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Tangerine Dream

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Tangerine Dream
Performing in 2018 at the Elbphilharmonie, Hamburg (l–r: Thorsten Quaeschning, Hoshiko Yamane, Ulrich Schnauss)
Performing in 2018 at the Elbphilharmonie, Hamburg
(l–r: Thorsten Quaeschning, Hoshiko Yamane, Ulrich Schnauss)
Background information
OriginBerlin, Germany
Years active1967–present
MembersThorsten Quaeschning
Hoshiko Yamane
Paul Frick
Past membersEdgar Froese
Lanse Hapshash
Kurt Herkenberg
Volker Hombach
Charlie Prince
Steve Jolliffe
Klaus Schulze
Conrad Schnitzler
Christopher Franke
Steve Schroyder
Peter Baumann
Michael Hoenig
Klaus Krüger
Johannes Schmoelling
Paul Haslinger
Ralf Wadephul
Jerome Froese
Linda Spa
Zlatko Perica
Iris Camaa
Bernhard Beibl
Ulrich Schnauss

Tangerine Dream is a German electronic music band founded in 1967 by Edgar Froese. The group has seen many personnel changes over the years, with Froese the only constant member until his death in January 2015. The best-known lineup of the group was its mid-1970s trio of Froese, Christopher Franke, and Peter Baumann. In 1979, Johannes Schmoelling replaced Baumann until his own departure in 1985. This lineup was notable for composing many movie soundtracks. Since Froese's death in 2015, the group has been under the leadership of Thorsten Quaeschning. Quaeschning is Froese's chosen successor and is currently the longest-serving band member, having joined in 2005. Quaeschning is currently joined by violinist Hoshiko Yamane who joined in 2011 and Paul Frick who joined in 2020. Prior to this Quaeschning and Yamane performed with Ulrich Schnauss from 2014 to 2020. Schnauss only played two shows with Froese in November 2014 before Froese's passing.

Tangerine Dream are considered a pioneering act in electronica.[3] Their work with the electronic music Ohr label produced albums that had a pivotal role in the development of the German musical scene known as kosmische Musik ("cosmic music"). Their "Virgin Years", so called because of their association with Virgin Records, produced albums that further explored synthesizers and sequencers, including the UK top 20 albums Phaedra (1974) and Rubycon (1975). The group also had a successful career composing film soundtracks, creating over 60 scores.

From the late 1990s into the 2000s, Tangerine Dream continued to explore other styles of instrumental music as well as electronica. Their recorded output has been prolific, including over one hundred albums. Among other scoring projects, they helped create the soundtrack for the video game Grand Theft Auto V. Their mid-1970s work has been profoundly influential in the development of electronic music styles such as new-age and electronic dance music.

On 29 September 2017, the band released an all-new music studio album entitled Quantum Gate. In December 2019, they released Recurring Dreams, a compilation of new recordings of some of the band's classic compositions. On 26 November 2021, the band released an EP entitled Probe 6–8 (including three tracks: "Raum", "Para Guy" and "Continuum"), whose concept was developed further on their following album Raum, their latest studio album to date which was released on 25 February 2022.


Origins: psychedelia and krautrock[edit]

Edgar Froese arrived in West Berlin in the mid-1960s to study art. His first band, the psychedelic rock-styled The Ones, disbanded after releasing only one single. After The Ones, Froese experimented with musical ideas, playing smaller gigs with a variety of musicians. Most of these performances were in the famous Zodiak Free Arts Lab, although one grouping also had the distinction of being invited to play for the surrealist painter Salvador Dalí. The music was partnered with literature, painting, early forms of multimedia, and more. It seemed as though only the most outlandish ideas attracted any attention, leading Froese to comment: "In the absurd often lies what is artistically possible." As members of the group came and went, the direction of the music continued to be inspired by the Surrealists, and the group came to be called by the surreal-sounding name of Tangerine Dream, inspired by mishearing the line "tangerine trees and marmalade skies" from the Beatles' track "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds".[4]

Froese was fascinated by technology and skilled in using it to create music. He built custom-made instruments and, wherever he went, collected sounds with tape recorders for use in constructing musical works later. His early work with tape loops and other repeating sounds was the obvious precursor to the emerging technology of the sequencer, which Tangerine Dream quickly adopted upon its arrival.

Released in 1970 by record label Ohr, the first Tangerine Dream album, Electronic Meditation, was a tape-collage Krautrock piece, using the technology of the time rather than the synthesized music they later became famous for. The line-up for the album was Froese, Klaus Schulze, and Conrad Schnitzler. Electronic Meditation began the period known as the Pink Years (the Ohr logo was a pink ear). Subsequent albums, beginning with Alpha Centauri, relied heavily on electronic instruments. The band's music during the early 1970s prominently featured organ from Steve Schroyder (on Alpha Centauri) or Peter Baumann (on subsequent releases), commonly augmented by guitar from Froese and drums from Christopher Franke. They also started their heavy usage of the Mellotron during this period.[5]

Rise to fame: the Virgin years[edit]

The band's 1973 album Atem was named as one of British DJ John Peel's records of the year, and this attention helped Tangerine Dream to sign to the fledgling Virgin Records in the same year.[6] Soon afterward they released the album Phaedra, an eerie soundscape that unexpectedly reached No. 15 in the UK Albums Chart and became one of Virgin's first bona fide hits.[6] Phaedra was one of the first commercial albums to feature sequencers and came to define much more than just the band's own sound. The creation of the album's title track was something of an accident: the band was experimenting in the studio with a recently acquired Moog synthesizer, and the tape happened to be rolling at the time. They kept the results and later added flute, bass guitar, and Mellotron performances. The Moog, like many other early synthesizers, was so sensitive to changes in temperature that its oscillators would drift badly in tuning as the equipment warmed up, and this drift can easily be heard on the final recording. This album marked the beginning of the period known as the 'Virgin Years'.

