Tausug language

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Tausug
Bahasa Sūg
بَهَسَ سُوگ
Native toPhilippines, Malaysia
Region— Spoken throughout the Sulu Archipelago and eastern Sabah
— Also spoken in Zamboanga City
EthnicityTausug
Native speakers
1.1 million (2000)[1]
Latin (Malay alphabet)
Arabic (Jawi)
Official status
Official language in
Regional language in the Philippines
Regulated byKomisyon sa Wikang Filipino
Language codes
ISO 639-3tsg
Glottologtaus1251[2]
Tausug language map.png
  Areas where Tausug is the majority language
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Tausug (Tausug: Bahasa Sūg, Malay: Bahasa Suluk) is an Austronesian language spoken in the province of Sulu in the Philippines, and in the eastern area of the state of Sabah, Malaysia by the Tausug people.

It is widely spoken in the Sulu Archipelago (Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Basilan), Zamboanga Peninsula (Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga City), Southern Palawan and Malaysia (eastern Sabah). Tausug and Chavacano are the only Philippine languages spoken on the island of Borneo.

The Tausug language is very closely related to the Surigaonon language of the provinces Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur and Agusan del Sur, and to the Butuanon language of Agusan del Norte.

Etymology[edit]

The name of the language in Tausug is bahasa Sūg ("language of Sulu"). Tausug (Tausug: tau Sūg, "people of Sulu") is derived from two words: tau ("person") and sūg ("current"), presumably referring to their economic livelihood that depends on the strong currents of the Sulu Sea, where they used to trans-navigate as fishermen, pearl divers and traders.

Even today, the Sulu Sea is still the strategic trade route of the southern Philippines and the nearby ASEAN nations. As early as the 10th century, the trade route between Sulu and China and North Borneo is believed to have been already flourishing. The people in the area were known as the "people of the current", the literal translation of "Tausūg".

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Tausug has three vowel phonemes: /a/, /i/, /u/, with phonemic length (e.g. īpun "shrimp" vs. ipun "tooth"). Stress is not phonemic and usually occurs on the final syllable.[3]

The vowel phonemes have a broad range of allophones:[4]

  • /a/: [a,ɐ,ɑ]
  • /i/: [i,ɪ]
  • /u/: [u,ʊ,ɤ,ʌ,ə]

Consonants[edit]

The consonant phonemes are:[5]

Labial
Labiodental
Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive
Affricate
voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d d͡ʒ <j> ɡ
Fricative f s h
Approximant l j <y> w
Trill r

Allophones:[4]

  • /b/: per default [b], but [β] between vowels
  • /g/: per default [ɡ], but [ɣ] between vowels
  • /h/: per default [h], but [ɦ] between vowels
  • /r/: per default [r], but [ɹ] before /m,n,g,k/

Medial gemination (of all non-glottal consonants) is phonemic.[4]

Grammar[edit]

Pronouns[edit]

Personal pronouns[edit]

Tausug has three pronouns sets:[6]

nominative genitive oblique
1st person singular aku ku kaku'
1st person dual kita ta katu'
2nd person singular ikaw, kaw mu kaymu
3rd person singular siya niya kaniya
1st person plural inclusive kitaniyu taniyu katu'niyu, katu'natu'
1st person plural exclusive kami namu kamu'
2nd person plural kamu niyu kaniyu
3rd person plural sila nila kanila

Demonstratives[edit]

Case markers[edit]

The case markers of Tausug are:[7]

nominative genitive oblique
common in sin ha
proper singular hi kay
proper plural hinda' kanda'

Non-subject undergoers take the oblique marker when definite or a proper noun, but indefinite common nouns take the genitive marker sin.

  • Hi Nasul in kimaun ha mampallam. "It was Nasul who ate the mango."
  • Nagdakdak sin baju' in manga bujang. "The maidens washed clothes."

Existentials[edit]

The positive existential ("there is") is aun, the negative existential ("there is none") is way.[8]

Interrogative words[edit]

English Tausug
Who? Hisiyu?[9]
What? Unu?
Where? Diin? or Hain?
Why? Mayta'?
When? (future) Ku'nu?
When? (past) Ka'nu?
How? (manner) Biya'diin?
How many? Pila?

