Tarascan or Tarasca is an exonym and the popular name for the Purépecha culture. It may refer to:
- the Tarascan State, a Mesoamerican empire until the Spanish conquest in the 1500s, located in (present-day) west-central Mexico
- the Purépecha people
- the Purépecha language
The term has pejorative connotations when it refers to the people or their language.
The name "Tarascan" (and its Spanish-language equivalent, "tarasco") comes from the word "tarascue" in the Purépecha language, which means indistinctly "father-in-law" or "son-in-law". The Spanish took it as their name, for reasons that have been attributed to different, mostly legendary, stories.