Their mid-1970s work has been profoundly influential in the development of electronic music styles such as new-age (although the band themselves disliked the term)[7] and electronic dance music.[8]

In the 1980s, along with other electronic music pioneers such as Jean-Michel Jarre (with whom Edgar Froese collaborated on Jarre's 2015 album Electronica 1: The Time Machine) and Vangelis, the band were early adopters of the new digital technology, which revolutionized the sound of the synthesizer, although the group had been using digital equipment (in some shape or form) as early as the mid-1970s. Their technical competence and extensive experience in their early years with self-made instruments and unusual means of creating sounds meant that they were able to exploit this new technology to make music quite unlike anything heard before.

Tangerine Dream live[edit]

Tangerine Dream's earliest concerts were visually simple by modern standards, with three men sitting motionless for hours alongside massive electronic boxes festooned with patch cords and a few flashing lights. Some concerts were even performed in complete darkness, as happened during the performance at York Minster on 20 October 1975. As time went on and technology advanced, the concerts became much more elaborate, with visual effects, lighting, lasers, pyrotechnics, and projected images. By 1977 their North American tour featured full-scale Laserium effects.

Through the 1970s and 1980s, the band toured extensively. The concerts generally included large amounts of unreleased and improvised material and were consequently widely bootlegged. They were notorious for playing extremely loudly and for a long time. The band released recordings of a fair number of their concerts, and on some of these the band worked out material that would later form the backbone of their studio recordings.

Forays into vocals[edit]

The E-mu Audity synthesizer, commissioned by Peter Baumann in 1979

Most of Tangerine Dream's albums are entirely instrumental. Two earlier albums that prominently featured lyrics were Cyclone (1978)[9] and Tyger (1987). While there were occasionally a few vocals on the band's other releases, such as the track "Kiew Mission" from 1981's Exit and "The Harbor" from 1987's Shy People, the group only returned to featuring vocals on a larger scale in a musical trilogy based on Dante's Divine Comedy. This was followed by a 2007 album Madcap's Flaming Duty and a 2010 cover collection Under Cover – Chapter One.

After their 1980 East Berlin gig, when they became one of the first major Western bands to perform in a communist country, Tangerine Dream released a double live album of one of their performances there, called Poland, recorded during their tour in the winter at the end of 1983. With Poland, the band moved to the Jive Electro label, marking the beginning of the Blue Years.[10]


Throughout the 1980s, Tangerine Dream composed scores for more than 20 films. This had been an interest of Froese's since the late 1960s, when he scored and acted in the experimental film "Auf Scheißer schießt man nicht", directed by Hansjürgen Pohland. Many of the group's soundtracks were composed at least partially of reworked material from the band's studio albums or work that was in progress for upcoming albums; see, for example, the resemblance between the track "Igneous" on their soundtrack for Thief and the track "Thru Metamorphic Rocks" on their studio release Force Majeure. Their first exposure on US television came when a track for the then in-progress album Le Parc was used as the theme for the television program, Street Hawk. Some of the more famous soundtracks have been Sorcerer, Thief, Legend, Risky Business, The Keep,[11] Firestarter,[12] Flashpoint,[13] Heartbreakers, Shy People and Near Dark.[14][15]

Tangerine Dream also composed 35 hours of music stems for the video game, Grand Theft Auto V.[16]

In 2016, Tangerine Dream released their own version of the theme music for the television series Stranger Things.[17] Tangerine Dream had inspired music for the series.[17]

Going independent[edit]

Several of the band's albums released during the 1990s were nominated for Grammy Awards.[18] Since then, Tangerine Dream with Jerome Froese took a directional change away from the new-age leanings of those albums and toward an electronica style. After Jerome's departure, founder Edgar Froese steered the band in a direction somewhat reminiscent of material throughout their career.

In later years, Tangerine Dream released albums in series. The Dream Mixes series began in 1995 with the last being released in 2010. The Divine Comedy series, based on the writings of Dante Alighieri, spanned 2002–2006. From 2007 to 2010, the Five Atomic Seasons were released. Most recently, the Eastgate Sonic Poems series, based on the works of famous poetic authors such as Edgar Allan Poe and Franz Kafka, began in 2011, with the last appearing in 2013. Also, beginning in 2007, Tangerine Dream released a number of EPs, referred to as "CupDiscs" by the band.