Verbs[edit]

Verbs in Tausug are inflected for focus and aspect.[10]

completed progressive contemplative imperative
Actor focus ⟨im⟩
nag-
naN-
C⟨im⟩V-
nag-CV-
naN-CV-
‹um›
mag-
maN-


paN-
Patient focus ⟨i⟩ C⟨i⟩V- -un -a
Locative focus ⟨i⟩ -an C⟨i⟩V- -an -an -i
Instrument focus ⟨i⟩ C⟨i⟩V- hi- -an

Affixes expressing ability:

completed progressive contemplative
Actor focus naka- nakaka- maka-
Patient focus na- na-CV- ma-
Locative focus kia- -an kia-CV- -an ka- -an
Instrument focus kia- kia-CV- hika-

Numbers[edit]

Tausug numerals:[9][11]

Tausug
1 isa / hambūk
2 duwa
3
4 upat
5 lima
6 unum
7 pitu
8 walu
9 siyam
10 hangpū'
11 hangpū' tag isa
20 kawha'an
30 katlu'an
40 kapatan
50 kayman
60 kanuman
70 kapituwan
80 kawaluwan
90 kasiyaman
100 hanggatus
1,000 hangibu

Writing system[edit]

The Tausūg language was previously written with the Arabic alphabet. The script used was inspired by the use of Jawi in writing the Malay language.

An example of the Arabic alphabet in writing the Tausūg language:

  • Latin script – Wayruun tuhan malaingkan Allāh, hi Muhammad ing rasūl sin Allāh
  • Arabic script – وَيْـرُٷنْ تُـهَـنْ مَـلَـيِـڠْـكَـن هَالله، هِـمُـحَـمَّـدْ ئِـڠ رَسُـولْ سِـڠ الله
  • English translationThere is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah

The Arabic script used to write the Tausug language differs in some aspects to the script used for the Arabic language and in the Jawi script used for Malay languages. One of the main differences is in the way that word-initial vowels are written.

In Arabic, /in/ is (إن); in Jawi (Malay), it is (ان). In Tausug, it is (ئِن). The Tausug Arabic script utilises the letter yā' with a hamza (ئ) to represent a short vowel. If a kasra (ئِ) is added, it becomes an 'i' sound. If a fatha (ئَ) is added, it becomes an 'a' sound. If a damma (ئُ) is added, it becomes a 'u' sound.

Latin[edit]

Tausug Alphabet
Letter A B D G H I J K L M
Name Alip bā' dāl gā' hā' ī jīm kāp lām mīm
IPA /a/ /b/, /β/ /d/ /ɡ/, /ɣ/ /h/, /ɦ/ /i/ /dʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/
Letter N Ng P R S T U W Y '
Name nūn ngā' pā' rā' sīn tā' ū wāw yā' hamja
IPA /n/ /ŋ/ /p/ /r/, /ɹ/ /s/ /t/ /u/ /w/ /j/ /ʔ/

Arabic[edit]

Tausug Alphabet – Arabic Script
Character Isolated Initial Medial Final Name
ا alip
ب ـﺒ ـﺐ bā'
ت ـﺘ ـﺖ tā'
ج ـﺠ ـﺞ jīm
د د ـد dāl
ر ـر rā'
س ـﺴ ـﺲ sīn
غ ـﻐـ ـﻎ gayn
ڠ ڠ ڠـ ـڠـ ـڠ ngā'
ف ـﻔ ـﻒ pā'
ک ک ـﻜ ـک kāp
گ گ ـﮕـ ـﮓ gāp
ل ـﻠ ـﻞ lām
م ـﻤ ـﻢ mīm
ن ـﻨ nūn
و ـو wāw
ه ـﻬ hā'
ي ـﻴـ yā'
ء ء ء hamja
أ أ ـأ alip with hamja above
ـﺆ wāw with hamja above
ئ ئ ئـ ــئـ ـئ yā' with hamja above
لا لا لا ــلا ــلا lām alip

Examples[edit]

English Tausug Latin Script Tausug Arabic Script
What is your name? Unu in ngān mu? اُنُ ئِـن ڠَـان مُ؟
My name is Muhammad In ngān ku Muhammad ئِـن ڠَـان كُ مُـحَـمَّـد
How are you? Maunu-unu nakaw? مَـؤُنُعاُنُ نَـكَـو؟
I am good Marayaw da isab مَـرَيَـو دَ ئِـسَـب
Where is Ahmad? Hawnu hi Ahmad? هَـونُ هِ أحـمَـد؟
He is in the house Ha bāy siya هَ بَـاي سِـيَ
Thank you Magsukul مَـگـسُـكُـل

Loanwords[edit]

Many Tausug words derive from the Arabic language.

