|Assembly||Sanand Plant, Sanand, Gujarat, India|
Justin Norek (I.DE.A Institute)|
Pierre Castinel (Tata Design Studio)
Girish Wagh (Project Manager)
|Body and chassis|
5-door hatchback (GenX Nano)
|Engine||0.624 L I2 SOHC MPI petrol|
|Wheelbase||2,230 mm (87.8 in)|
3,099 mm (122.0 in)|
3,164 mm (124.6 in) (GenX Nano)
|Width||1,495 mm (58.9 in)|
|Height||1,652 mm (65.0 in)|
|Curb weight||600–635 kg (1,323–1,400 lb)|
The Tata Nano was a compact city car manufactured and marketed by Tata Motors over a single generation, primarily in India, as an inexpensive rear-engined sedan intended to appeal to current riders of motorcycles and scooters — with a launch price in 2008 of one lakh rupees or ₹100,000 (US$1,500).
Numerous factors led to the decline of sales volume, including its factory relocation from Singur, early instances of the Nano catching fire, the perception of Nano being unsafe and lacking quality due to cost cutting. Tata Motors projected production of 250,000 annually at launch, actually achieving sales in of 7591 for model year 2016-17. The project lost money for Tata, confirmed by former Tata Sons chairman Cyrus Mistry and confirmed by current Tata Motors management. 
In 2017, Tata Motors said manufacture would continue due to the Tata's emotional commitment to the project, despite poor market demand. In 2018, Cyrus Mistry, Chair of the Tata Group, called the Tata Nano a failed project, with production ending in May, 2018.
- 1 History
- 2 Price
- 3 Technical specifications
- 4 Tata GenX Nano (2015 facelift)
- 5 Alternative powerplants
- 6 European export
- 7 Car fires
- 8 Reception
- 9 Sales
- 10 End of production
- 11 Awards
- 12 In the media
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
After successfully launching the low cost Tata Ace truck in 2005, Tata Motors began development of an affordable car that would appeal to the many Indians who ride motorcycles. The purchase price of this no frills auto was brought down by dispensing with most nonessential features, reducing the amount of steel used in its construction, and relying on low cost Indian labour.. The nonessential features include, removal of the passenger's side wing mirror, having one wiper blade, having only three lug nuts per wheel, removal of the fuel filler cap from the fuel tank and not having air conditioning .
The introduction of the Nano received much media attention due to its low price of 1 lakh rupees (Rs. 100,000).
Expectations and effects
Expectations created for the car during the run up to its production may have been out of proportion with its realised success. A 2008 study, by Indian rating agency CRISIL, thought the Nano would expand the nation's car market by 65%, but, as of late 2012, news reports have detailed the underwhelming response of the Indian consumer to the offering; sales in the first two fiscal years after the car's unveiling remained steady at about 70,000 units although Tata appears intent on maintaining a capacity to produce the car in much larger quantities, some 250,000 per year, should the need arise.
It was anticipated that its 2009 debut would greatly affect the used car market, and prices did drop 25–30% prior to the launch. Sales of the Nano's nearest competitor, the Maruti 800, fell by 20% immediately following the unveiling of the Nano. It is unknown if the Nano has had a lasting effect on the prices of and demand for close substitutes. In July 2012, Tata's Group chairman Ratan Tata, who retired in January 2014, said that the car had immense potential in the developing world while admitting that early opportunities were wasted due to initial problems. Due to sales drop tata reduces it's production to a single unit for 2018 Jun.
Singur factory pullout
Tata Motors announced in 2006 that the Nano would be manufactured in Singur, West Bengal. Local farmers soon began protesting the forced acquisition of their land the new factory entailed. Tata first delayed the Nano launch and later decided to build the car in a different state, Gujarat, instead.
Announced as the most affordable production car in the world, Tata aimed for a price of one lakh rupees, or ₹100,000, which was approximately $2,000 US at the time. Only the very first customers were able to purchase the car at that price, and as of 2017, the price for the basic Nano starts around ₹ 215,000. Increasing material costs may be to blame for this rapid rise in price.
Compared to the Volkswagen Beetle it had a relatively low price, though still high in terms of the average salary of an Indian industrial worker / farmer. In 1990, a Beetle from Mexican factories was priced at $5,300, about $9,928 in today's money. The Ford Model T's initial price was about $850, equivalent to $23,151 today. The price of the Nano is only just higher than the corrected Price of the Briggs & Stratton Flyer with the Flyer costing US$125 ($1,767 in 2016), even though the Flyer would today hardly be considered a gokart.
The second-generation Nano was expected to be sold in the United States by 2015. The original Nano is not street legal in the US, and cannot legally be sold as a grey market import until 2034, when the original 2009 models receive a 25-year exemption from the US Customs and Border Protection. Despite a readily-available dealership network in the US through the Jaguar Land Rover division of Tata, Tata Motors will not use Jaguar Land Rover to sell the Nano.
