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|• Burmese||ta.nangsari tuing: desa. kri:|
Location of Tanintharyi Region in Myanmar
|• Chief Minister||Myint Maung (NLD)|
|• Cabinet||Tanintharyi Region Government|
|• Legislature||Taninthayi Region Hluttaw|
|• Judiciary||Tanintharyi Region High Court|
|• Total||43,344.9 km2 (16,735.6 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||2,072 m (6,798 ft)|
|• Density||32/km2 (84/sq mi)|
|• Ethnicities||Bamar, Dawei, Rakhine, Kayin, Salone, Malay, Mon, Thai|
|• Religions||Buddhism 87.50%, Christianity 7.20%, Islam 5.10%, Hinduism 0.10%|
|Time zone||UTC+06:30 (MMT)|
|ISO 3166 code||MM-05|
medium · 8th
Tanintharyi Region (English: Mon state, pronounced [tənɪ́ɰ̃θàjì táɪɰ̃ dèθa̰ dʑí]; Mon: ဏၚ်ကသဳ or ရးတၞင်သြဳ; Malay: Tanah Sari; formerly Tenasserim Division and subsequently Tanintharyi Division, Thai: ตะนาวศรี, RTGS: Tanao Si, pronounced [tənaːw sǐː]; formerly known as Tanao Si) is an administrative region of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern part of the country on the Kra Isthmus. It borders the Andaman Sea to the west and the Tenasserim Hills, beyond which lie Thailand, to the east. To the north is the Mon State. There are many islands off the coast, the large Mergui Archipelago in the southern and central coastal areas and the smaller Moscos Islands off the northern shores. The capital of the division is Dawei (Tavoy). Other important cities include Myeik (Mergui) and Kawthaung. The division covers an area of 43,344.9 km², and had a population of 1,406,434 at the 2014 Census.
|Source: 2014 Myanmar Census|
Tanintharyi Region historically included the entire Tanintharyi salient—today's Tanintharyi Region, Mon State and southern Kayin State. The northernmost region was part of the Thaton Kingdom before 1057, and the entire coastline became part of King Anawrahta's Pagan Empire after 1057. After the fall of Bagan in 1287, the area fell to the Siamese kingdom of Sukhothai, and later its successor Ayutthaya Kingdom. The region's northernmost border was around the Thanlwin (Salween) river near today's Mawlamyaine (Moulmein).
The region reverted to Burmese fold in 1564 when King Bayinnaung of Toungoo Dynasty conquered all of Siam. Ayutthaya had regained independence by 1587, and reclaimed the southern half of Tanintharyi in 1593 and the entire peninsula in 1599. In 1614, King Anaukpetlun recovered the upper half of the coast to Dawei but failed to capture the rest. Tenasserim south of Dawei (Tavoy) remained under Siamese control. Myeik (Mergui) port was a principal center of trade between the Siamese and Europeans.
For nearly seven decades, from the middle of the 18th century to the early 19th century, Burma and Siam were involved in multiple wars for control of the coastline. Taking advantage of the Burmese civil war of 1740–1757, the Siamese cautiously moved up the coastline to the south of Mottama in 1751. The winner of the civil war, King Alaungpaya of Konbaung Dynasty recovered the coastline to Dawei from the Siamese in 1760. His son King Hsinbyushin conquered the entire coastline in 1765. In the following decades, both sides tried to extend the line of control to their advantage but they both failed. The Burmese used Tanintharyi as a forward base to launch several unsuccessful invasions of Siam (1775–1776; 1785–1786; 1809–1812); the Siamese too were unsuccessful in their attempts to retake Tanintharyi (1787 and 1792). (On the northern front, Burma and Siam were also locked in a struggle for the control of Kengtung and Lan Na.)
