Tanoli

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The Tanoli (Hindko/Urdu: تنولی‎; Pashto: تنولي‎) are a tribe ,who might possibly be of Pashtun origins, although other theories also exist[1][2]

The Tanolis mostly inhabit the Tanawal Valley in the Hazara Division, in the eastern part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, which they took over around the 14th century and named after their tribe.[citation needed] Although Tanawal is today part of a Pakistani province, in the past its larger portion comprised the two semi-independent native states or principalities of Amb and Phulra, ruled over by Tanoli chiefs of the same family, from about the 1840s to 1969. Prior to that, the area or 'Ilaqa' of Tanawal remained an independent tribal territory from around the 14th to the 19th century.[3] The English writer Charles Allen, citing from a draft manuscript written by Major James Abbott at the British Library, London, writes that the Tanolis were "extremely hostile, brave and hardy, and accounted the best swordsmen in Hazara".[4]

Descent legend

There are two prominent theories about the descent of Tanolis; one relates them to Pashtun origin[5][6][7] and the other to Turco-Mongol.[8][9][10][11]

The other main theory is that they are of Turco-Mongol origins. The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China and Australasia (1841) discussed Turco-Mongol descent of the Tanolis in the following words:

"There is one chief who, though not a Eusofzye, yet from his position in the midst of, and intimate connection with, the Eusofzyes, and his singular history and character, must not be omitted in a description of the Eusofzye country. Painda Khan, of Tanawul, is a Mogul of the Birlas tribe, the same from which the Ameer Timoor (Timurid dynasty) was descended. All record of the first settlement in Tanawul of his family is lost, and it has long ago broken off all connections with other branches of the Birlas, which are still to be found in Turkestan."[12]

.


Tanoli resistance against the Sikhs and loyalty to British

Mir Jehandad Khan, son of Mir Painda Khan, fought the Sikhs.[citation needed] It was said, "Of all the tribal chiefs of Huzara, the most powerful [was] said to be Jehandad Khan of the Tanoli Tribe."[13] He was later given the princely state of Amb in the Mansehra region of Hazara district, by the British government in India, for his loyal services.[14]


Sub tribes

The Hindwal and Pallal are the major divisions of the tribe. The further sub–divisions of the tribe are:

Hindwal

Romal Khel; Haibat Khel, Mastkhel (Mast Khani), Painda Khel, Maddad Khel Jamal Khel; Charyal Khel, Ledhyal Khel, Abdwal Khel, Saryal Khel; Lalal Khel, Hedral Khel, Baizal Khel Masand Khel Rains Khel

Pallal

Labhya Khel (Suba Khani) Matyal Khel Asnal Khel Masand Khel Rains Khel Bhujal


References

  1. ^ JW Spain 'The Pathan Borderland' 1969 ed
  2. ^ The German orientalist Bernard Dorn, in his book which is mainly based on Tārīkh-e Khān Jahānī wa Makhzan-e Afghānī (تاریخ خان جهانی ومخزن افغانی) of Nimat Allah al-Harawi, mentions Tanokhel as a clan of the Ghilji tribe. See Bernhard Dorn, "The History of Afghans, Part-II", The Oriental Translation Committee, London, 1836, pp.49
  3. ^ Dr Sher Bahadur Panni, "Tarikh i Hazara" (Urdu) 2nd ed. pub. Peshawar, 1969, pp. 103-122
  4. ^ Allen (2001), p. 139.
  5. ^ ,Lethbridge, Roper (1893), The Golden Book of India: A Genealogical and Biographical Dictionary of the Ruling Princes, Chiefs, Nobles, and the other Personages, Titled or Decorated, of the Indian Empire, London: Macmillan, p. 328 
  6. ^ Scott (1929), pp. 71-72.
  7. ^ Bernhard Dorn,"History of The Afghans"part-II, The Oriental Translation Committee, London, 1836, pp.49
  8. ^ The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australasia. Published by Parbury, Allen, and Co., 1841, Item notes: v. 39, Original from the New York Public Library, Digitized 1 Apr 2008, pg 220-224
  9. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 23, Singhbhum to Trashi-Chod-Zong, p. 219. 1908, by Sir William Wilson Hunter of the India Office of Great Britain, edited by Henry Frowde, publisher to the University of Oxford,
  10. ^ Wikeley (19--).
  11. ^ Maharaja Kharak Singh, June 27, 1839-November 5, 1840: select records preserved in the National Archives of India, New Delhi By Fauja Singh, National Archives of India Published by Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University, 1977 Original from the University of California Digitized 12 Feb 2009 458 pages
  12. ^ The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australasia. Published by Parbury, Allen, and Co., 1841, Item notes: v. 39, Original from the New York Public Library, Digitized 1 Apr 2008, pg 220-224
  13. ^ Allen (2012), p. 139.
  14. ^ Allen 2012, pp. 138-139 In 1851, Jehandad was offered the choice, by the then-administrator of Hazara, Major James Abbott, that 'he must decide whether to be treated as a loyal chief or a rebel' and Jehandad responded with strong protestations of loyal support


Bibliography