Tampa Bay Area
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|Tampa Bay Area
Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater MSA and surrounding counties
Location in Florida
|Counties (in the MSA)|
|• MSA||2,554.5 sq mi (6,616 km2)|
|• Urban||2,077.9 sq mi (5,382 km2)|
|Highest elevation||301 ft (92 m)|
|Lowest elevation||0 ft (0 m)|
|Population (2010, Urban; 2011, MSA)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||813, 863, 727, 352, 941|
The Tampa Bay Area is a metropolitan region of west central Florida adjacent to Tampa Bay. Definitions of the region vary. It is often considered equivalent to the Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater Metropolitan Statistical Area (or MSA) defined by the United States Census Bureau. A wider definition including additional adjacent counties is adopted by most other entities, including state agencies like Enterprise Florida and the Florida Department of Transportation, and the Tampa Bay Partnership. The Tampa Bay media market also includes Citrus, Manatee, Sarasota, and Polk counties.
The population of the Tampa Bay Area is estimated at 4,310,524 people as of 2012. The Tampa Bay Partnership and U.S. Census data showed an average annual growth of 2.5 percent, or a gain of approximately 97,000 residents per year between 2000 and 2006, growing from 3.4 million to 3.9 million and hitting the 4 million mark on April 1, 2007. A 2012 estimate of the Tampa Bay Area shows a projection of about 5.9 million residents by 2017.
- 1 Definitions
- 2 Cities
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Geography
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education
- 7 Culture
- 8 Recreation
- 9 Sports
- 10 Transportation
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Precise definitions of the Tampa Bay region vary. The U.S. Census Bureau defines the Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater Metropolitan Statistical Area as comprising Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, and Hernando counties.
Other entities use a wider definition. Enterprise Florida, the state's economic development agency, identifies the Tampa Bay region as one of eight economic regions used by the agency and other state and outside entities, including the Florida Department of Transportation. This definition includes the four counties above with the addition of Manatee and Sarasota counties (constituting the North Port–Bradenton–Sarasota MSA) to the south, Citrus County to the north, and Polk County (coextensive with the Lakeland – Winter Haven MSA) to the east. The Tampa Bay Partnership, private growth and development organization, also uses this definition.
The Tampa Bay media market includes the wider region promoted by the Tampa Bay Partnership. Polk County is served by media outlets from both Tampa and Orlando, although the east of that county has closer economic ties to Orlando. Significant daily commuting also occurs within the region promoted by the Tampa Bay Partnership.
The following is a list of important cities and unincorporated communities located in both the core Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater MSA, along with the other counties included in some definitions of the Tampa Bay region.
Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater MSA
Each of these cities has a population in excess of 100,000 inhabitants.
- St. Petersburg
- Brandon (unincorporated) - Brandon does have more than 100,000 inhabitants, but it is normally not grouped together with the other principal cities.
More than 10,000 inhabitants
North Port–Bradenton–Sarasota MSA
More than 10,000 inhabitants
Lakeland–Winter Haven MSA
More than 10,000 inhabitants
More than 10,000 inhabitants
- Homosassa Springs (unincorporated)
According to the 2000 U.S. Census, the Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater MSA consists of the following ethnic demographics:
- White (Non-Hispanic/Latino) – 1,821,955 76.0%
- Black – 248,058 10.4%
- Hispanic – 248,642 10.4%
- Asian/Pacific Islander – 57,235 2.4%
Population and age
Tampa Bay's expanding population has grown more than 11 percent in the past six years and is projected to grow an additional 9 percent by 2011. The wider Tampa Bay region's population is projected to increase from the current 3.8 million to more than 4.2 million in 2011. That translates to over 70,000 new people a year, mostly through migration.
|Population||Tampa Bay area|
|Regional Counties||2006||2011 Estimate|
Nearly 20% of Tampa Bay's population is in the 18–34 age group.
|Age||Tampa Bay area||Percentage|
|65 and over||750,138||19.4%|
|MEDIAN AGE||41.39 years old|
|Hispanic or Latino||479,936||11.0%|
|Two or more races||83,861||1.9%|
From 2000 to 2004, total net migration for the Tampa Bay region was 262,961 or an average of 65,740 per year. During this time Tampa Bay accounted for nearly 20% of Florida's total net migration. The annual migration totals grew steadily since 2000 until 200 people a day moved to Tampa Bay in 2004. Two Tampa Bay region counties are among the top counties in the country for net in-migration. Pasco County ranks 8th in the nation for net migration and Hillsborough County ranks 13th out of more than 3,000 counties.
