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Tartaruchi (singular: tartaruchus, meaning "holder of Tartarus") are the keepers of Tartarus (hell), according to the 4th century, non-canonical Apocalypse of Paul. The author describes them as using one hand to choke damned souls, and the other using an "iron of three hooks". Temeluchus is the only tartaruchus named in the work.

The Italian and Portuguese word tartaruga ("turtle" or "tortoise") derives from this noun, as may English tortoise and turtle.