Tandem language learning
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Tandem Language Learning is a method of language learning based on mutual language exchange between tandem partners (ideally each learner is a native speaker in the language the proponent wants to learn). Many language schools in the world, organised as TANDEM International, as well as many universities implement this approach.
In Tandem Language Learning both partners can meet in person (face-to-face Tandem) or learn by e-mail, phone or other media (eTandem, also called Distance Tandem), placing emphasis on cultural integration as part of the language-learning process. Learning is supported in different ways, for instance, via worksheets, textbooks or simply informal conversation. There are distinct uses of the Tandem method which promote independent learning e.g. Tandem Partnerships (two people, supported by counsellors), and Binational Tandem Courses (for groups, organised by moderators). The classic style is that where partners equally share the available time during the exchange. For example, a Portuguese speaker and a German speaker can talk for half an hour in German and then for half an hour in Portuguese. In this way, through language exchange partnerships with native speakers, and extra social and cultural experiences, participants become fully immersed in the target language culture. The only condition for participation in self-directed Tandem is to be at a lower intermediate level of language proficiency (Lower B1 Threshold). The Common European Framework of References for Languages ( CEFR) Can-Do statements provide a clear description of language ability at the Threshold level (B1) in several European languages.
"Language learning by exchange" or the Tandem Approach is based on various systems of teaching exchange students abroad, such as: partner learning, "peer teaching", tutoring models and "Zweierschaften" (Steinig) or 'one-on-one discipleship'.
- At the beginning of the 19th century in England, Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell instituted the "mutual system" which supplemented large parts of the teacher’s activity at school with pupils’ mutual help. Peter Petersen (German educationalist, 1884–1952) developed something similar in the "Jenaplan schools", and, from 1960 on, similar tutoring models began to appear in the USA.
- The "Tandem" concept for two people learning the same language appeared first in 1971 in connection with the "audio-visual method" of Wambach, and from there it was transferred to binational German-French youth meetings.
- Klaus Lieb-Harkort and Nükhet Cimilli transferred the model to their work with immigrants in the German-Turkish area, in Munich. Courses followed in Bremen, Frankfurt and Zürich.
- In 1979, this inspired Jürgen Wolff to develop the Tandem learning partner mediation, initially for Spanish and German. In 1982 a similar course programme designed by Wolff and his colleagues in Madrid later became the basis for the TANDEM network, later established as the TANDEM schools network.
- From 1983, the TANDEM model is adopted as an alternative way of language learning, whose basic elements of language courses abroad, youth exchange, cultural tours, class correspondence and similar cross-border activities are replicated in selective schools throughout Europe.
- The network cooperates with various educational institutions including the E-Tandem Network, founded in 1992, and renamed the International E-Mail Tandem Network in 1993.
- 'TANDEM Fundazioa was founded in 1994 for the development of scientific cooperation and educational and advanced training with their head office in Donostia/San Sebastian, Spain.
- The majority of the schools under the TANDEM Network established the association 'TANDEM International' with headquarters in Göttingen, Germany. Since March 2014, TANDEM International has been the owner of the brand 'TANDEM'.
Opportunities for application
Tandem is an approach that can benefit all ages, which can be implemented in different educational settings, but perhaps is best appreciated by language students with a lower intermediate proficiency or above. It can take place in the country of one course group, in the country of the other group, together in a third location, or over the Internet.
Tandem unites many aims under one roof:
- general language Tandem,
- Tandem focused on cultural exchange,
- Tandem for professional purposes,
- cross-cultural understanding Tandem,
- multilingual ‘Babylonia Tandem’,
- cross-border 'Mugaz Gain' and
- eTandem on the Internet
And offers self-directed learning with flexibility of content: conversation, narrative, reading, professional activities such as phone calls, interpretation, translation, as well as leisure activities, intercultural differences, etc. Tandem has developed from a language-learning method to an educational movement, as evidenced by the sources cited.