The Tampa Bay area is located along Tampa Bay which it is named for. Pinellas County and St. Petersburg, Florida lies on a peninsula between Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, and much of the city of Tampa, Florida lies on a smaller peninsula jutting out into Tampa Bay.
The Tampa Bay area has a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa), with warm temperatures and the threat of thunderstorms during the summer and the winter frost at least once a year. However, large freezes only occur in the area about every 10–15 years, and the area shows some characteristics of a tropical monsoon climate. The area is listed by the United States Department of Agriculture as being in hardiness zone 9b, which is about the northern limit of where coconut palms and royal palms can be grown. Highs usually range between 65 and 95 °F (18 and 35 °C) year round. Surprisingly to some, Tampa's official high has never reached 100 °F (38 °C)—the all-time record high temperature is 99 °F (37 °C). St. Petersburg's all-time record high is exactly 100 °F (38 °C).
Pinellas County lies on a peninsula between Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, and much of the city of Tampa lies on a smaller peninsula jutting out into Tampa Bay. This proximity to large bodies of water both moderates local temperatures and introduces large amounts of humidity into the atmosphere. In general, the communities farthest from the coast have more extreme temperature differences, both during a single day and throughout the seasons of the year.
|Climate data for Tampa, Florida (Tampa Int'l), 1981−2010 normals,[a] extremes 1890−present[b]|
|Record high °F (°C)||86
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||81.1
|Average high °F (°C)||69.9
|Average low °F (°C)||51.6
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||32.6
|Record low °F (°C)||21
|Average rainfall inches (mm)||2.23
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 inch)||6.8||6.6||6.6||4.9||5.5||12.7||15.9||16.0||12.2||6.5||5.1||5.8||104.6|
|Average relative humidity (%)||74.9||73.0||71.8||69.0||69.8||74.4||76.6||78.4||77.6||74.2||75.0||75.0||74.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||199.9||202.7||267.5||299.1||314.5||277.8||265.3||249.5||223.0||233.9||201.7||191.6||2,926.5|
|Percent possible sunshine||61||65||72||78||75||67||62||61||60||66||62||60||66|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961−1990) Weather Channel|
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|BayCare Health System||22,900||Healthcare|
|Publix Super Markets||13,000||Retail|
|Home Shopping Network||10,550||Retail|
|University of South Florida||9,000||Education|
|Tampa General Hospital||6,400||Healthcare|
|JP Morgan Chase||5,100||Finance|
Nearly one in four of the state's business and information services firms resides in Tampa Bay. These firms range from financial services firms to information technology providers to professional services organizations such as law firms, accounting firms, engineering firms, consulting and more. As a gateway to the Florida High Tech Corridor, Tampa Bay is home to many information technology firms along with many business services providers.
Financial services firms:
- Bank of America
- JPMorgan Chase
- Deposit Trust & Clearing Corporation
- Raymond James Financial
- Franklin Templeton
- Progressive Insurance
- State Farm
With more than 50 hospitals, dozens of clinics and ambulatory care centers, the Tampa Bay has an abundance of top-rated health care facilities for children and adults. The region also has a wealth of well-trained medical professionals—nearly 53,000 nurses and more than 9,200 physicians (including physician assistants)—provide care to Tampa Bay residents and visitors every year.
Tampa Bay ranks in the top 20 nationwide for medical device manufacturing clusters. The industry employs more than 10,000 people with an average wage in excess of $49,000 and produces over $2 billion worth of goods and services for an economic impact of more than 51,000 jobs and $5 billion. Tampa Bay's history of manufacturing for the defense industry has created a workforce skilled in high-precision fabrication of electronic parts and assemblies and experience in dealing with government relations, easing the transition to the highly regulated medical manufacturing industry.
Tampa Bay serves as the gateway to the Florida High Tech Corridor which spans 23 counties. Created as a partnership between the University of South Florida, University of Central Florida and now including the University of Florida, the Florida High Tech Corridor promotes the growth of the high-tech industry across Central Florida.