The Nano's design implements many measures to reduce manufacturing costs.
Comparison with the Maruti 800, the Tata Nano's closest competitor:
|Tata Nano||Maruti ALTO 800|
|* The Nano's trunk was only accessible from inside the car, as the rear hatch does not open, but it eventually received a full hatchback in 2015.||* Maruti 800 initially had only an opening rear-windscreen, but later got a full hatchback.|
|* One windscreen wiper instead of the usual pair||* Two windscreen wipers.|
|* No base power steering due to light weight. Added in higher variants in later models.||* Power Steering only in higher variants.|
|* Three lug nuts per wheel ||* Four lug nuts per wheel|
|* Driver side wing mirror on base model. Higher variants fitted with passenger side ORVM from 2012 onwards.||* Both side ORVMs in certain variants.|
|* Radio or CD player was optional||* Radio or CD player was optional|
|* No airbags on any model||* no airbag in any variant.|
|* 624cc rear engine, 2 cylinders (312cc each)||* 800cc front engine, 3 cylinders (266cc each).|
|* No air conditioning in base model||* No air conditioning in base model|
|* Front passenger seat same as the driver seat, and the headrests are integrated.||* Front passenger seat same as the driver seat, but headrests separate. Later models switched to integrated headrests.|
|* Thinner 135/70-R12 space saver spare tyre.||* Full size spare tyre.|
|* No external fuel filler cap. Fuel inlet is accessed by opening the front hood.||* External fuel filler cap.|
|* Front door power windows only offered on highest variant. PW switches placed on central console rather than on door pads.||* Front door power windows only offered on highest variant.|
The Nano (2012) was a 38 PS (28 kW; 37 hp) car with a two-cylinder 624 cc engine mounted in the rear of the car. The car complied with Bharat Stage 4 Indian Emissions Standards, which are roughly equivalent to Euro 4.
The development of the Nano led to 31 design and 37 technology patents being filed.
|Engine:||2 cylinder petrol with Bosch multi-point fuel injection (single injector) all aluminium 38 metric horsepower (28 kW) 624 cc (38 cu in)|
|Bosch Motronic ECU (engine control unit)|
|2 valves per cylinder overhead camshaft|
|Compression ratio: 9.5:1|
|bore × stroke: 73.5 mm (2.9 in) × 73.5 mm (2.9 in)|
|Power: 38 PS (28 kW; 37 hp) @ 5500 +/-500 rpm|
|Torque: 51 N⋅m (38 ft⋅lbf) @ 3000 +/-500 rpm|
|Layout and Transmission||Rear wheel drive|
|4-speed manual transmission|
|Steering||mechanical rack and pinion w/o servo|
|Turning radius: 4 metres|
|Performance||Acceleration: 0-60 km/h (37 mph): 30 seconds|
|Maximum speed: 105 km/h (65 mph)|
|Fuel efficiency (overall): 25.35 kilometres per litre (4.24 litres per 100 kilometres (66.6 mpg‑imp; 55.5 mpg‑US))|
|Body and dimensions||Seat belt: 4|
|Trunk capacity: 150 L (5.3 cu ft)|
|Suspension, Tires & Brakes||Front brake: 180 mm drum|
|Rear brake: 180 mm drum|
|Front track: 1,325 mm (52.2 in)|
|Rear track: 1,315 mm (51.8 in)|
|Ground clearance: 180 mm (7.1 in)|
|Front suspension: MacPherson strut with lower A arm|
|Rear suspension: Independent coil spring|
|Bosch||Oxygen sensor, Gasoline injection system (diesel will follow), starter, alternator, brake system|
|Continental AG||Gasoline fuel supply system, fuel level sensor|
|Caparo||Inner structural panels|
|HSI AUTO||Static sealing systems (Weather Strips)|
|Rane Madras Limited||Steering Assembly|
|Denso||Windshield wiper system (single motor and arm)|
|FAG Kugelfischer||Rear-wheel bearing|
|Federal-Mogul||Pistons, Piston rings, Spark plugs, Gaskets, Systems protection|
|Ficosa||Rear-view mirrors, interior mirrors, manual and CVT shifters, washer system|
|ITW Deltar||Outside and inside door handles|
|Mahle||Camshafts, spin-on oil filters, fuel filters and air cleaners|
|Ceekay Daikin/Valeo||Clutch sets|
|Visteon||Air induction system|
|ZF Friedrichshafen AG||Chassis components, including tie rods|
|Behr||HVAC for the luxury version|
|Dürr||Lean Paint Shop|
Tata GenX Nano (2015 facelift)
In May 2015, to revive the model's sales, Tata Motors proposes a redesign both inside and outside the car: the name is changed to GenX Nano to underline the changes, the range is offered in 21 different outfits and the 5-speed automatic transmission is introduced reports, electric power steering, air conditioning, and Bluetooth radio available on top models in addition to new colors and new alloy wheels. The body is strengthened, the front and rear bumpers also change, which slightly increase the length up to 3,164 meters. Also reviewed the interiors with new fabrics and improved the soundproofing of the model. The rear opening door and the 5-seat homologation are also introduced. The engine remains the 2-cylinder 624 cc (38.1 cu in) petrol boosted to 40 hp.