Improvement in language skills
At first, professional discussion primarily centred round the question of the effectiveness of Tandem in comparison with traditional language teaching methodologies. This initiated an investigation carried out in 1983 at the Madrid Goethe-Institute, in which Tandem pairs, a Tandem course and teacher-steered phases were connected with each other and the linguistic progress was compared to a control group, who were also preparing for the 'Zertifikat DaF'. Results showed that the Tandem participants got better results in listening comprehension and speaking skills while they were less successful in reading and writing, even if their performance in the certificate as a whole was just as good as the control group. Another advantage was mutual mistake correction, which was fostered by increased language intake.
Development of intercultural competence
Not only is Tandem concerned with language comprehension and learning, but equally with cultural understanding and knowledge. Accordingly, a critical analysis of its competence must also examine this second ‘leg’. In fact, it turns out that Tandem aids a change of perspective, with comparison of one’s own and foreign points of view. This is also very helpful during translator training. Moreover, native speakers report an increase of awareness about their own language in the course of the Tandem. Therefore, it seems to be suitable as a ‘confidence booster’ in learning contexts.
Getting started with tandem learning
Considerations for 121 Tandem
With regard to the requirements and quality of the input, it is essential to give the following basic tools during the practical introduction to Tandem: • meta-communication formulas in the foreign language, for the learner's role, and
• the most important explanation techniques in the first language, for the learning assistant's role.
Considerations for Group Tandem
Mediation with large numbers of participants, "cocktail mediation", in which many people form partnerships after an introduction to Tandem, has proved as effective as mediation via questionnaires and images. It can be recommended as a good way of finding learning partners, on the condition that for the remaining students the possibility of questionnaire mediation be made known before starting.
Criteria for ‘good’ Tandems
In another investigation, Tandem partners in Bolzano and Merano who had been learning for more than one year together, and can be seen accordingly as experts, were questioned about their experiences in order to infer criteria for ‘good’ Tandems. The results showed (in order of frequency, multiple answers possible):
- human understanding/sympathy
- common interests
- time availability
- common aims
- initial support at the beginning of the experience
- LINGUA project "International E-Mail Tandem Network" (1994–1996)
- Open and Distance Learning project "Telematics for Autonomous and Intercultural Tandem Learning" (1996–1999).
- LINGUA-D project "Tandem Language Learning Partnerships for Schools" (1998–2000)
From Tandem Language Learning to Telecollaboration
In order to compete in our digitally advanced world, the acquisition of 21st Century skills, or Global skills has taken priority in the classroom. And as can be seen from its history, Tandem Language Learning has metamorphosed over time, reflecting these changes in our attitudes to learning. Today, with a focus on intercultural competence, a key global skill, Tandem Language Learning has been also called Online Intercultural Exchange (OIE) (O'Dowd, 2007), Internet-mediated Intercultural Foreign Language Education (ICFLE) and Telecollaboration. Such exchanges, despite being held at distance, give participants access to different cultures and beliefs with an authentic audience, boosting student engagement.
Benefits of virtual language exchanges
Indeed, benefits of virtual exchanges are seen to include
- development of intercultural competence
- improvement of foreign language skills to communicate with native speakers
- increase in student motivation
- student-centred learning
Drawbacks of Virtual Language Exchanges
- possible lack of accessibility due to time difference
- communication gaps due to social and cultural differences and expectations between groups.
- this, in turn, may have a negative effect on motivation.
Key Pedagogical Implications for Successful Telecollaborative Activities (O'Dowd, 2013)
i. time for students to reflect on the experience (during and after the activity)
ii. adequate resources
iii teacher (pedagogical) leadership
iv. pedagogical integration of the activity into the class and the learning process
Digital Tools to Facilitate Telecollaborative Exchanges (Guth and Thomas, 2010)
- Media Sharing (Flickr, YouTube)
- Social Bookmarking (Delicious, Connotea, CiteULike)
- Feed Aggregators (Bloglines, GoogleReader)
- Social Networks (Facebook, My Space, Ning, Twitter)
- Blogs to create collaborative working space and writing exchanges.
