Tarn Taran Sahib

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Tarn Taran Sahib
Gurdwara Tarn Taran Sahib
Tarn Taran Sahib is located in Punjab
Tarn Taran Sahib
Tarn Taran Sahib
Location in Punjab, India
Coordinates: 31°26′57″N 74°55′14″E / 31.4491°N 74.9205°E / 31.4491; 74.9205Coordinates: 31°26′57″N 74°55′14″E / 31.4491°N 74.9205°E / 31.4491; 74.9205
Country  India
State Punjab
District Tarn Taran
 • President of municipal corporation S. Bhupinder Singh Khera
 • Total 6 km2 (2 sq mi)
Elevation 226.5 m (743.1 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 66,847
 • Density 464/km2 (1,200/sq mi)
 • Official Punjabi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 143401
Telephone code +91 (0) 1852
Vehicle registration PB46-
Sex ratio 764[2] /
Website www.tarntarancity.com

Tarn Taran Sahib (Punjabi: ਤਰਨ ਤਾਰਨ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is a city in the state of Punjab, in northern India. It is the district headquarters and hosts the municipal council of Tarn Taran district.


Tarn Taran Sahib was founded by the Fifth Sikh Guru, Shri Guru Arjan Dev Ji (1563–1606). He laid the foundation of Sri Tarn Taran Sahib Temple. Tarn Taran Sahib was part of the Bhangi Sikh Dynasty ruled by a powerful Sikh family of the Dhillon Clan from 1716 to 1810.

In 1947, the year of the Partition of India and the Partition of Punjab, Tarn Taran was the only tehsil (district) in Punjab, along with Shiekhupura, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Hoshiapur, Kapurthala, Amritsar, Lyallpur, and Patiala, with a majority Sikh population. The city was a center of the Sikh insurgency during the 1980s and early 1990s. Tarn Taran Sahib was suggested as the capital of Khalistan, the proposed Sikh independent nation. The main occupation in this area is agriculture and agroindustry, with very few other industries.

Tarn Taran district was formed in 2006. The declaration to this effect was made by Captain Amarinder Singh, Ex-Chief Minister of Punjab, during the celebrations marking the martyrdom day of Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji. With this, it became the 19th district of Punjab.

Ranjit Singh and Nau Nihal Singh[edit]

Maharaja Nau Nihal Singh of the Sikh Empire.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh had the steps on the two sides of the sarovar, formerly left unfinished by Budh Singh and Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, completed and its circumambulatory passage paved. The darbar sahib was also reconstructed. Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his grandson, Kanvar Nau Nihal Singh, donated large quantities of gold to have the exterior plated with the metal, but the work made little progress in the troubled times that followed Ranjit Singh's death. It was in the last quarter of the nineteenth century that part of the exterior was covered with goldleaf by Sant Sham Singh, of Amritsar. Only one of the four towers planned by Kanvar Nau Nihal Singh for the four corners of the tank was erected during this time. Under Maharaja Ranjit Singh's orders, the town of Tarn Taran was enclosed by a wall. A few other shrines, such as the Mahji Sahib, the Akal Bunga and the Guru ka Khuh, were developed and several bungas added.

Tarn Taran and the British Raj[edit]

After the annexation of the Punjab to the British dominions, the management of the shrines at Tarn Taran, along with those at Amritsar, was entrusted to a sarbarah, or manager, appointed by the deputy commissioner of Amritsar. The role of the manager was, however, confined to general supervision, the priests being autonomous in the conduct of religious affairs. They divided the offerings among themselves and gradually appropriated most of the lands endowed to the Darbar Sahib during Sikh rule. They neglected their religious duties and cared little for the sanctity of the holy shrines and the sarovar. The traditional monthly congregation on every amavasya day, the last day of the dark half of the month, was reduced to a small carnival. Reforms introduced by the Singh Sabha, Tarn Taran, established in 1885, were disapproved and resisted by the clergy. Efforts of the Khalsa Diwan Majha and the Central Majha Khalsa Diwan to cleanse the administration met with only partial successl

Gurdwara Reform Movement[edit]

Main article: Akali movement

As the Gurdwara reform movement got under way, the control of the sacred shrines passed to a representative body of the Sikhs, the Shiromam Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, on 27 January 1921. A leper asylum established by Guru Arjan Dev (it was thought that minerals in the water were helpful in treating Leprosy), but completely ignored by the clergy after the abrogation of Sikh sovereignty, was taken over in 1858 by Christian missionaries.[3]


As of 2011 Indian census,[4] Tarn Taran Sahib had a population of 66,,847. Males constituted 52.3% of the population, and females 47.7%. Tarn Taran has an average literacy rate of 79.33%, higher than the state average of 75.84%: male literacy was 82.39%, and female literacy was 76%. In Tarn Taran Sahib, 11.2% of the population was under 6 years of age and 15% is elderly. 3% of its residents have settled abroad. Sikhs form 75.7% of the total population of the city with Hindus being 23.2% and Christians0.73% of the total population.