Edgar Froese also released a number of solo recordings, which are similar in style to Tangerine Dream's work. Jerome Froese released a number of singles as TDJ Rome, which are similar to his work within the Dream Mixes series. In 2005, he released his first solo album Neptunes under the name Jerome Froese. In 2006, Jerome left Tangerine Dream to concentrate on his solo career. His second solo album Shiver Me Timbers was released on 29 October 2007, and his third, Far Side of the Face, was released in 2012. Beginning in 2011, Jerome Froese joined with former Tangerine Dream member Johannes Schmoelling and keyboardist Robert Waters to form the band Loom, which plays original material, as well as Tangerine Dream classics. Thorsten Quaeschning, leader of Picture Palace Music, was brought into Tangerine Dream in 2005 and contributed to most of the band's albums and CupDiscs since then.

The group had recording contracts with Ohr, Virgin, Jive Electro, Private Music, and Miramar, and many of the minor soundtracks were released on Varèse Sarabande. In 1996, the band founded their own record label, TDI, and more recently, Eastgate. Subsequent albums are today generally not available in normal retail channels but are sold by mail-order or through online channels. The same applies to their Miramar releases, the rights to which the band bought back. Meanwhile, their Ohr and Jive Electro catalogs (known as the "Pink" and "Blue" Years) are currently owned by Esoteric Recordings.

Concert updates[edit]

Tangerine Dream performing in 2007

To celebrate their 40th anniversary (1967–2007), Tangerine Dream announced their only UK concert: at London Astoria on 20 April 2007. The band also played a totally free open-air concert in Eberswalde on 1 July 2007 and at the Alte Oper in Frankfurt on Main on 7 October 2007. 2008 saw the band in Eindhoven Netherlands playing at E-Day (an electronic music festival); later in the year they also played the Night of the Prog Festival in Loreley, Germany, as well as concerts at the Kentish Town Forum, in London on 1 November, at the Picture House, Edinburgh on 2 November, and their first live concert in the US for over a decade, at the UCLA Royce Hall, Los Angeles on 7 November.

In 2009, the group announced that they would play a concert at the Royal Albert Hall in London, on 1 April 2010, titled the Zeitgeist concert, 35 years after their milestone concert there on 2 April 1975. The entire concert was released as a 3-CD live album on 7 July 2010.[19]

Tangerine Dream embarked in spring and summer 2012 on a tour of Europe, Canada and the USA called The Electric Mandarine Tour 2012:[20] The 1st leg was a 5-date European tour, beginning on 10 April in Budapest (Hungary) via Padua (Italy), Milano (Italy), Zurich (Switzerland), and ending on 10 May in Berlin (Germany). The 2nd leg was a North-American tour that started with the Jazz Festival in Montréal (Canada) on 30 June, followed by a concert on 4 July at the Bluesfest in Ottawa (Canada) and continued as a 10-date US journey beginning in July in Boston, then New York, Philadelphia, Washington, and California. On 16 November 2014, Tangerine Dream performed in Melbourne, Australia, as part of Melbourne Music Week. They were the final shows with Froese.[21] Tangerine Dream played two consecutive nights at the Union Chapel, Islington London on April 23 & 24 2018, the second supported by ex-Japan and Porcupine Tree musician Richard Barbieri.[citation needed] In October and November 2019, Tangerine Dream went on its 16 step Random & Revision Tour.

2023 saw the band embark on the largest tour of their entire career, including a 19-date tour of North America (September 8 – October 5: taking in Miami, Asheville, Atlanta, Dallas, Austin, Albuquerque, Tucson, San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, Vancouver, Seattle, Philadelphia, Washington, New York, Montreal, Toronto and Chicago), 13-dates in Germany (October 10 – 28), and 10-dates in the UK (November 5 – 14)[citation needed]

After Edgar Froese's death[edit]

Edgar Froese died suddenly in Vienna on 20 January 2015 from a pulmonary embolism.[22][23] On 6 April 2015, the group's remaining members (Quaeschning, Schnauss and Yamane) and Bianca Acquaye (Froese's widow), pledged to continue working together in an effort to fulfill Froese's vision for the group. However, ex-member Jerome Froese announced in his Facebook time line that, in his opinion, Tangerine Dream will not exist without his father.[24]

Tangerine Dream played their first show following Froese's death on 9 June 2016 in Szczecin, Poland.[25]

On 29 September 2017, Tangerine Dream released their new studio album entitled, Quantum Gate, celebrating the 50th anniversary of the band's foundation. The album is based on ideas and musical sketches by founder Edgar Froese and was completed by the remaining members of the band.[26]

On 31 January 2020, Tangerine Dream re-released their December 2019 album Recurring Dreams, an eleven-track collection of new recordings of some of the band's classic tracks, worldwide through Kscope. This was launched to coincide with the Tangerine Dream: Zeitraffer exhibition, which opened on 17 January 2020 at London's Barbican and runs until 2 May 2020.[27]

On 9 June 2020, Paul Frick became the first member to join the group following Edgar's death after having made guest appearances with the band, starting in November 2018. Later on, the group started working on a new studio album entitled, Raum, featuring Froese's archival recordings in early 2022 via Kscope.[28] Frick has the unique distinction of being the first addition to the group who did not ever personally meet Froese.[29]

It was announced on 22 June 2021 that Ulrich Schnauss has decided to stop performing live. Since then, the band's official website lists him as a former member.[30]

In March 2023, the band embarked on the longest tour of their entire career, with concerts in Portugal (Casa da Música), Switzerland (Geneva's Electron Festival), The Netherlands (3-date tour), Belgium (Het Depot), France (La Gaîté Lyrique), Poland (2-date tour), Romania (TIFF Festival), the US (16-date tour), Canada (3-date tour), Germany (12-date tour), England (8-date tour), Scotland (2-date tour) and Poland (1-date).

