusters of Coimbatore". The Hindu. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Apoorva Sahodarargal 1949". The Hindu. 27 June 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Joshi, Namrata (19 September 2011). "Reeling It All In". Outlook India. Archived from the original on 19 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
- "Cinematograph film rules, 1948". Government of India. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "Posters". Central Board of Film certification (CBFC). Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- "INDIAN COPYRIGHT ACT, 1957" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- Ashok Kumar, S.R. (2 January 2007). "Cinema ticket rate revision reflects a balancing act". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- Arnold, Alison (2000). "Pop Music and Audio-Cassette Technology: Southern Area – Film music". The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8240-4946-1.
- Bhaskaran, Theodore, Sundararaj (1996). Eye of The Serpent: An Introduction to Tamil Cinema. Chennai / University of Michigan: East West Books.
- Gokulsing, K.; Moti Gokulsing, Wimal (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books. p. 132. ISBN 1-85856-329-1.
- Shohini Chaudhuri (2005). Contemporary World Cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia. Edinburgh University Press. p. 149. ISBN 0-7486-1799-X.
- Chinniah, Sathiavathi (2001). Tamil Movies Abroad: Singapore South Indian Youths and their Response to Tamil Cinema. 8. Kolam.
- Guy, Randor (1997). Starlight, Starbright : The Early Tamil Cinema. Chennai. OCLC 52794531.
- Hughes, Stephen P. (24–25 February 2005). "Tamil Cinema as Sonic Regime: Cinema Sound, Film Songs and the Making of a Mass Culture of Music". New Perspectives on the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century. Keynote address: South Asia Conference at the University of Chicago. Chicago, Illinois.
- Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-636-7.
- Ravindran, Gopalan (17–18 March 2006). Negotiating identities in the Diasporic Space: Transnational Tamil Cinema and Malaysian Indians. Cultural Space and Public Sphere in Asia, 2006. Seoul, Korea: Korea Broadcasting Institute, Seoul.
- Nakassis, Constantine V.; Dean, Melanie A. (2007). "Desire, Youth, and Realism in Tamil Cinema". Journal of Linguistic Anthropology. 17: 77–104. doi:10.1525/jlin.2007.17.1.77.
- Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-39680-6.