Higher education and research
Academic research is a key component of high-tech growth and a powerful economic engine. The presence of cutting-edge research in the region is vital to technology transfer, which enables innovative ideas discovered in academia to achieve commercialization in the marketplace. Tampa Bay has several powerhouse research centers that are engaged in both pure scientific research and aggressively pursuing technology transfer to enrich people's lives.
Researchers at the University of South Florida's Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center (NNRC), H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and the Center for Ocean Technogy at USF's College of Marine Science are researching how to use nanotechnology for a myriad of targeted uses including drug delivery, mechanized microsurgery, customized laser microchips, ways to turn sunlight into electricity, purifying water, storing hydrogen in small nanotubes, designing and developing marine sensors using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and curing cancer. University of Tampa is located in Downtown Tampa, FL on the Hillsborough River and is a historic university linked back to Teddy Roosevelt.
In 2008 the area's construction based boom was brought to a sudden halt by the financial crisis of 2007–2010, and by 2009 it was ranked as the fourth worst performing housing market in the United States.
Changes in house prices for the area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 20-city composite index of the value of the U.S. residential real estate market.
Avionics, defense, and marine electronics
The University of South Florida's Center for Ocean Technology, which has been a leader in microelectromechanical systems research and development and has been using the technology to collect biological and chemical data to monitor water quality, provided underwater technology for port security at the 2004 Republican National Convention. USF's Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue used its miniature robots to assist rescue teams at Ground Zero following the September 11 terrorist attacks. Tampa Bay is also the location of two major military installations, MacDill Air Force Base and Coast Guard Air Station Clearwater. MacDill AFB is home to the 6th Air Mobility Wing of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) and the 927th Air Refueling Wing of the Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC). Both wings share flight operations of a fleet of KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft. MacDill also hosts multiple tenant organizations, to include two major combatant commands: United States Central Command (USCENTCOM), which directs military operations in Afghanistan, Iraq, and the Middle East; and United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), which has responsibility for all special operations forces in the U.S. Armed Forces. CGAS Clearwater is located at the St. Petersburg–Clearwater International Airport. It is the largest air station in the United States Coast Guard, operating HC-130 Hercules aircraft and HH-60 Jayhawk helicopters with principal missions focused on search and rescue, counternarcotics interdiction, and homeland security.
Primary and secondary education is provided by the school districts of the individual counties making up the region.
The area is home to several institutions of higher learning, including the main campus of the University of South Florida in Tampa and the satellite campuses of USF St. Petersburg, USF Sarasota-Manatee, and USF Polytechnic in Lakeland. Eckerd College in St. Petersburg, the University of Tampa, Clearwater Christian College, Florida College in Temple Terrace, Saint Leo University in Pasco County, Southeastern University and Florida Southern College in Lakeland, Webber International University in Crooked Lake, Warner University in Lake Wales, Trinity College (Florida) in New Port Richey, New College of Florida, and Ringling College of Art and Design, both in Sarasota, are all four-year institutions located in the area.
There are two law schools in the area, Stetson University College of Law and Thomas M. Cooley Law School. Stetson University has campuses in Gulfport and Tampa. The newly built (May 2012) Thomas M. Cooley Law school is located in Riverview.
The Tampa Bay area is home to a high concentration of quality art museums. Long established communities, particularly those near the bay such as Cuban influenced Ybor City, Old Northeast in St. Petersburg, and Palma Ceia and Hyde Park in Tampa contain historic architecture. Florida Southern College in Lakeland is home of the world's largest single-site collection of Frank Lloyd Wright architecture. Fresh seafood and locally grown produce are available in many restaurants and in weekly farmers' markets in multiple urban centers in the area. Yuengling, the largest American-owned brewer, operates a brewery in Tampa, as does the highly regarded craft brewer Cigar City Brewing.
Arts and culture make a big impact in Tampa Bay. In a single year, the economic impact of the cultural institutions in the Tampa Bay area was $521.3 million, according to a recent PricewaterhouseCoopers study. In 2004 5.6 million people attended plays, musical performances, museum exhibits, and other cultural institutions in Tampa Bay, supporting 7,800 jobs.