Artistic connections[edit]


Tangerine Dream began as a surreal krautrock band, with each of the members contributing different musical influences and styles, before becoming a "revered progressive electronic act."[31] Edgar Froese's guitar style was inspired by Jimi Hendrix,[32] as well as the avant-garde composers Iannis Xenakis and Karlheinz Stockhausen, while Christopher Franke contributed elements of György Ligeti and Terry Riley. Yes-like progressive rock influence was brought in by Steve Jolliffe on Cyclone. The sample-based sound collages of Johannes Schmoelling drew their inspiration from a number of sources; one instance is Steve Reich's Music for 18 Musicians on parts of Logos Live, and the track "Love on a Real Train" from the Risky Business soundtrack.[33]

Classical music has had an influence on the sound of Tangerine Dream over the years. György Ligeti, Johann Sebastian Bach, Pierre Boulez, Iannis Xenakis, Maurice Ravel, and Arcangelo Corelli are clearly visible as dominant influences in the early albums. A Baroque sensibility sometimes informs the more coordinated sequencer patterns, which has its most direct expression in the La Folia section that comes at the very end of the title track of Force Majeure. In live performances, the piano solos often directly quoted from Romantic classical works for piano, such as the Beethoven and Mozart snippets in much of the late 1970s – early 1980s stage shows. In the bootleg recording of the Mannheim Mozartsaal concert of 1976 (Tangerine Tree volume 13), the first part of the first piece also clearly quotes from Franz Liszt's Totentanz. The first phrase is played on a harpsichord synthesizer patch and is answered by the second half of the phrase in a flute voicing on a Mellotron. During the 1990s, many releases included recordings of classical compositions: Pictures at an Exhibition (on Turn of the Tides), Largo (from Xerxes) (on Tyranny of Beauty), Symphony in A Minor (by J. S. Bach), and Concerto in A Major / Adagio (by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart) (both on Ambient Monkeys).

Since the 1990s, Tangerine Dream have also recorded cover versions of Jimi Hendrix' "Purple Haze" (first on 220 Volt Live) and The Beatles' "Eleanor Rigby", "Back in the U.S.S.R.", "Tomorrow Never Knows", and "Norwegian Wood".

An infrequently recurring non-musical influence on Tangerine Dream, and Edgar Froese in particular, have been 12th–19th-century poets. This was first evident on the 1981 album Exit, the track title "Pilots of the Purple Twilight" being a quote from Alfred Lord Tennyson's poem Locksley Hall. Six years later, the album Tyger featured poems from William Blake set to music; and around the turn of the millennium, Edgar Froese started working on a musical trilogy based on Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, completed in 2006. Most recently, the 2007 album Madcap's Flaming Duty features more poems set to music, some again from Blake but also e.g. Walt Whitman.

Pink Floyd were also an influence on Edgar Froese and Tangerine Dream, the band in its very early psychedelic rock band phase playing improvisations based on Pink Floyd's "Interstellar Overdrive". Madcap's Flaming Duty is dedicated to the memory of the late Syd Barrett. The title refers to Barrett's solo release The Madcap Laughs.

The band's influence can be felt in ambient artists such as Deepspace, The Future Sound of London, David Kristian, and Global Communication, as well as rock, pop, and dance artists such as Porcupine Tree, M83, DJ Shadow, Ulrich Schnauss, Cut Copy, and Kasabian. The band also clearly influenced 1990s and 2000s trance music, notably Chicane; both "Offshore" and "Sunstroke" borrow heavily from "Love on a Real Train" [34] where lush soundscapes and synth pads are used along with repetitive synth sequences, much like in their 1975 releases Rubycon and Ricochet, as well as some of their music from the early 1980s. The group have also been sampled countless times, more recently by Recoil on the album SubHuman, by Sasha on Involver, and on several Houzan Suzuki albums. Michael Jackson also expressed being a fan of Tangerine Dream, specifically their 1977 soundtrack for the film Sorcerer. It inspired him to get a Synclavier II, which a demo of would be used as the intro for Beat It. [35][36]

In popular culture[edit]

  • In the critically acclaimed 1991 Mexican telenovela Cadenas de Amargura, Tangerine Dream's song "Yucatan" is used as part of the novela's music score particularly in the more suspenseful scenes.
  • Steven Wilson, of Porcupine Tree, stated that Tangerine Dream was one of his influences to make his music, and often cites Zeit as his all-time favorite album.[37]
  • Japanese electronic musician Susumu Hirasawa dedicated his song "Island Door (Paranesian Circle)" (トビラ島(パラネシアン・サークル), Tobira Shima (Paraneshian Circle)) to Tangerine Dream.
  • In 2016, Netflix's original show Stranger Things used three Tangerine Dream tracks in its soundtrack: "Green Desert" from Green Desert (1986) in episode five, "Exit" from Exit (1981) in episode six, of season 1 and "Tangent (Rare Bird)" from Poland (1984) in episode nine of season 2. Composers of the soundtrack for the show, Kyle Dixon and Michael Stein of the electronic band Survive, also cited Tangerine Dream as the key influence behind the soundtrack,[38] the main theme of which was later covered by Tangerine Dream.[17]
  • In 2022, the horned dinosaur Bisticeratops froeseorum was named in memory of Edgar Froese, the late founder of Tangerine Dream.[39]


