Tuvan People's Republic
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|Tuvan People's Republic|
|Tьвa Arat Respuвlik|
|Satellite state of the Soviet Union|
|Government||Marxist-Leninist Single-party Socialist republic|
|Prime Minister||Salchak Toka|
|Historical era||Interwar period|
|-||Established||August 14, 1921|
|-||Annexed||October 11, 1944|
|-||1944||170,500 km² (65,830 sq mi)|
|Density||0.6 /km² (1.4 /sq mi)|
|Today part of||Russia|
The Tuvan People's Republic (or People's Republic of Tannu Tuva; Tuvan: Tьвa Arat Respuвlik, Тыва Арат Республик, Tyva Arat Respublik, [təˈvɑ ɑˈrɑt risˈpublik]; 1921–44) was a partially recognized independent state in the territory of the former Tuvan protectorate of Imperial Russia also known as Uryankhaisky Krai (Russian: Урянхайский край).
Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Communist troops took Tuva in January 1920. The chaos accompanying this era allowed the Tuvans to again proclaim their independence. On 14 August 1921, the Bolsheviks (supported by Russia) established a Tuvan People's Republic, called Tannu Tuva until 1926. Tannu refers to the Tannu-ola Mountains while Tuva is derived from the ethnicity Tuvan.
The capital Khem-Beldir was eventually renamed Kyzyl ('red' in Tuvan; in Tuvan and Russian: Кызыл; in 1922-26 named "Красный", Krasnyy, 'red' in Russian). A treaty between the Soviet Union and the Mongolian People's Republic in 1926 affirmed the country’s independence. No other countries formally recognized it, although it appeared on maps and globes produced in the United States.
Tuva’s first Prime Minister was Donduk Kuular of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party. Kuular made Buddhism the state religion and tried to limit settlers and propaganda coming from Russia. He also tried to establish ties with Mongolia. The Soviet Union became increasingly alarmed by these initiatives and in 1929 Prime Minister Kuular was arrested and later executed in the 1929 Tuvan coup d'état. In the USSR meanwhile (in 1930) five members of the Communist University of the Toilers of the East (KUTV), the same group that executed Kuular, were appointed "commissars extraordinary" for Tuva. Staunchly loyal to Joseph Stalin's government, they purged the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party of about a third of its members and pushed collectivisation in the traditionally nomadic cattle-breeding country.
The new government set about trying to destroy Buddhism and shamanism in Tuva, a policy encouraged by Stalin. Evidence of the success of these actions can be seen in the decline in the numbers of lamas in the country: in 1929 there were 25 lamaseries and about 4,000 lamas and Shamans; in 1931 there was just one lamasery, 15 lamas, and approximately 725 shamans. The attempts at eradicating nomadic husbandry were more difficult. A census in 1931 showed that 82.2% of Tuvans still engaged in nomadic cattle breeding. Salchak Toka, one of the commissars extraordinary mentioned above, was made General Secretary of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party in 1932. He stayed in power in Tuva until his death in 1973.
Tuva entered World War II with the USSR on 25 June 1941, three days after the German attack on the Soviet Union. On 11 October 1944, at the request of Tuva's Small People's Khural (parliament), Tuva became a part of the Soviet Union as the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast of the Russian SFSR by the decision of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. The Small People's Khural formalized the annexation at its final session on 1 November 1944. Salchak Toka was given the title of First Secretary of the Tuvan Communist Party. Tuva remained an autonomous republic (Tuvan ASSR within the Russian SFSR) from 10 October 1961 until 1992.
Heads of state
- Chairman of the Constituent Khural
- Mongush Buyan-Badyrgy (14 August 1921 - 15 August 1921)
- Chairmen of the Presidium of the Little Hural
Heads of government
- Chairman of the Central Council
- Sodnam Balchir Ambyn-noyon (15 August 1921 - 28 February 1922)
- Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
- Lobsang-Osur (1 March 1922 - 15 August 1922)
- Idam-Syurun (Sürun) (15 August 1922 - 19 September 1923)
- Mongush Buyan-Badyrgy (20 September 1923 - 18 September 1924)
- Soyan Oruygu (18 September 1924 - 1925)
- Donduk Kuular (1925 - January 1929)
- Adyg-Tulush Khemchik-ool (January 1929 - 6 November 1936)
- Sat Churmit-Dazhi (6 November 1936 - February 1938)
- Bair Ondar (Aleksey Shirinmeyevich Bair) (1938 - 1940)
- Saryg-Dongak Chymba (Aleksandr Mangeyevich Chimba) (6 April 1940 - 11 October 1944)
Heads of party
- General Secretaries
- Oyun Kursedy (9 July 1923 - 15 March 1924)
- General Secretary
- Shagdyr (April 1924 - January 1926)
- First Secretaries
- General Secretary
- Salchak Toka (6 March 1932 - 11 October 1944)
|Russians and other||12,000||17,300||14,300a||73,900|
- Part of the Qing Empire until its collapse in 1911.
- Dallin, David J. Soviet Russia and the Far East, Yale University Press, 1948, p. 87
- Paine, S.C.M. Imperial Rivals: China, Russia, and Their Disputed Frontier, M.E. Sharpe, 1996, p. 329.
- (Russian) V. A. Grebneva, "Geography of Tuva", Kyzyl, 1968.
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