Hub of Sikh culture[edit]

The city has many historical gurdwaras which include: Darbar Sahib Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji, Gurdwara Guru Ka Khuh (Gurdwara of the Guru's Well), Gurdwara Bibi Bhani Da Khuh, Gurdwara Takkar Sahib, Gurdwara Lakeer Sahib, Gurudwara Baba Garja Singh Baba Bota Singh, Gurdwara Jhulna Mahal, and Lalpur(Tapeana Sahib).

The main religious hub at Tarn Taran Sahib is Sri Darbar Sahib Tarn Taran, built by Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji. The Gurdwara Sri Darbar Sahib Tarn Taran has the largest sarovar (holy tank) in the world.

Gurdwara Darbar Sahib (Tarn Taran) - This gurdwara is an elegant, three-storeyed structure at the southeastern corner of the sarovar. Approached through a double-storeyed arched gateway, it stands in the middle of a marble-floored platform. The upper portion of the edifice is covered with glittering gold-plated sheets. The lotus dome, damaged in an earthquake (4 April 1905) and subsequently reconstructed, has an ornamental gold pinnacle with an umbrella-shaped gold finial. Exquisitely executed stucco work in intricate designs, inset with reflecting glass pieces, decorate the interior walls and the ceiling. The Guru Granth Sahib is seated on a platform under an elongated dome covered with goldplated metal sheets. This throne was an offering from Kanvar Nau Nihal Singh. A relay recital of Kirtan goes on from early morning until late in the evening.

Har Ki Pauri - A flight of marbled steps behind the Darbar Sahib descending into the sacred pool, marks the spot where, according to tradition, Guru Arjan made the first cut as the digging started in 1590. Pilgrims go down these steps to take Charanamrit or palmsful of holy water to sip.

The Sarovar - One of the largest of the Sikh holy tanks (ponds), it is an approximate rectangle in shape. Its northern and southern sides are 289 and 283 metres (948 and 928 ft), respectively, and eastern and western sides 230 and 233 metres (755 and 764 ft), respectively. The sarovar was originally fed by rain water that flowed in from the surrounding lands. In 1833, Maharaja Raghubir Singh of Jmd had a water channel dug, connecting the tank with the Lower Kasur Branch of the Upper Ban Doab Canal at Rasulpur watermills, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) to the southeast. The channel was cemented and covered in 1927/28 by Sant Gurmukh Singh and Sant Sadhu Singh. They also supervised karseva, i.e. complete desilting of the tank through voluntary service, in 1931. The operation was repeated in 1970 under Sant Jivan Singh. Most of the bungas around the sarovar have now been demolished and a verandah constructed instead along the periphery. The name Tarn Taran, since appropriated by the town itself, originally belonged to the sarovar, so called by Guru Arjan. Literally it means, "the boat that takes one across (the ocean of existence)". (Tarana in Sanskrit is a raft or a boat). According to Sikh tradition, the water of the old pond was found to possess medicinal properties, especially efficacious for curing leprosy. For this reason the sarovar was known as Dukh Nivaran, the eradicator of affliction. AKAL BUNGA, a four storeyed building near the Nishan Sahib (Sikh flagpole), was constructed in 1841 by Kanvar Nau Nihal Singh. Maharaja Sher Singh provided the finishing touches. The Guru Granth Sahib, "after a procession around the sarovar amid" chanting of hymns in the late evening, is, brought here for the night's rest. Manji Sahib, a small domed shrine in the eastern part of the circumambulatory pavement, marks the spot from where Guru Arjan supervised the excavation of the sarovar. A divan hall, a vast pavilion of reinforced concrete, has now been raised close to it.

The Tower - The only completed column of the four planned by Kanvar Nau Nihal Singh, for the beautification of the sarovar at Tarn Taran, stands at the northeastern corner. The three-storeyed tower, 34 metres (112 ft) high, was erected during the Kanvar's lifetime. The dome on top of it was added later.

Gurdwara Lakeer Sahib is situated at the place where a line on the ground was marked by Baba Deep Singh Ji, before entering into war against the Mughal Empire in 1757. Gurudwara Bibi Bhani da Khuh, situated near Sri Darbar Sahib Tarn Taran, is named after Bibi Bhani Ji. She was the daughter of Guru Amar Das, the wife of Guru Ram Das, and the mother of Guru Arjan Dev Ji. This religio-historic khuh (well) was dug by Guru Arjan Dev Ji, in memory of his mother, at the place where she used to serve food, water, and medicine to the needy and visiting pilgrims. Locals preserved the place with the help of Dera Kar Sewa Tarn Taran, and constructed a gurdwara.