In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Tangerine Dream existed as several short-lived incarnations, all of which included Froese, who teamed up with several musicians from West Berlin's underground music scene, including Steve Jolliffe, Sven-Åke Johansson, Klaus Schulze, and Conrad Schnitzler.[6]

Froese's most notable association was his partnership with Christopher Franke.[6] Franke joined Tangerine Dream in 1970 after serving time in the group Agitation Free, originally to replace Schulze as the drummer. Franke is credited with starting to use electronic sequencers, which were introduced on Phaedra, a development that had not only a large impact on the group's music but on many electronic musicians to this day. Franke stayed with the group for 17 years, leaving in 1988 because of exhausting touring schedules, as well as creative differences with Froese.[6]

Other long-term members of the group include Peter Baumann (1971–1977), who later went on to found the new-age label Private Music, to which the band was signed from 1988 to 1991; Johannes Schmoelling (1979–1985); Paul Haslinger (1986–1990); Froese's son Jerome Froese (1990–2006); Linda Spa (1990–1996, 2005–2014), a saxophonist & flute player who appeared on numerous albums and concerts, contributing one track on Goblins' Club; and most recently Thorsten Quaeschning of Picture Palace Music (2005–present).

A number of other members were also part of Tangerine Dream for shorter periods of time. Unlike session musicians, these players also contributed to compositions of the band during their tenures. Some of the more notable members are Steve Schroyder (organist, 1971–1972), Michael Hoenig (who replaced Baumann for a 1975 Australian tour and a London concert, included on Bootleg Box Set Vol. 1), Steve Jolliffe (wind instruments, keyboards and vocals on Cyclone and the following tour; he was also part of a short-lived 1969 line-up), Klaus Krüger (drummer on Cyclone and Force Majeure) and Ralf Wadephul (in collaboration with Edgar Froese recorded album Blue Dawn, but it was released only in 2006; also credited for one track on Optical Race (1988) and toured with the band in support of this album).

Throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s, Tangerine Dream was often joined on stage by Zlatko Perica or Gerald Gradwohl on guitars, and Emil Hachfeld on electronic drums. Jerome Froese left in 2006 after a concert at the Tempodrom in Berlin. Until late 2014, Tangerine Dream comprised Edgar Froese, as well as Thorsten Quaeschning, who first collaborated in the composition of Jeanne d'Arc (2005). For concerts and recordings, they were usually joined by Linda Spa on saxophone and flute, Iris Camaa on drums and percussion, and Bernhard Beibl on guitar. In 2011, electric violinist Hoshiko Yamane was added to the lineup and is featured on some of the most recent albums.[40]

In late 2014, Bernhard Beibl announced on his Facebook page that he would stop collaborating with Tangerine Dream. Shortly thereafter, it was announced that Tangerine Dream would no longer be touring with Linda Spa or Iris Camaa, but that Ulrich Schnauss had been brought into the fold. Edgar Froese's death in January 2015, however, left this a short-lived line-up.[41]


Current members

Bianca Froese-Acquaye, Edgar Froese's widow, has taken up the mantle of continuing the legacy of the group and works closely in a non-musical capacity with the remaining members.

Former members
  • Edgar Froese – leader and founder, keyboards, guitars (1967–2015; his death)
  • Christopher Franke – keyboards, drums (1970–1987)
  • Peter Baumann – keyboards (1971–1973, 1973–1975, 1975–1977)
  • Johannes Schmoelling – keyboards (1979–1985)
  • Jerome Froese – keyboards, guitars (1990–2006)
  • Paul Haslinger – keyboards, guitars (1986–1990)
  • Linda Spa – saxophone, flute, keyboards (1990–1996, 2005–2014)
  • Klaus Schulze – drums, percussion (1969–1970; died 2022)
  • Conrad Schnitzler – cello, violin, fx (1969–1970; died 2011)
  • Steve Jolliffe – saxophone, keyboards, flute, vocals (1969, 1978)
  • Michael Hoenig – keyboards (1975)
  • Ulrich Schnauss – synthesizer, piano, sequencer, Ableton (2014–2020)
  • Klaus Krüger – drums, percussion (1978–1979)
  • Ralf Wadephul – keyboards (1988–1989)
  • Steve Schroyder – keyboards, vocals (1970–1971)
  • Bernhard Beibl – guitars, violin (2006–2014)
  • Iris Camaa – percussion, Roland V-Drums (2001–2014)
  • Zlatko Perica – guitars (1992–1997)
  • Fred Braceful – drums and percussion (1969)
  • Happy Dieter – bass (1969; died 1974)
  • Lanse Hapshash – drums (1967–1969)
  • Kurt Herkenberg – bass (1968–1969; died 1983)
  • Volker Hombach – saxophone, violin, flute (1967–1969)
  • Charlie Prince – vocals (1967–1968)