The Nano was driven by a petrol engine. Though several variants were proposed, none were put into production. An upscale version was shown at an autoshow.
Tata Motors signed an agreement in 2007 with a French firm, Motor Development International, to produce a compressed air car Nano. While the vehicle was supposed to be able to travel approximately 200 kilometres (120 mi) on $3 US of electricity to compress the air, Tata's Vice-President of Engineering Systems confirmed in late 2009 that vehicle range continues to be a problem.
If an EV Nano is sold it is expected to be a highly affordable electric car, use lithium-ion batteries, and have a range of 80 miles (130 km). A Norwegian electric car specialist, Miljøbil Grenland AS, has been named as a supposed partner in the project.
The Nano CNG emax was launched in October 2013. It can run on either gasoline or compressed natural gas. Initially, it will be sold in Delhi and parts of Maharashtra and Lucknow, where CNG is available at fuel outlets.
Tata Super Nano
In December 2014, Coimbatore-based JA Motorsport presented a 230 hp 1.3-liter engined version of the Nano called the 'Super Nano' at the Autocar Performance Show. Featuring a full body kit, slick tyres, a bolt-on roll cage, and smoked head and taillamps, the Super Nano featured carbon fibre components, Recaro seats, and steering-mounted paddle shifters.
There were reports of several fire incidents involving the Nano. The company denied those were connected to the car's design or its parts and blamed "foreign electrical equipment" found on top of the exhaust system. The company offered to retrofit the exhaust and electrical systems but refused to recall the cars. Tata extended the warranty on the car, including those already sold, from 18 months to four years in early December 2010.
The Nano received a mixed reception from Indian consumers, reasons given included that it is still too expensive compared to a motorcycle, and the extended waiting time for delivery (a few months). Although it is identified as the most affordable car, a secondhand car that was more expensive when it was new gives more social status; the Nano is considered a "poor man's" vehicle, turning some people away. The fires and other safety issues have also been a concern.
Tata Motors ended FY16 selling 21,012 Nanos, up from 16,901 in FY15.
In 2014, a Nano was crashed for NCAP by ADAC in Germany. Despite Tata's claim that it was expecting 4 stars, the Nano got no stars for lack of adult protection and did not meet basic UN safety requirements. It also lacks airbags. 
At the time of launch Tata Motors planned to sell 250,000 units per year. The maximum sales ever achieved was 74,527 units during FY 2011-2012 and then sales declined rapidly year on year leading to a negligible market share of the car in the "A" segment. The product is likely to be phased out soon as dealers have stopped placing orders. 
FY 2009–2010 30,000 approx
FY 2010–2011 70,432
FY 2011–2012 74,527
FY 2012–2013 53,848
FY 2013–2014 21,129
FY 2014–2015 16,903
FY 2016-2017 7,591 
FY 2017-2018 April - October 1,502
End of production
Due to the low sales of the model (only one Nano assembled in June 2018 against the 275 assembled in June 2017) Tata Motors announces the end of production without any direct successor. The Nano has never really been appreciated by the public and sales have always been lower than expected.
- 2010 Business Standard Motoring Indian car of the year
- 2010 Bloomberg UTV-Autocar car of the year
- 2010 Edison Awards, first place in the transportation category
- 2010 Good Design Awards, in the category of transportation
- 2014 India's Most Trusted hatchback car, according to The Brand Trust Report 2014 edition
In the media
- Small Wonder: The Making of Nano–a book about the creation of the Tata Nano
- A Megafactories episode on this vehicle
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tata Nano.|
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- For initial delay, see Rain, political unrest delay Tatas' dream car Rediff.com, 3 August 2007
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- KURCZEWSKI, NICK (23 March 2009). "Tata Nano Launched in Mumbai". The New York Times. Wheels Blog. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
- For only first customers receiving ₹ 100,000, see Krishnan, Janaki (16 July 2009). "Tata Motors to deliver first Nano on Friday". Thompson Reuters. Retrieved 6 June 2012. Many Indians were of the opinion that Tata just managed to offer offered a four-wheeled auto-rickshaw for a price of INR 2,00,000.
- For 2017 price, see "Price List: Select to view citywise ex-showroom price of the Nano". Tata Motors. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
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- TaMo’s ambitious ‘Air Car’ faces starting trouble Daily News and Analysis, 25 November 2009.
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Tata road car timeline, Indian market, 1990s–present
|Crossover utility vehicle (CUV)||Aria|