- Museum of Fine Arts near the Pier in downtown St. Petersburg
- Salvador Dalí Museum in downtown St. Petersburg
- Florida International Museum at St. Petersburg College in downtown St. Petersburg
- Florida Holocaust Museum in downtown St. Petersburg
- Tampa Museum of Art in downtown Tampa
- USF Contemporary Art Museum on the USF's main Tampa campus
- Florida Museum of Photographic Arts in downtown Tampa
- Museum of Science and Industry adjacent to USF's main Tampa campus
- Tampa Bay Automobile Museum in Pinellas Park
- Leepa-Rattner Museum of Art on the Tarpon Springs Campus of St. Petersburg College
- John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art in Sarasota
- Polk Museum of Art in Lakeland
- The Royal Theater & Manhattan Casino Historic Landmarks in St. Petersburg
- The Carter J. Woodson African-American Museum St. Petersburg
Performing Arts Halls
- Straz Center for the Performing Arts in Tampa
- Ruth Eckerd Hall in Clearwater
- Van Wezel Performing Arts Hall in Sarasota
- Mahaffey Theater in St. Petersburg
- Gasparilla Pirate Festival held every January in Tampa
- Florida Strawberry Festival held every March in Plant City
- Clearwater Jazz Holiday held every October in Coachman Park in downtown Clearwater; in its 32nd year
- Guavaween, a Latin-flavored Halloween celebration held every October in the Ybor City section of Tampa
- Festa Italiana, annual festival of Italian heritage held every April in Ybor City, Tampa's Latin Quarter
The Tampa Bay area is highly noted for its beaches, with the warm, blue gulf waters and nearly 70 miles of barriers islands from North Pinellas south to Venice, attracting tourists from all over the world. Three of the beaches in this area, Fort De Soto's North Beach (2005), Caladesi Island (2008), and Sarasota's Siesta Key (2011) have been named by Dr. Beach as America's Top Beach. The 15th IIFA Awards would be held at Tampa Bay Area in April 2014.
Sports attractions, in addition to the teams listed below, include many professional quality golf courses, tennis courts, and pools. Ybor and the Channel District in Tampa, downtown St. Petersburg, and the beaches all along the coast all attract a vibrant nightlife.
- Adventure Island in Tampa
- Busch Gardens in Tampa
- Dinosaur World in Plant City
- Legoland Florida in Winter Haven
- Weeki Wachee Springs in Hernando County
Zoos and Aquariums
- Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa
- Florida Aquarium in Tampa
- Clearwater Marine Aquarium in Clearwater
- Suncoast Seabird Sanctuary in Indian Shores
- Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota
- Florida Botanical Gardens, part of the Pinewood Cultural Park in Largo
- Bok Tower Gardens, in Lake Wales
- Sunken Gardens in St. Petersburg, a former tourist attraction now run by the City of St. Petersburg
- USF Botanical Gardens in Tampa
- Marie Selby Botanical Gardens in Sarasota
Notable public parks and recreation areas
The Tampa Bay area is home to an extensive system of state, county, and city parks. Hillsborough River State Park in Thonotosassa and Myakka River State Park in Sarasota are two of Florida's original eight state parks and Honeymoon Island State Park, near Dunedin, is Florida's most visited state park. De Soto National Memorial in Bradenton commemorates the 1539 landing of Hernando De Soto in the area. Pinellas County is home to the Fred Marquis Pinellas Trail, a 37-mile running and cycling trail over a former railroad bed connecting Tarpon Springs to St. Petersburg. Skyway Fishing Pier State Park, the remnants of the approaches to the original Sunshine Skyway Bridge forms the world's largest fishing pier in Pinellas and Manatee counties. The shallow waters and many mangrove islands of the bay and gulf make the area popular with kayakers. The gulf is also home to a large number of natural and artificial coral reefs that are popular for fishing and scuba diving.