1967–1968 1968–1969 1969 1969–1970
  • Edgar Froese – guitars
  • Lanse Hapshash – drums
  • Kurt Herkenberg – bass
  • Volker Hombach – saxophone, violin, flute
  • Charlie Prince – vocals
  • Edgar Froese – guitars
  • Lanse Hapshash – drums
  • Kurt Herkenberg – bass
  • Volker Hombach – saxophone, violin, flute
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Klaus Schulze – drums, percussion
  • Conrad Schnitzler – cello, violin
1970–1971 1971–1975 1975 1975–1977
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Christopher Franke – keyboards, drums
  • Steve Schroyder – keyboards, vocals
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Christopher Franke – keyboards, drums
  • Peter Baumann – keyboards
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Christopher Franke – keyboards, drums
  • Michael Hoenig – keyboards
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Christopher Franke – keyboards, drums
  • Peter Baumann – keyboards
1977–1978 1978 1978–1979 1979–1985
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Christopher Franke – keyboards, drums
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Christopher Franke – keyboards
  • Steve Jolliffe – saxophone, flute, keyboards
  • Klaus Krüger – drums, percussion
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Christopher Franke – keyboards, drums
  • Klaus Krüger – drums, percussion
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Christopher Franke – keyboards, drums
  • Johannes Schmoelling – keyboards
1985–1986 1986–1987 1987–1988 1988
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Christopher Franke – keyboards, drums
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Christopher Franke – keyboards, drums
  • Paul Haslinger – keyboards, guitars
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Paul Haslinger – keyboards, guitars
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Paul Haslinger – keyboards, guitars
  • Ralf Wadephul – keyboards
1988–1990 1990 1990–1992 1992–1996
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Paul Haslinger – keyboards, guitars
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Paul Haslinger – keyboards, guitars
  • Jerome Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Jerome Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Linda Spa – saxophone, flute, keyboards
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Jerome Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Linda Spa – saxophone, flute, keyboards
  • Zlatko Perica – guitars
1996–1997 1997–2001 2001–2005 2005–2006
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Jerome Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Zlatko Perica – guitars
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Jerome Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Jerome Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Iris Camaa – percussion, V-drums
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Jerome Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Linda Spa – saxophone, flute, keyboards
  • Iris Camaa – percussion, V-drums
  • Thorsten Quaeschning – keyboards, drums, vocals
2006–2011 2011–2014 2014–2015 2015–2020
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Linda Spa – saxophone, flute, keyboards
  • Iris Camaa – percussion, V-drums
  • Thorsten Quaeschning – keyboards, drums, vocals
  • Bernhard Beibl – guitars, violin
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Linda Spa – saxophone, flute, keyboards
  • Iris Camaa – percussion, V-drums
  • Thorsten Quaeschning – keyboards, drums, vocals
  • Bernhard Beibl – guitars, violin
  • Hoshiko Yamane – violin, cello
  • Edgar Froese – keyboards, guitars
  • Thorsten Quaeschning – keyboards, drums, vocals
  • Hoshiko Yamane – violin, cello
  • Ulrich Schnauss – keyboards
  • Thorsten Quaeschning – keyboards, guitar, drums
  • Hoshiko Yamane – violin/viola, cello, ableton push, looper
  • Ulrich Schnauss – keyboards, sequencer control / ableton, FX
  • Thorsten Quaeschning – keyboards, guitar, drums
  • Hoshiko Yamane – violin/viola, cello, ableton push, looper, effect pedals
  • Paul Frick – keyboards


Guest musicians[edit]

  • Jimmy Jackson (1970) – organ on Electronic Meditation
  • Thomas Keyserling (1970) – flute on Electronic Meditation
  • Udo Dennebourg (1971) – flute on Alpha Centauri
  • Roland Paulick (1971) – synthesizer on Alpha Centauri
  • Florian Fricke (1972)
  • Christian Vallbracht (1972)
  • Jochen von Grumbcow (1972)
  • Hans Joachim Brüne (1972)
  • Johannes Lücke (1972)
  • Eduard Meyer (1979) – cello on Force Majeure
  • Susanne Pawlitzki (1985)
  • Jocelyn Bernadette Smith (1987)
  • Jacquie Virgil (1987)
  • Diamond Ross (1987)
  • Hubert Waldner (1989–1990)
  • Chi Coltrane (1991)
  • Enrico Fernandez (1992)
  • Richi Wester (1992)
  • Jayney Klimek – vocals (1992–1994, 2002–2005)
  • Roland Braunstein (1993)
  • Julie Ocean (1993)
  • Mark Hornby (1994–2002)
  • Gerald Gradwohl – guitars (1994–1996, 1999–2001, 2006–2007)
  • Gisela Kloetzer (1994)
  • Milan Polak (1995)
  • Emil Hachfeld – codotronic drums (1997–1999)
  • Vicki McClure (1998)
  • Barbara Kindermann (2001)
  • Claire Foquet (2001)
  • Jane Monet (2001)
  • Bianca Acquaye (2001, 2005)
  • Bry Gonzales (2001)
  • Jack Liberty (2002, 2009)
  • Lerk Andebracht (2002, 2009)
  • Zlatko Perica – guitars (2003–2005) (1992–1997; full time member)
  • Saskia Klumpp (2003, 2005)
  • Tatjana Kouchev (2005)
  • Fridolin Johann Harms (2005)
  • Brandenburg Symphonic Orchestra (2005)
  • Neuer Kammerchor Potsdam (2005)
  • Claire Fouquet (2005)
  • Barbara Kindermann (2005, 2008)
  • Diane Miller (2005)
  • Jane Monet (2005)
  • Christian Hausl (2006–2007, 2010)
  • Gynt Beator (2006)
  • Thomas Beator (2006)
  • Hetty Snell (2010)
  • Zoe Marshall (2010)
  • Stephanie Oade (2010)
  • Rebecca J. Herman (2010)
  • Carolina Eyck (2017)
  • Richard Barbieri (2018)
  • Franz Bargmann (2019)
  • Paul Frick (2018–2020) (2020–present; full time member)
  • Steve Hillage (2020)
  • Michał Łapaj (2021)
  • Steve Rothery (2022)
  • Steve Roach (2023)
  • Robert Rich (2023)
  • Julie Slick (2023)
  • Cliff Hewitt (2023)
  • Nick Beggs (2023)
  • Ali Ferguson (2023)


