Taoniinae

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Taoniinae
Sandalops melancholicus.jpg
Sandalops melancholicus
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Cephalopoda
Order: Oegopsida
Family: Cranchiidae
Subfamily: Taoniinae
Pfeffer, 1912[1]
Type genus
Taonius
Steenstrup, 1861
Genera

Bathothauma
Egea
Galiteuthis
Helicocranchia
Liguriella
Megalocranchia
Mesonychoteuthis
Sandalops
Taonius
Teuthowenia

Synonyms[2]
  • Galiteuthinae Berry, 1912
  • Teuthoweniinae Grimpe, 1922

Taoniinae is a subfamily containing ten genera of glass squids.

Description[edit]

Right eye of T. pellucida.

Unlike Cranchiinae Pfeffer, 1912, the other subfamily within Cranchiidae Prosch, 1847, Taoniinae all lack cartilaginous strips which extend back from the funnel-mantle point of fusion. Their funnels are free laterally, and they have one to three photophores on the eyes.[3] The largest photophore is crescent-shaped for most genera, but it's triangular in Helicocranchia, a semicircle in Bathothauma, and circular in Sandalops. This is in contrast to glass squids in the subfamily Cranchiinae, which have at least four small photophores which are round or oval in shape.[2]

In addition, males lack hectocotyli; these are arms which have evolved to specialize in storage and transfer of spermatophores to females.[4] Taoniinae are also often larger than Cranchiinae and have darker beaks.[5] Another characteristic is that a Taoniinae's caecum, is smaller than its stomach; in Cranchiinae, the caecum is larger than the stomach.[6]

Taxonomic history and synonyms[edit]

When Georg Johann Pfeffer circumscribed this subfamily in 1912, he grouped its genera into three tribes:[1]

  • Taonius-like Taoniinae
    • Phasmatopsis Rochebrune, 1884[a]
    • Toxeuma Chun, 1906[b]
    • Taonius Steenstrup, 1861
    • Desmoteuthis Verrill, 1881[c]
    • Megalocranchia Pfeffer, 1884
    • Taonidium Pfeffer, 1900[d]
    • Crystalloteuthis Chun, 1906[e]
    • Phasmatoteuthion Pfeffer, 1912[f]
    • Galiteuthis Joubin, 1898
    • Corynomma Chun, 1906[g]
  • Teuthowenia-like Taoniinae
  • Bathothauma-like Taoniinae

Synonyms of Taoniinae include Galiteuthinae Berry, 1912 and Teuthoweniinae Grimpe, 1922.[2] S. Stillman Berry's 1912 circumscription of the subfamily Galiteuthinae only consisted of its type genus Galiteuthis Joubin, 1898. Like Pfeffer's Taoniinae, this was a subfamily within the family Cranchiidae Prosch, 1847. This was in contrast to Louis Joubin's classification, which placed Galiteuthis in a new, distinct family: Cranchionychiae Joubin, 1898.[14][2] Georg Grimpe's 1922 circumscription of Teuthoweniinae included its type genus Teuthowenia Chun, 1910 as well as Hensenioteuthis Pfeffer, 1900,[h] Helicocranchia Massy, 1907, and Sandalops Chun, 1906. He placed the genus Bathothauma Chun, 1906 into a new family, Bathothaumatidae Grimpe, 1922, now just treated as a junior synonym of Cranchiidae. Subsequent research did not pay much heed to Grimpe's taxonomy.[2]

Phylogeny[edit]

Below is Nancy A. Voss and Robert S. Voss's 1983 proposal for a phylogeny of the Taoniinae subfamily.[16][17]

Bathothauma Chun, 1906

Helicocranchia Massy, 1907

Sandalops Chun, 1906

Liguriella Issel, 1908

Mesonychoteuthis Robson, 1925

Galiteuthis Joubin, 1898

Taonius Steenstrup, 1861

Teuthowenia Chun, 1910

Megalocranchia Robson, 1925

Egea Joubin, 1933

Genera and species[edit]

