Landsat multilayer image of the Tassili n'Ajjer
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Includes||Tassili n'Ajjer Cultural Park|
|Criteria||(i), (iii), (vii), (viii) |
|Inscription||1982 (6th Session)|
Tassili n'Ajjer (Berber: Tasili n Ajjer, Arabic: طاسيلي ناجر, English: Plateau of the Rivers) is a heavily eroded sandstone rock formation in the Algerian section of the Sahara Desert, situated on a vast plateau, that encompasses south-east Algeria, western Libya and northern Niger. It features over 300 rock arches, dense clusters of eroded sandstone rock pillars and steep cliffs and gorges where water pools permanently at the surface. Tassili n'Ajjer covers an area of over 72,000 km2 (28,000 sq mi).
The rock formation is an archaeological site, noted for its numerous prehistoric parietal works of rock art, first reported in 1910, that date to the early Neolithic era at the end of the last glacial period during which the Sahara was an inhabitable savanna rather than the current desert. Although sources vary considerably, the earliest pieces of art are assumed to be 12,000 years old. the vast majority date to the 9th and 10th millennia BP or younger, according to OSL dating of associated sediments. Among the 15,000 engravings so far identified depicted are large wild animals including antelopes and crocodiles, cattle herds and humans that engage in activities such as hunting and dancing. According to UNESCO, "The exceptional density of paintings and engravings...have made Tassili world famous."
The Tassili n'Ajjer ranges from Adrar Afao that peaks at 2,158 m (7,080 ft), located at . The nearest town is Djanet, situated around 10 km (6.2 mi) southwest of Tassili n'Ajjer. The archaeological site has been designated a national park, a Biosphere Reserve (cypresses) and was induced into UNESCO's World Heritage Site list as Tassili n'Ajjer National Park.east-south-east to . Its highest point is the
The plateau is also of great geological and aesthetic interest, as the panorama of geological formations of "rock forests" of eroded sandstone resembles a strange lunar landscape.
Because of the altitude and the water-holding properties of the sandstone, the vegetation here is somewhat richer than in the surrounding desert; it includes a very scattered woodland of the endangered endemic species Saharan Cypress and Saharan Myrtle in the higher eastern half of the range.
The ecology of the Tassili n'Ajjer is more fully described in the article West Saharan montane xeric woodlands, the ecoregion to which this area belongs. The literal English translation of Tassili n'Ajjer is 'Plateau of the rivers' referring to a time when the climate was repeatedly far wetter than it is today (see Neolithic Subpluvial).
In popular culture
- Tassili is the recording location and the title of a 2011 album by the Tuareg-Berber band Tinariwen.
- In his 1992 book Food of the Gods, new-age icon Terence McKenna hypothesized that the Neolithic culture that inhabited the site used psilocybin mushrooms as part of its religious ritual life, citing rock paintings showing persons holding mushroom-like objects in their hands, as well as mushrooms growing from their bodies.
- Tassili Plain is a track on the 1994 album Natural Wonders of the World in Dub by dub group Zion Train.
- List of Stone Age art
- Rock art of Figuig
- Rock art of south Oran (Algeria)
- Rock art of the Djelfa region
- Saharan rock art
|Tassili n'Ajjer National Park|
|Location||Tamanrasset Province, Algeria|
|Area||72,000 km2 (28,000 sq mi)|
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- Bradley, R (2000) An archaeology of natural places London, Routledge.
- Bruce-Lockhart, J and Wright, J (2000) Difficult and Dangerous Roads: Hugh Clapperton's Travels in the Sahara and Fezzan 1822-1825
- Chippindale, Chris and Tacon, S-C (eds) (1998) The Archaeology of Rock Art Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
- Clottes, J. (2002): World Rock Art. Los Angeles: Getty Publications.
- Coulson, D and Campbell, Alec (2001) African Rock Art: Paintings and Engravings on Stone New York, Harry N Abrams.
- Frison-Roche, Roger (1965) Carnets Sahariens Paris, Flammarion
- Holl, Augustin F.C. (2004) Saharan Rock Art, Archaeology of Tassilian Pastoralist Icongraphy
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- Lajoux, Jean-Dominique (1962), Merveilles du Tassili n'Ajjer (The rock paintings of Tassili in translation), Le Chêne, Paris.
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- Lhote, Henri (1959, reprinted 1973) The Search for the Tassili Frescoes: The story of the prehistoric rock-paintings of the Sahara London.
- Lhote, Henri (1958, 1973, 1992, 2006) À la découverte des fresques du Tassili, Arthaud, Paris.
- Mattingly, D (ed) (forthcoming) The archaeology of the Fezzan.
- Muzzolini, A (1997) "Saharan Rock Art", in Vogel, J O (ed) Encyclopedia of Precolonial Africa Walnut Creek: 347-353.
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- Whitley, D S (ed) (2001) Handbook of Rock Art Research New York: Altamira Press.
- "Rock Art of the Tassili n Ajjer, Algeria" (PDF). Africanrockart.org. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- "Tassili-n-Ajjer". britannica. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- "Tassili N'Ajjer (Algeria)". Africanworldheritagesites.org. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- "OSL dating of quaternary deposits associated with the parietal art of the Tassili-n-Ajjer plateau (Central Sahara)". Quaternary Geochronology. 10: 367–373. July 2012. doi:10.1016/j.quageo.2011.11.010. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Tassili n'Ajer". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- "Tassili n'Ajjer National Park, Djanet". Algeria.com. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- "Tassili National Park, Sahara Algeria". Archmillennium.net. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- "Crocodiles in the Sahara Desert: An Update of Distribution, Habitats and Population Status for Conservation Planning in Mauritania". PLOS ONE. 25 February 2011.
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