Burma ceded the region south of Salween river to the British after the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826) per the Treaty of Yandabo. The British and the Siamese signed a boundary demarcation treaty on 20 June 1826, and another one in 1868. Mawlamyine (Moulmein) became the first capital of British Burma. The British seized all of Lower Burma after the Second Anglo-Burmese War of 1852, and moved the capital to Yangon (Rangoon). After 1852, Tanintharyi Region consisted the entire southeastern Myanmar, including today's Mon State, Kayin State, and Taungoo District, in Bago Region. Mawlamyine was the capital of Tanintharyi.
Upon independence from Britain in 1948, the northeastern districts of Tanintharyi were placed into the newly created Karen State. In 1974, the northern part of remaining Tanintharyi was carved out to create Mon State. With Mawlamyine now inside Mon State, the capital of Tanintharyi Region was moved to Dawei. In 1989 the division's English spelling was officially changed to Tanintharyi.
Tanintharyi Region comprises ten townships spread over three districts:
According to the 2014 Myanmar Census, Buddhists make up 87.5% of Tanintharyi Region’s population, forming the largest religious community there. Minority religious communities include Christians (7.2%), Muslims (5.1%), and Hindus (0.2%) who collectively comprise the remainder of Tanintharyi Region’s population. 0.1% of the population listed no religion, other religions, or were otherwise not enumerated.
According to the State Sangha Maha Nayaka Committee’s 2016 statistics, 9095 Buddhist monks were registered in Tanintharyi Region, comprising 1.7% of Myanmar's total Sangha membership, which includes both novice samanera and fully-ordained bhikkhu. The majority of monks belong to the Thudhamma Nikaya (83.8%), followed by Shwegyin Nikaya (1.1%), with the remainder of monks belonging to other small monastic orders. 978 thilashin were registered in Tanintharyi Region, comprising 1.6% of Myanmar’s total thilashin community.
The region is home to ethnic Bamar, Karens, Burmese Thai, Karennis, Burmese Malays and Mokens. The Bamar or Dawei speak the Tavoyan dialect, a variety of Burmese with profound pronunciation and vocabulary differences from standard Burmese.
Tanintharyi Province lies at the southern end of Myanmar, close to the sea, which is a major part of its economy.
The plentiful natural resources from this region, mostly the jewels, are very popular not only in Myanmar but also around the world. Famous mines in this region include Heinda, Hamyingyi, Kanbauk, Yawa, Kyaukmetaung, Nanthida and Yadanabon, where lot of metals can be found. Pearls cultured at the Pearl Island creates much budget obtained from foreign countries at the Myanmar Gems Emporia. Those jewels are distributed many parts of Myanmar and other countries either.
Figuratively, Tanintharyi region can be called the big oil pot of Myanmar, because an edible vegetable oil derived from the fruit of the oil palms is grown mainly in this region. Because of the suitable climate, rubber trees can be grown in Tanintharyi as well.
It is also a source of many products. For the sea fishing industry, they are being arranged along Tanintharyi coast not only for consumers from Myanmar but also for export mostly to Thailand. Birds' nest is also being gathered from offshore islands. This part of the country is the main fishery product market of Myanmar. Food such as dried fish, dried prawn, dried shrimp and Ngapi (shrimp paste) are popularly derived from this region.
Educational opportunities in Myanmar are extremely limited outside the main cities of Yangon and Mandalay. According to official statistics, less than 10% of primary school students in the division reach high school.
All Tanintharyi's 7 universities and colleges are located in Dawei and Myeik. Until recently, Dawei University was the only four-year university in the Region.
The general state of health care in Myanmar is poor. The government spends anywhere from 0.5% to 3% of the country's GDP on health care, consistently ranking among the lowest in the world. Although health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public hospitals lack many of the basic facilities and equipment. Moreover, the health care infrastructure outside of Yangon and Mandalay is extremely poor. In 2003, the entire Tanintharyi Region had fewer hospital beds than the Yangon General Hospital. The following is a summary of the public health care system.
|2002–2003||# Hospitals||# Beds|
|General hospitals with specialist services||2||400|
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