Tangerine Dream has released over one hundred albums (not counting compilations and fan releases) over the last five decades. A project to collect and release fan concert recordings, known as the Tangerine Tree, was active from 2002 to 2006.

Studio, EP or mini albums

  1. Electronic Meditation (1970)
  2. Alpha Centauri (1971)
  3. Zeit (1972)
  4. Atem (1973)
  5. Phaedra (1974)
  6. Rubycon (1975)
  7. Stratosfear (1976)
  8. Cyclone (1978)
  9. Force Majeure (1979)
  10. Tangram (1980)
  11. Exit (1981)
  12. White Eagle (1982)
  13. Hyperborea (1983)
  14. Le Parc (1985)
  15. Green Desert (1986, recorded in 1973)
  16. Underwater Sunlight (1986)
  17. Tyger (1987)
  18. Optical Race (1988)
  19. Lily on the Beach (1989)
  20. Melrose (1990)
  21. Rockoon (1992)
  22. Quinoa (1992, revised 1998)
  23. Turn of the Tides (1994)
  24. Tyranny of Beauty (1995)
  25. The Dream Mixes (1995)
  26. Tangerine Ambience (1996)
  27. Goblins' Club (1996)
  28. Tangerine Ambience Vol II (1997)
  29. TimeSquare – Dream Mixes II (1997)
  30. Ambient Monkeys (1997)
  31. Der Meteor (1997)
  32. The Hollywood Years Vol. 1 (1998)
  33. The Hollywood Years Vol. 2 (1998)
  34. Mars Polaris (1999)
  35. The Seven Letters from Tibet (2000)
  36. The Past Hundred Moons (2001)
  37. The Melrose Years (2002) (Re-recordings of Optical Race, Lily on the Beach and Melrose)
  38. DM 4 (2003)
  39. Purgatorio (2004)
  40. Kyoto (2005)
  41. Space Flight Orange (2005) (EP)
  42. Jeanne d'Arc (2005)
  43. Phaedra 2005 (2005) (Re-recording)
  44. Blue Dawn (2006)
  45. Paradiso (2006)
  46. Metaphor (2006) (EP)
  47. Springtime In Nagasaki (2007) (Five Atomic Seasons)
  48. Madcap's Flaming Duty (2007)
  49. Summer In Nagasaki (2007) (Five Atomic Seasons)
  50. One Times One (2007)
  51. Purple Diluvial (2008)
  52. Views from a Red Train (2008)
  53. The Anthology Decades (2008)
  54. Tangram 2008 (2008) (Re-recording)
  55. Hyperborea 2008 (2008) (Re-recording)
  56. Fallen Angels (2008) (EP or single?)
  57. Autumn in Hiroshima (2008) (Five Atomic Seasons)
  58. Choice (2008) (EP)
  59. Flame (2009)
  60. Chandra – The Phantom Ferry Part I (2009)
  61. A Cage in Search of a Bird (2009) (EP)
  62. Winter in Hiroshima (2009) (Five Atomic Seasons)
  63. DM V (2010)
  64. Zeitgeist (2010) (EP)
  65. Run to Vegas (2010)
  66. Under Cover – Chapter One (2010)
  67. The Endless Season (2010) (Five Atomic Seasons)
  68. The Island of the Fay (2011) (Eastgate's Sonic Poems Series)
  69. The Gate of Saturn (2011) (mini-album or EP)
  70. The Angel of the West Window (2011) (Eastgate's Sonic Poems Series)
  71. Mona da Vinci (2011) (mini-album or EP)
  72. Finnegans Wake (2011) (Eastgate's Sonic Poems Series)
  73. Machu Picchu (2012) (mini-album or EP)
  74. Cruise to Destiny (2013)
  75. Franz Kafka — The Castle (2013) (Eastgate's Sonic Poems Series)
  76. Chandra – The Phantom Ferry Part II (2014)
  77. Josephine The Mouse Singer (2014) (mini-album)
  78. Mala Kunia (2014) (mini-album)
  79. Zero Gravity (2015) (EP with Jean-Michel Jarre)
  80. Quantum Key (2015) (mini-album)
  81. Particles (2016) (mini-album or EP)
  82. Light Flux (2017)
  83. Quantum Gate (2017)[42]
  84. Recurring Dreams (2019)
  85. Probe 6–8 (2021) (EP)
  86. Raum (2022)[43]


