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Tarawih (Arabic: تراويح) refers to extra prayers performed by Sunni Muslims at night in the Islamic month of Ramadan. Some scholarsmaintain that Tarawih is neither fard nor a Sunnah but Sunnah Muakkadah (Emphasized practice of the Islamic prophet Mohammed).
Tarawih prayers are prayed in pairs of two and can be prayed in at least 20 raka‘āt according to two schools, Hanafis and Shafi'i, of Sunni Islam. A break is taken after every 4 rak'ah. This prayer is performed only during Ramadan of the Islamic calendar after salat of Isha'. Muslims believe it is customary to attempt a khatm "complete recitation" of the Quran as one of the religious observances of Ramadan by reciting at least one juz' per night in tarawih. Tarawih prayers are considered optional, not mandatory.
In all the sunni hadith scriptures, the prayer Tarawih has been mentioned as Qiyamul Layl min Ramadan (Standing of night in Ramadan) and Qiyam-ar-Ramadan (Standing of Ramadan). A majority of Sunni Muslims regard the Tarawih prayers as Sunnat Mu'akkadah, a salaat that was performed by the Islamic prophet Muhammad very consistently. Sunni Muslims believe tarawih is a Sunnah salat and may be performed at home if one is unable to attend a mosque. According to this tradition, Prophet Muhammad initially prayed the tarawih in congregation during Ramadan which is evident in ahadith. He prayed in congregation for three consecutive nights but discontinued this practice out of fear that it would be made mandatory, rather than sunnah. During the time when Umar was the caliph, he reinstated the praying of Tarawih in congregation since there was no longer any misapprehension of it being made mandatory. However, Malik ibn Anas prefers that Tarawih be prayed at home, if one has a strong intention to do so.
The Shia view differs among the three main schools of thought, Ismaili, Twelvers and Zaydis. However, some Zaydis have been known to regard tarawih as sunnah. Alevi Muslims in Turkey have no Tarawih prayer and see it as bid‘ah (بدعة).
Twelvers believe in the Tahajjud prayer or Salatul layl (night prayer) which Muhammad recommended. It is recommended throughout the year, especially during nights of Ramadan.
Salat al-Layl or Tahajjud prayer is made up of eleven rak’ats.
- The first eight rak’ats are prayed as normal in pairs of two rak’ats each with the niyyah of Nawafilat al-Layl (the prayer of the night).
- The next two rak’ats are prayed with the niyyah of Salat al-Shaf’a (the prayer of forgiveness).
- The remaining rak’at is prayed with the niyyah of Salat al-Witr.
- Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims believe Tahajjud prayer or Bayt al-Khayal prayer is recommended throughout the year particularly on Friday (Jumma) or Chand Rat (First night of every Islamic month).
- John L. Esposito: The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press US 2004, ISBN 978-0-19-512559-7, p. 276 (restricted online version, p. 276, at Google Books)