Getting Started with Telecollaboration
These virtual platforms allow easily observable and assessable student activity, and may provide access to virtual partnerships. One example is that of the Skype in the Classroom, part of Skype, an online telephony platform. It hosts a ready-made activity called Mystery Skype, where classes have to guess where in the world their exchange-class is based. This is a simple, easily adaptable task that could be easily integrated into normal classroom activity.
Video reviews of Tandem Language Learning exchanges are available on YouTube.
Intercultural Communicative Competence in Telecollaboration and Tandem
Telecollaboration enables the augmentation of cultural awareness and second-language acquisition by geographically distant individuals using computer-mediated communication tools. A key objective of this exchange process is the development of Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) (O’Dowd, 2013), given that previous research (see for example see Kern, 2000; Fischer, 1998) has established that exposure to different cultures via online communication may have bolstered perceptions of difference by reinforcing stereotypes, as opposed to facilitating deeper cultural awareness and understanding between participants in the online exchange. Moreover, Helm and Guth (2010) hold that Telecollaboration is based in a globalised milieu where the ideas of culture and language may not be consistent with those of national identity; identity may derive from historical and geographical processes within a multicultural context that extends beyond national boundaries (Risager, 2007 cited in Helm and Guth, 2010, p. 71). This shift highlights the importance of facilitating an awareness of cultural diversity, in terms of how learners perceive their own and other cultures. Based on this research, fostering ICC is essential given today’s cultural diversity in education (Helm and Guth, 2010; O’Dowd and Waire, 2009). Further, with the proliferation of Web 2.0 (and indeed Telecollaboration 2.0) students are increasingly immersed in situations where an awareness about their own and other cultures is essential to developing communicative competence in a culturally-diverse setting. The key to the development of these competencies is collaboration within the wide array of communicative task-based activities used in Telecollaboration(O’Dowd, 2013).
Telecollaboration Using Task-based Learning: Challenges for Instructors
There are several challenges inherent in instructors’ choices of appropriate tasks in fostering ICC within Telecollaboration. Firstly, research has indicated that while instructors may be able to implement tasks aimed at fostering ICC, they may not be able to clearly conceptualize the intended outcome of the chosen tasks (Samuda and Bygate, 2008, cited in O’Dowd & Waire, 2009, p. 174). Secondly, collaboration between tandem instructors may create challenges in respect of differing views on task design, especially in relation to learner autonomy, that is, how much autonomy students should be given in choosing and completing tasks (O’Dowd & Waire, 2009). Thirdly, instructors’ differing views on their role in terms of intervention and management of the task may have an impact on the task outcome (O’Dowd and Waire, 2009) as well as result in lengthy, time-consuming online exchange.
Fostering ICC within Telecollaboration Using Task-based Learning: Task Types
Research conducted by O’Dowd and Waire (2009) highlighted 12 task types that could foster the development of such non-linguistic pedagogical objectives. These task types fall within 3 categories:
- Tasks designed to foster Information Exchange mainly used at the introduction stage, where students interact via the exchange of basic personal information. This may be conducted by providing cultural autobiographies, virtual interviews and informal conversation.
- Comparison and Analysis tasks are more demanding as they go beyond information exchange and require participants to compare and critically analyze cultural artefacts from their respective cultures, such as books, newspaper articles, and films. Furthermore, ICC may also be fostered through the use of questionnaires designed to elicit discussion regarding different perceptions of word associations and social situations (Furstenburg et al., 2001, cited in O’Dowd and Waire, 2009, p. 176), creating a context for virtual discussion on these matters.
- Collaborative tasks are aimed at the co-production, i.e. the creation of a joint artefact, in the form of an essay, presentation, translation or cultural adaptation of a text. This type of activity is designed to engender a context in which participants actively negotiate meaning linguistically and culturally, and reach an agreement on their final co-production arising from their collaboration (O’Dowd and Waire, 2009).
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