Tarak-juk

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Tarak-juk
Alternative names Uyu-juk, milk porridge
Type Juk
Place of origin Korea
Associated national cuisine Korean cuisine
Serving temperature Warm
Main ingredients Milk, ground rice
Korean name
Hangul 타락죽
Hanja 駝酪粥
Revised Romanization tarak-juk
McCune–Reischauer t'arak-chuk
IPA [tʰa.ɾak̚.t͈ɕuk̚]
Hangul 우유죽
Hanja 牛乳粥
Revised Romanization uyu-juk
McCune–Reischauer uyu-chuk
IPA [u.ju.dʑuk̚]

Tarak-juk (타락죽; 駝酪粥; lit. milk porridge), also called uyu-juk (우유죽; 牛乳粥; lit. milk porridge), is a type of juk (porridge) made with milk and glutinous rice.[1] It was a part of the Korean royal court cuisine and was also patronized by yangban (scholarly-officials).[2]

Etymology and history[edit]

Tarak-juk is a compound consisting of tarak (타락; 駝酪) meaning "milk" and juk (; ) meaning "porridge". The old Sino-Korean word tarak is derived from the Korean transliteration of the Mongolian word taraq or Old Turkic torak.[3][4][5] It is a cognate of modern Mongolian word tarag (тараг). As suggested by its etymology, traditional Korean tarak was heavily influenced by the customs of Central Asian—especially Mongolian— fermented milk products.[5]

The history of tarak-juk dates back to the consumption of milk in Korean history.[2] The Kingdom of Goryeo (918–1392) kept Yuyuso (milk office), and nobles consumed nakso (cheese).[2] However, dairy cattle were rare and milk was available after a cow gave birth.[6] Moreover, the freshness of milk was a vital factor as it could not be delivered over long distances.[6] Therefore, milk was considered a supplementary food for special occasions or a recovery food after illness.[6]

During the Joseon era (1392–1897), the milk office was relocated to a royal court ranch on Mount Naksan east of Seoul. It was renamed Tarak-saek. Royal physicians took charge of gathering milk and making tarak-juk to present to the king.[7] From the tenth lunar month to the first month of the next lunar year, they offered tarak-juk to the royal court.[7] The Hall of Senior Officials also offered tarak-juk to elderly officials.[7] Recipes for tarak-juk are recorded in the Joseon books such as Revised and Augmented Farm Management and the Women's Encyclopedia.[2][8][9]

Preparation[edit]

Pre-soaked glutinous rice is ground by millstone, sieved, and left to settle. The deposits of ground rice, called muri, are boiled, and milk is added slowly on a gentle simmer over a low flame with constant stirring. Salt is then added, to sweeten the porridge, honey can be added.[1] The ratio between milk and muri recorded in the Women's Encyclopedia is 1:0.8, with adjustments allowed according to taste. However, the book advises the amount of milk should not exceed that of muri.[2][9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Tarak-juk" 타락죽. Doopedia (in Korean). Doosan Corporation. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d e 윤, 서석. "Tarak-juk" 타락죽. Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 17 February 2009. 
  3. ^ "Tarak" 타락. Standard Korean Language Dictionary (in Korean). National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  4. ^ Kasai, N.; Natsagdorj, S. (1998). "Socio-economic development: food and clothing in eastern Iran and Central Asia". In Asimov, M. S.; Bosworth, C. E. History of civilizations of Central Asia – Volume IV: The age of achievement: A.D.750 to the end of the fifteenth century – Part One: The historical, social, and economic setting (PDF). Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing. p. 390. ISBN 978-92-3-103467-1. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  5. ^ a b Osada, Sachiko; Shin, Sun Mi; Kim, Sang Sook; Han, YoungSook (August 2014). "Historical and Cultural Study on Korean Traditional Fermented Milk, Tarak". Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life. 24 (4): 441–443. doi:10.17495/easdl.2014.08.24.4.441. 
  6. ^ a b c 명, 준호 (21 November 2008). "왕실에 우유를 공급한 '낙산(酪山)'". Maeil Business Newspaper (in Korean). Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  7. ^ a b c "Tarak-jinsang" 타락진상. Doopedia (in Korean). Doosan Corporation. Retrieved 26 July 2017. 
  8. ^ Yu, Jungrim; Hong, Manseon (1766). Jeungbo sallim gyeongje 증보산림경제(增補山林經濟) [Revised and Augmented Farm Management] (in Literary Chinese). Joseon Korea. 
  9. ^ a b Yi, Bingheogak (1766). Gyuhap chongseo 규합총서(閨閤叢書) [Women's Encyclopedia] (in Literary Chinese). Joseon Korea.