Gurdwara Guru Ka Khuh is also situated in Tarn Taran City. This well belonged to Guru Arjan Dev Ji, and a historic gurdwara has been built at this place.

Other gurdwaras in the District of Tarn Taran are at Goindwal Sahib, namely Gurdwara Baoli Sahib, at Khadoor Sahib, at Baba Buddha Sahib (Bir Sāhib) and those at Amritsar. Goindwal Sahib Goindwal Sahib, situated along the River Beas, is 23 km (14 mi) from Tarn Taran Sahib. It is an important center of Sikhism, as Guru Arjan Dev ji was born there.



Tarn Taran has many smaller-scale to large-scale industries:

The central government has plans for setting up a special economic zone (SEZ) at Sri Goindwal Sahib.



The nearest airport is at Amritsar. At a distance of 30 kilometres (19 mi), Amritsar's international airport has more than 26 domestic and international flights during the week with daily connections to Delhi, Chandigarh and Jammu.


Indian Railways.

Tarn Taran is well-connected with nearby cities and villages with the rail network.

Tarn Taran station is on the way on the Amritsar-to-Khemkaran line.

A new project of rail from Tran Taran to Goindwal Sahib is under construction, and from Patti to Ferozpur is also under construction.


Tarn Taran is connected by roads to many other locations:

Tarn Taran is located on the historic Royal Highway (Sher Shah Suri Marg) of the Mugal Empire from Delhi to Lahore. NH-15 (National Highway No. 15) also passes through Tarn Taran. It has a fast bus service to Amritsar, with a daily route of about 450 buses daily.

AC coach buses of many transports have routes of Tarn Taran, including PUNBUS, PRTC, RAJ, and NEW DEEP.

Daily bus services run to and from New Delhi, Chandigarh, Patiala, Bikaner, Bathinda, Ferozpur, Ludhiana, and Jalandhar.

There is weekly bus service to Ponta Sahib.


1 Maharaja Ranjit Singh Public School 2 Guru Harkrishan Public School 3 St. Franics Convent School 4 Mamta Niketan Convent School 5 St. Jhomas Convent School 6 Guru Arjun Dev Khalsa School 7 Punjab Children Academy 8 Cupid's School 9 Mata Ganga Girls School 10 SD Public School 11 Sant Singh Sukha Singh Public School 12 SSS Public School 13 Arya Girls School 14 Govt. Sen Sec School 15 Police DAV Public School 16 Guru Nanak Dev Academy 17.Majha public sr.sec.school. 18. SD Girls High School


1 Guru Arjun Dev Khalsa College 2 Sewa Devi College 3 Mata Ganga College for women 4 Majha College for women 5 Kalian Homeopathic College 6 Mai Bhago Institute of Nursing 7 Shiv Shankar Institute of Engg and Tech (Patti) 8 Shaheed Bhagat Singh Pharmacy (Patti) 9 Shaheed Bhagat Singh Polytechnic College 10 Shaheed Bhagat Singh B.Ed College 11 International School of Nursing 12.Goutam college Tarn Taran 13 Guru Gobind Singh Khalsa College Sarhali


The city has adequate health care system The city has one Civil (public) hospital besides six private hospitals. Tarn Taran has a largest 350 Bedded fully computerized Charitable Hospital viz. Guru Nanak Dev Super-speciality Hospital, run under 'Baba Jiwan Singh Baba Dalip Singh Educational Trust'(regd.). Baba Jagtar Singh Kar Sewa Wale is the Chairman. The Hospital has got all core medical facilities with state of art Radiology and Pathology Departments.[5]

Government and politics[edit]

Tarn Taran Sahib is situated near the Amritsar district. It sends one elected representative to the Lok Sabha (the Indian parliament), one member to the State Legislative Assembly and two members to Shiromani Gurdwara Parbhandhak Committee (SGPC) at Amritsar. It is the headquarters of Tarn Taran district. It is a municipal council with 19 wards. The district borders Doaba, Malwa Belt and Pakistan.


The Goindwal Baoli Sahib

Visitor attractions in and around Tarn Taran Sahib include:

  • Gurdwara Beed Baba Budda Sahib, located on Chaabal - Amritsar road
  • Gurdwara Goindval Sahib
  • Gurdwara Khadoor Sahib is situated in the Khadoor Sahib city in Taran Taaran Distt.
  • Harike Wetland, home to a wide range of flora and fauna
  • Gurdwara Dukh Niwarn Sahib, Village Thathi-Khara, Tarn Taran

Notable people[edit]


External links[edit]