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The Tampa Bay Area is home to three major professional sports teams — the Buccaneers (NFL), Rays (MLB), and Lightning (NHL). The Tampa Bay area also hosts a number of minor-league and college teams. Regardless of the specific city where they play their games, all of the major pro teams use "Tampa Bay" in their name to signify that they represent the entire area.
|Tampa Bay Buccaneers||NFL||American football||Raymond James Stadium||Tampa||58,818|
|USF Bulls football||NCAA, DI||American football||Raymond James Stadium||Tampa||34,702|
|Tampa Bay Lightning||NHL||Ice hockey||Amalie Arena||Tampa||18,626|
|Tampa Bay Rays||MLB||Baseball||Tropicana Field||St. Petersburg||17,857|
|Tampa Bay Storm||AFL||Arena football||Amalie Arena||Tampa||11,402|
|Tampa Bay Rowdies||NASL (D2)||Soccer||Al Lang Stadium||St. Petersburg||4,998|
|USF Bulls basketball||NCAA, DI||Basketball||USF Sun Dome||Tampa||4,406|
MLB spring training teams
Major League Baseball teams have come to the Tampa Bay area for spring training since the Chicago Cubs played in Tampa 1913 and the St. Louis Browns played in St. Petersburg in 1914. Grapefruit League games are still a favorite pastime for both residents and tourists alike every March. The following six Major League Baseball teams play spring training games in the Tampa Bay area:
- The New York Yankees play at Steinbrenner Field in Tampa
- The Philadelphia Phillies play at Bright House Networks Field in Clearwater
- The Toronto Blue Jays play at Florida Auto Exchange Stadium in Dunedin
- The Baltimore Orioles play at Ed Smith Stadium in Sarasota
- The Pittsburgh Pirates play at McKechnie Field in Bradenton
- The Detroit Tigers play at Joker Marchant Stadium in Lakeland
Minor League teams
- The Tampa Yankees: George M. Steinbrenner Field formerly Legends Field in Tampa
- The Clearwater Threshers: Bright House Networks Field in Clearwater
- The Dunedin Blue Jays: Florida Auto Exchange Stadium in Dunedin
- The Bradenton Marauders: McKechnie Field in Bradenton
- The Lakeland Flying Tigers: Joker Marchant Stadium in Lakeland
Major League sports
- Four Super Bowls have been held in Tampa: Super Bowl XVIII in 1984, Super Bowl XXV in 1991, Super Bowl XXXV in 2001, and Super Bowl XLIII in 2009. The 1978 AFC–NFC Pro Bowl was held in Tampa at Tampa Stadium
- The 2008 MLB World Series; Games 1 and 2 were played in St. Petersburg at Tropicana Field
- The 1999 NHL All Star Game was held in Tampa at the Ice Palace. The 2004 NHL Stanley Cup Finals; Games 1, 2, 5 and 7 were played in Tampa at the St. Pete Times Forum
- The NCAA football Outback Bowl is held annually at Raymond James Stadium, usually on January 1. The NCAA football Beef 'O' Brady's Bowl is held annually at Tropicana Field, usually in December. (Began in 2008). The NCAA football East–West Shrine Game is held annually at Tropicana Field, usually in January. (Since 2012)
- Two NCAA football ACC Championship Games (2008 and 2009) have been played in Tampa at Raymond James Stadium
- The Amalie Arena in Tampa has been the site for various rounds of NCAA Men's and Women's basketball championship tournament over the years, as well as conference tournaments. The 1999 NCAA Men's Final Four was held in St. Petersburg at Tropicana Field. The 2008 and 2015 NCAA Women's Final Four was held in Tampa at the Tampa Bay Times Forum
- Five NCAA Division I Men's Soccer Championships have been held in Tampa: 1978, 1979, 1980, 1990 and 1991
- The 2012 NCAA Men's Frozen Four was held in Tampa at the Tampa Bay Times Forum
Transportation in the Tampa Bay Area is heavily affected by its position around Tampa Bay. For more about marine transportation in the area, including the many bridges over Tampa Bay, see Tampa Bay#Transportation.
Tampa International Airport is the largest airport in the region with 21 carriers and more than 17 million passengers served last year. In addition to the recent opening of a new terminal, improvements are being planned to handle 25 million passengers by 2020. Traveler satisfaction has always been a top priority for "America's Favorite Airport." It has won high recognition in the international J.D. Power and Associates Global Airport Passenger Satisfaction Study for three consecutive years. The Condé Nast Traveler recognized TIA as the third best airport in the world and IATA Skytrax 2003 survey named TIA as the No. 2 airport in North America.
Sarasota–Bradenton International Airport has experienced a 19.2 percent increase in passenger traffic during the first quarter of 2005, mainly due to the addition of AirTran Airways and expanded service to destinations.