  1. ^ Bush, John. "Tangerine Dream Discography". AllMusic.
  2. ^ "Alpha Centauri/Ultima Tima Thule – Tangerine Dream | Release Credits". AllMusic.
  3. ^ Swan, Glenn. "Rubycon – Tangerine Dream". AllMusic.
  4. ^ DeRogatis, Jim (2003). Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 263. ISBN 0-634-05548-8.
  5. ^ Stump, Paul (1999). Digital Gothic: A Critical Discography of Tangerine Dream. Firefly Publishing. pp. 29–48. ISBN 0-946719-18-7.
  6. ^ a b c d e Colin Larkin, ed. (1997). The Virgin Encyclopedia of Popular Music (Concise ed.). Virgin Books. p. 1162. ISBN 1-85227-745-9.
  7. ^ Fatali, Liberi. "Tangerine Dream: Madcap's Flaming Duty". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  8. ^ Perrone, Pierre (27 January 2015). "Edgar Froese : Leader of electronic band Tangerine Dream whose influence has been felt for more than four decades". The Independent. Archived from the original on 26 May 2022. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  9. ^ Pinnock, Tom (21 June 2019). "Tangerine Dream – In Search Of Hades: The Virgin Recordings 1973–1979". Uncut.
  10. ^ "Jive Electro". Discogs. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  11. ^ Rapold, Nicolas (1 June 2012). "Underscoring the Drama in the Dark". The New York Times.
  12. ^ Canby, Vincent (11 May 1984). "SCREEN: 'FIRESTARTER', A STEPHEN KING STORY". The New York Times.
  13. ^ Maslin, Janet (31 August 1984). "SCREEN: 'FLASHPOINT', WITH KRIS KRISTOFFERSON". The New York Times.
  14. ^ James, Caryn (4 October 1987). "Film: 'Near Dark', a Tale of Vampires on the Road". The New York Times.
  15. ^ Michelangelo, Antonioni (21 October 1982). Film: 'Identification of a Woman'.
  16. ^ Shamoon, Evan (28 August 2013). "Inside The Grand Theft Auto V Soundtrack". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  17. ^ a b c Kreps, Daniel (12 September 2016). "Hear Tangerine Dream's Spooky Cover of 'Stranger Things' Theme". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
  18. ^ Brenholts, Jim. Tangerine Dream — The Grammy Nominated Albums at AllMusic
  19. ^ "Zeitgeist Concert – 3CD Set". Eastgate Music Shop. Archived from the original on 27 January 2015.
  20. ^ "Concert Dates". Tangerinedream-music.com. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
  21. ^ "Melbourne Music Week Tangerine Dream". Victorian Government. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014.
  22. ^ "Tangerine Dream founder Edgar Froese dies". The Guardian. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  23. ^ "R.I.P. Tangerine Dream's Edgar Froese". Exclaim!. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  24. ^ "Jerome Froese – Timeline Photos". Facebook. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  25. ^ Froese, Edgar. "Internationales Festival für Elektronische Musik". Schwingungen-festival.de.
  26. ^ "Tangerine Dream – The new studio album, Quantum Gate Celebrating 50 years of Tangerine Dream – Listen to the first song "Tear Down the Grey Skies" above". Kscopemusic.com. September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  27. ^ "Tangerine Dream to revisit classic tracks on Recurring Dreams album – Tangerine Dream's 2020 lineup will release 11-track album to coincide with London's Zeitraffer Exhibition – listen to 2014 version of Phaedra (by Scott Munro (Prog))". Loudersound.com. 18 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  28. ^ [1] [dead link]
  29. ^ https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10224663309634272&set=p.10224663309634272&type=3
  30. ^ [2] [dead link]
  31. ^ Reed, Ryan (18 April 2019). "Tangerine Dream Unearth 'Phaedra' Outtakes for Massive Seventies Box Set". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  32. ^ Joyce, Mike (7 September 1988). "Spotlight; The Group With a Synth Of Adventure; Tangerine Dream's Long Electronic Music Quest". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 17 August 2007. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
  33. ^ Pope, Shelby (6 September 2016). "Steve Reich's Turning 80 — Here's Where You've Heard Him Before". KQED.
  34. ^ "CHICANE Interview". 3 May 2014.
  35. ^ Dolby, Thomas (6 October 2016). "Inside Michael Jackson's Mansion: Thomas Dolby Recalls Surreal Visit". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2 July 2024.
  36. ^ Dolby, Thomas (2016). The Speed of Sound: Breaking the Barriers Between Music and Technology: A Memoir (First ed.). Flatiron Books. ISBN 978-1250071842.
  37. ^ Menon, Tushar (24 June 2012). "Backstage with Steven Wilson". Rolling Stone India. London, United Kingdom. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  38. ^ Maerzm Jennifer (23 July 2016). "Obsessed with "Stranger Things?" Meet the musicians behind the show's spine-chilling synth score". Salon.
  39. ^ Dalman SG, Jasinski SE, Lucas SG (2022). "A new chasmosaurine ceratopsid from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Farmington Member of the Kirtland Formation, New Mexico". New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 90: 127–153.
  40. ^ "Musik aus geordneten Geräuschen". Telepolis (in German).
  41. ^ "Tangerine Dream founder Edgar Froese dies". The Guardian. 23 January 2015.
  42. ^ Preceded by and companion to the 2015 mini-album Quantum Key
  43. ^ Preceded by and companion to the 2021 EP Probe 6–8

External links[edit]