Tateyama Station opened on May 24, 1919 as Awa-Hōjō Station (安房北条駅,Awa-Hōjō-eki?) on the Hōjō Line. The Hōjō Line was merged with the Bōsō Line in 1927. The station was renamed to its current name on March 1, 1946. Scheduled freight operations were suspended from November 15, 1982. The station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of the Japan National Railways (JNR) on April 1, 1987. A new station building was completed in March 1999.