St. Petersburg–Clearwater International Airport provides access to commercial airliners, and smaller charter craft. The airport is currently planning an expansion which will include new terminal facilities and runway extension. Dotting the landscape throughout the area, are many general aviation airports for the aircraft enthusiast and smaller corporate jets.
CSX provides freight rail service for the entire Tampa Bay region. The railroad serves every major population and industrial center east of the Mississippi including Ontario and Montreal. CSX also connects with more than 166 bulk intermodal distribution terminals and rail-to-truck bulk transloading facilities throughout its service area, linking it to all of North America.
Bus service is provided in Hillsborough County by Hillsborough Area Regional Transit (HART), in Pinellas County by Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA), in Pasco County by Pasco County Public Transportation and in Hernando County by THE Bus. HART and PSTA provide express services between Tampa and Pinellas County, and PSTA provides connections to Pasco County.
HART also operates the TECO streetcar between downtown Tampa and Ybor City. In 2013 HART also began operating a Bus rapid transit system called MetroRapid that runs from downtown Tampa to the University of South Florida.
On July 1, 2007, an intermodal transportation authority was created to serve the seven county Tampa Bay area. The Tampa Bay Area Regional Transportation Authority (TBARTA) was formed to develop bus, rapid transit, and other transportation options for the region.
Roads and freeways
The Tampa Bay Area is served by these interstate highways.
Hillsborough County is also served by other roadways such as the Lee Roy Selmon Expressway (SR 618) which commutes workers from Brandon into downtown Tampa and the Veterans Expressway/Suncoast Parkway (Toll 589) which serves traffic from the Citrus/Hernando County border southward into Tampa.
In Pinellas County, U.S. 19 is the main north–south route through the county, and is being upgraded to freeway standards complete with frontage roads to ease congestion through the north part of the county. Also, the Bayside Bridge allows traffic to go from Clearwater into St. Petersburg without having to use U.S. 19.
The Courtney Campbell Causeway (SR 60) is one of the three roads that connect Pinellas County to Hillsborough County across the bay. The other two are the Howard Frankland Bridge (I-275) and Gandy Bridge (U.S. 92). The Sunshine Skyway Bridge is part of I-275 and connects Bradenton and other Manatee County and Sarasota County commuters into Pinellas County.
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official records for Tampa were kept at downtown from April 1890 to December 1940, Peter O. Knight Airport from January 1941 to 5 June 1946, and at Tampa Int'l since 7 June 1946. For more information, see ThreadEx
- "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". US Census Bureau. Retrieved March 22, 2009.
- U.S. Census Bureau Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010, to July 1, 2011, (Excel) Retrieved August 2, 2012,
- Some population information contained in this document are based off 2008 estimates due to the fact the Census Bureau is currently releasing 2010 information that includes major Tampa region changes.
- Anthony J. Catanese Center for Urban and Environmental Solutions at Florida Atlantic University (2006). "Charting the Course: Where is South Florida Heading?" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University: 2. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
- Tampa Bay Partnership: About Us
- http://www.bizjournals.com/tampabay/stories/2007/06/18/daily33.html?from_rss=1 Tampa Bay metro market hits milestone – Tampa Bay Business Journal
- According to www.Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000, to July 1, 2008 (CBSA-EST2008-01)
- Orlando Sentinel: Osceola and Polk County News
- Summary of SB 506 legislation at the TBARTA website
- "Census of Population and Housing (1790–2000)". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-07-17.
- "Tampa Weather Forecasts" Yahoo! Weather. Retrieved on 2009-02-06.
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
- "Station Name: FL TAMPA INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
- "WMO Climate Normals for TAMPA/INT'L ARPT FL 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-10.
- "Average Weather for Tampa, FL - Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
- Major Employers, Tampa Bay Partnership.
- "Is Florida the Sunset State?". Time. July 10, 2008.
- Dr. Beach: America's Foremost Beach Expert
- "Florida hopes a rise in Indian Tourists after hosting IIFA 2014". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- "How high can the value of the Bucs, Rays and Lightning go?", Tampa Bay Times, Robert Trigaux, December 1, 2014.
- Baseball in Tampa Bay, A.M. de Quesada, Arcadia Publishing, 2000.
- Tampa Bay 365 Daily photo stories of people, events, and places in the Tampa Bay area