As of 2017, the World Register of Marine Species classifies the Taoniinae as containing ten genera; they classify Belonella as a synonym of Taonius following Nancy A. Voss.[18] However, Patrizia Jereb and Clyde F. E. Roper recognize Belonella as a distinct genus from Taonius, although they also note they are a frequently synonymized. Jereb and Roper also note Kir Nazimovich Nesis and Takashi Okutani as teuthologists who rejected Voss's synonymization of Belonella.[6] Nesis's classification had Taonius consisting of only the single species T. pavo, and had Belonella consisting of B. belone Chun, 1906, B. borealis Nesis, 1972 and an undescribed species from the Antarctic.[19]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nomen dubium according to WoRMS.[7]
  2. ^ Invalid junior homonym of the insect genus Toxeuma Walker, 1833 (in the family Pteromalidae). Renamed to Belonella Lane, 1957, which WoRMS treats as junior synonym of Taonius.[8]
  3. ^ Junior synonym of Taonius according to WoRMS.[9]
  4. ^ Junior synonym of Galitethis according to WoRMS.[10]
  5. ^ Junior synonym of Galitethis according to WoRMS.[11]
  6. ^ Junior synonym of Galitethis according to WoRMS.[12]
  7. ^ Junior synonym of Megalocranchia according to WoRMS.[13]
  8. ^ Nomen dubium according to WoRMS.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Pfeffer, Georg (1912). "Unterfamilie Taoniinae". Die Cephalopoden der Plankton-Expedition: Zugleich eine monographische Übersicht der Oegopsiden Cephalopoden. Erbebnisse der Plankton-Expedition der Humboldt-Stiftung. 2(a). Kiel & Leipzig: Lipsius & Tischer. pp. 695–755.
  2. ^ a b c d e Voss, Nancy A. (1980). "A Generic Revision of the Cranchiidae (Cephalopoda; Oegopsida)". Bulletin of Marine Science. 30 (2): 382.
  3. ^ Roper, Clyde F. E.; Young, Richard E.; Voss, Gilbert L. (1969). An Illustrated Key to the Families of the Order Teuthoidea (Cephalopoda). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 13. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 13. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.13. hdl:10.5479/si.00810282.13.
  4. ^ Lamprell, K. L.; Scheltema, A. M.; J. M. Healy (2001). Mollusca: Aplacophora, Polyplacophora, Scaphopoda, Cephalopoda. Zoological Catalogue of Australia. 17.2. Csiro Publishing. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-643-06707-3.
  5. ^ Imber, M. J. (1978). "The squid families Cranchiidae and Gonatidae (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea) in the New Zealand region". New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 5 (3): 453. doi:10.1080/03014223.1978.10428331.
  6. ^ a b Roper, Clyde F. E.; Jereb, Patrizia (2010). "Family Cranchiidae Prosche, 1847". In Jereb, P.; Roper, C. F. E. Cephalopods of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cephalopod Species Known to Date. Volume 2: Myopsid and Oegopsid Squids. FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. 4. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. p. 158.
  7. ^ Finn, J.; Bouchet, P. (2016). "Phasmatopsis Rochebrune, 1884". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved September 18, 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Finn, J.; Bouchet, P. (2016). "Toxeuma Chun, 1906". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved September 18, 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Finn, J.; Bouchet, P. (2016). "Desmoteuthis Verrill, 1881". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved September 18, 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Finn, J.; Bouchet, P. (2016). "Taonidium Pfeffer, 1900". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved September 18, 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Finn, J.; Bouchet, P. (2016). "Crystalloteuthis Chun, 1906". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved September 18, 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ Finn, J.; Bouchet, P. (2016). "Phasmatoteuthion Pfeffer, 1912". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved September 18, 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ Finn, J.; Bouchet, P. (2016). "Corynomma Chun, 1906". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved September 18, 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ Berry, S. Stillman (1912). "A review of the cephalopods of Western North America" (PDF). Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries. 30: 315. BHL page 3259657.
  15. ^ Finn, J.; Bouchet; P. (2016). "Hensenioteuthis Pfeffer, 1900". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved September 18, 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ Voss, Nancy A.; Voss, Robert S. (1983). "Phylogenetic Relationships in the Cephalopod Family Cranchiidae (Oegopsida)". Malacologia. 23 (2): 415.
  17. ^ Voss, Nancy A. (1988). "Evolution of the Cephalopod Family Cranchiidae (Oegopsida)". In Clarke, M. R.; Trueman, E. R. Paleontology and Neontology of Cephalopods. The Mollusca. 12. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 296. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-751412-3.50024-3. ISBN 978-0-12-751412-3.
  18. ^ Finn, J.; Bouchet; P. (2016). "Taoniinae Pfeffer, 1912". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved September 18, 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ Okutani, Takashi; Lindsay, Dhugal (2010). "Cephalopods Collected by the Submersibles and ROVs of Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science & Technology: Annotated Catalogue up to 2008" (PDF). JAMSTEC Report of Research and Development. 10: 27. doi:10.5918/jamstecr.10.23.

External links[edit]