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Anicient Tamil Epigraphy
5th century BCE
- Burial of Adichanallur, Tamil Nadu were dated from c. 2500 BCE – c. 500 BCE found with graffiti and Tamizhi script
- Annaicoddai seal (steatite seal), Tamizhi inscriptions mixed in with Megalithic Graffiti Symbols found in Annaicoddai, Sri Lanka, c. 1000 BCE – c. 300 CE
- Tamizhi script dating to 500 BCE found at Porunthal site is located 12 km South West of Palani, Tamil Nadu
- Punch-marked coins of 5th century BCE found at Karur, on the bank of river Amaravathi, is located at 78 km from Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu
3rd century BCE
There are five caves in the hill of which six inscriptions are found in four caves. These were inscribed during Sangam period, hence it is considered as one of the important inscriptions in Tamil Nadu. The inscriptions mentions that workers of Nedunchezhiyan I, a Pandyan king of Sangam period, (c. 270 BCE) made stone beds for Jain monks. It further details the name of worker for whom he made stone bed. For example, an inscription shows that Kadalan Vazhuthi, a worker of Nedunchezhiyan made stone bed to Jain monk Nanda Sirikuvan. It is one of the protected monuments in Tamil Nadu by the Archaeological Survey of India.
- Artifact related to Early Pandyan Kingdom's King Nedunchezhiyan I (c. 270 BCE) found in Kovalanpottal, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu
- Potsherds with Tamizhi script found in Korkai, Thoothukudi district, Tamil Nadu, 3rd century BCE
- Tamizhi inscription, dating back to 3rd century BCE, engraved in a cave where early Jain monks were said to have resided found in Arittapatti village, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu
- Tamizhi script dating back to the 3rd century BCE near Thenur, Madurai, Tamil Nadu. Script is written in gold bar
- Black and red ware potsherd with Tamizhi inscriptions in Ucchapanai, Kandarodai, Jaffna, Sri Lanka, 3rd century BCE
2nd century BCE
- Black and red ware piece containing Tamizhi inscription found in Mangudi, Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu, 2nd century BCE
The inscription has been deciphered as "Kurummangala Athan yi Yanai Po"
It reads as “Peru Thorur Kunra Ko Ayam” or “Peru Tho Ur Uzhithegne Ayam” or “Peru Te Rur Kuzhiththai Ayam”
- Tissamaharama Tamizhi inscription refers to a fragment of black and red ware flat dish inscribed in Tamil in the Tamizhi script excavated at the earliest layer in southern town of Tissamaharama in Sri Lanka. It is dated to 200 BCE
- Arikamedu Excavations, as its ancient commercial link with the Romans has been established, It is one of the Silk Road sites in India, 2nd century BCE
1st century BCE
- A broken storage jar with inscriptions in Tamizhi script in Quseir-al-Qadim, (Leukos Limen) Egypt, 1st century BCE. Two earlier Tamizhi inscription discoveries at the same site, 1st century CE.
- An inscribed amphora fragment in Tamil at the ancient Ptolemic-Roman settlement of Berenice Troglodytica, Egypt, 1st century BCE
it reads as “Muu-na-ka-ra” and “Muu-ca-ka-ti”
- Tamizhi script Rock Bed Inscription in Sittanavasal, Pudukkottai District, Tamil Nadu, 1st century BCE
It reads as “Eruminatu kumul-ur piranta kavuti-i tenku-cirupocil ilayar ceyta atit-anam”
- Tamizhi script Rock-cavern inscription in Jambai village, Tiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu, 1st century BCE
It reads "Satiyaputo Atiyan Nedumaan Anjji itta Paali", In (Tamil: ஸதியபுதோ அதியந் நெடுமாந் அஞ்சி ஈத்த பாழி). The meaning of the epigraph may be rendered as "The abode (pali) given by (itta) Atiyan Nedumaan Anji (name), the Satyaputra (title)". Though the record is a short one in a single line, it throws valuable light on various aspects of South Indian history. The inscription clears the doubt about the identity of the Satyaputras, a dynasty of rulers, mentioned in Ashoka's inscriptions in the 3rd century BCE
- Silver Ring From Karur, Tamil Nadu with Personal Name "Peravatan" in Tamizhi script, 1st Century BCE
- Hundreds of potsherds of the Mediterranean region which include rouletted ware, amphorae jar pieces and pieces of red ware with Tamizhi script have been found in Alagankulam, Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, 1st century BCE
First millennium AD
- Staff Reporter (November 22, 2005). "Students get glimpse of heritage". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2007-04-26.
- "The ghosts of Adichanallur: Artefacts that suggest an ancient Tamil civilisation of great sophistication". The Hindu. January 13, 2018.
- "Rudimentary Tamil-Brahmi script' unearthed at Adichanallur". The Hindu. February 17, 2005.
- Rajan, K (2008), "Situating the Beginning of Early Historic Times in Tamil Nadu: Some Issues and Reflections", Social Scientist, 36 (1/2): 40–78
- Roger D. Gwen Robbins Schug, Subhash R. Walimbe (2016). A Companion to South Asia in the Past. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 311. ISBN 978-1-119-05548-8.
- K. Rajan (2014). Iron Age - Early Historic Transition in South India (PDF). Institute of Archaeology. p. 9.
- Kishore, Kavita (15 October 2011). "Porunthal excavations prove existence of Indian scripts in 5th century BC: expert". THE HINDU. Chennai, India.
- Subramanian, T.S. (20 May 2013). "Tamil Brahmi script dating to 500 BC found near Erode at Kodumanal near Chennimalai". The newindianexpress. Chennai, India.
- John D. Bengtson (January 2008). In Hot Pursuit of Language in Prehistory: Essays in the Four Fields of Anthropology : in Honor of Harold Crane Fleming. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 427–. ISBN 90-272-3252-0.
- Iravatham Mahadevan (2003). Early Tamil epigraphy from the earliest times to the sixth century A.D. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01227-1.
- R. Umamaheshwari (2018). Reading History with the Tamil Jainas: A Study on Identity, Memory and Marginalisation. Springer. p. 43. ISBN 978-81-322-3756-3.
- "An epigraphic perspective on the antiquity of Tamil". The Hindu. 24 June 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "மாங்குளம் தமிழ்க் கல்வெட்டுக்கள்" (in Tamil). Tamil Virtual University. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "Protected Monuments in Tamil Nadu". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
S. No.8 — Ovamalai Kalvettu (inscriptions)
- Approval needed for excavation The Hindu, February 28, 2013
- Thenur gold treasure found four years ago is 2300 years' old, recent study reveals
- S. Krishnarajah (2004). University of Jaffna. Archaeology Department
- Thiagarajah, Siva (2010). "The people and cultures of prehistoric Sri Lanka - Part Three". The Sri Lanka Guardian. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- 2,200-year-old Tamil-Brahmi inscription found on Samanamalai. The Hindu (2012-03-24). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
- Mahadevan 2003, p. 48
- "Tamil Brahmi script in Egypt". The Hindu. November 21, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-06.
- Tamil Inscriptions Archived 2013-01-17 at Archive.today. Archaeologyindia.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
- . The Hindu (2012-03-24)
- Subramanian, T. S. (14 February 2013). "Tamil-Brahmi script discovered on Tirupparankundram hill". THEHINDU. Chennai, India.
- K. Selvaraj, "Jambai oru aayvu", State Department of Archeology, Chennai
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