Some examples of Arabic words in Tausug are

Tausug Word Meaning (Tausug) Arabic Word Pronunciation Meaning (Arabic)
Adab manners أدب adab manners
Ahirat Hereafter آخرة ākhirah hereafter
Ajayb amazing عجيب 'ajīb amazing
Akkal intelligence عقل 'Aql intellect
Alam universe عالم 'ālam world
Allāh God الله Allāh God
Amānat message أمانة amānah trust
Ammal use عمل 'amal to make
Awal origin أوّل awwal first
Awliya ascetic أولياء awliyā' ascetics
Ayat verse آية āyah verse
Ayb shame عيب 'ayb shame
Barawi Desert robber بدوي badawī bedouin
Batāl unclean باطل bātil void
Bilāl Muezzin/caller to prayer بلال Bilāl Bilal ibn Rabah
Daawa excuse/alibi دعوة da'wah invitation
Duhul extremity دخول dukhūl entrance
Daira city دائرة dā'irah area
Dayyus cuckold ديّوث dayyūth cuckold
Dunya earth دنيا dunyā world
Duwaa prayer دعاء du'ā prayer/supplication
Habal news خبر khabar news
Hadas impurity حدث hadath impurity
Hakīka birth ritual عقيقة aqīqah birth ritual
Hakīkat truth حقيقة haqīqah truth
Hatīb speaker خطيب khatīb speaker
Hawa Eve حواء Hawā' Eve
Hidāyat announcement هداية hidāyah guidance
Hikmat wisdom حكمة hikmah wisdom
Hukum judge حكم hukm ruling
Humus alms خمس khums fifth
Hutba' sermon خطبة khutbah sermon
Hurup sound of a letter حروف hurūf letters
Ibilīs demon إبليس Iblīs devil
Ihilās sincerity إخلاص ikhlās sincerity
Ijin blessing إذن idhn permission
Ilmu' knowledge علم 'ilm knowledge
Imān forbearingness إيمان īmān faith
Intiha' end إنتهى intihā end
Irādat determination إرادة irādah determination
Islām Islam إسلام Islām Islam
Istigapar to beg pardon إستغفار istighfār to beg pardon
Instinja pure إستنجاء istinjā' to clean one's self
Jabūr Psalms زبور zabūr Psalms
Jāhil foolish جاهل jāhil ignorant
Jakāt tithe زكاة zakāh tithe
Jamāa congregation جماعة jamā'ah congregation
Jamān clock زمان zamān time
Janāja bier جنازة janāzah funeral
Jāt appearance ذات dhāt self
Jaytūn olive زيتون zaytūn olive
Jin spirit جنّ jinn demon
Jinā adultery زنا zinā adultery
Juba garment جبّة jubbah garment
Jubul anus دبر dubr anus
Junub pollution جنوب junūb dirty
Jurriyat lineage ذرية dhurriyyah offspring
Kahawa coffee قهوة qahwah coffee
Kāpil disbeliever كافر kāfir disbeliever
Karāmat miracle كرامة karāmah miracle
Kawwāt power قوّة quwwah force
Kubul grave قبور qubūr graves
Kudarat Power of God قدرة qudrah ability
Kulbān sacrifice قربان qurbān sacrifice
Kuppiya' male head covering كوفيّة kūffiyah kefiyyeh
Kupul disbelief كفز kufr disbelief
Lidjiki' blessing رزق rizq sustenance
Maana meaning معنة ma'nah meaning
Magrib sunset مغرب maghrib sunset
Magsukul Thanks شكر shukr thanks
Mahluk human مخلوق maklūq created
Maksud purpose مقصود maqsūd intended
Makbul fulfilled مقبول maqbūl accepted
Malak Beautiful ملك malak Angel
Maruhum deceased مرحوم marhūm deceased
Masrik east مشرق mashriq east
Matakaddam parable متقدّم mutaqaddam preceding
Mayat corpse ميت mayt dead
Mujijat mystery معجزة mu'jizah miracle
Mulid pupil مريد murīd pupil
Munapik hypocrite منافق munāfiq hypocrite
Murtad apostate مرتد murtad apostate
Muskil uncommon مشكل mushkil problem
Mustahak lawful owner مستحقّ mustahaqq deserving
Mustajab occurred مستجاب mustajāb answered
Muwallam scholar معلّم mu'allim teacher
Nabī prophet نبي nabī prophet
Najal promise نذر nadhar vow/promise
Najjis filth ناجس nājis filthy
Napas breath نفس nafas breathe
Napsu desire نفس nafs ego/desire
Nasihat advice نصيحة nasīhah advice
Paham familiarity فهم fahm understanding
Pardu' legislation فرض fard compulsory
Piil action فعل fi'l action
Pikil think فكر fikr thought
Pir'awn Pharaoh فرعون fir'awn Pharaoh
Rahmat blessing رحمة rahmah mercy
Rasūl messenger رسول rasūl messenger
Ruku' bow ركوع rukū' bowing
Rukun precept ركن rukn pillar
Sabab because سبب sabab reason/cause
Sahabat follower صحابة sahābah companions
Saytān Satan شيطان shaytān Satan
Sual discussion سؤال su'āl question
Subu dawn صبح subh dawn
Sunnat female circumcision سنّة sunnah tradition/sunnah
Takabbul arrogant تكبّر takabbur arrogance
Takwīm calendar تقويم taqwīm calendar
Tallak divorce طلاق talāq divorce
Tarasul Tausug poem تراسل tarāsul correspondence
Tasbi prayer beads تسبيح tasbīh praise
Ummul age عمر 'amr age
Wajib compulsory واجب wājib compulsory
Wakap pause وقف waqf pause
Waktu time وقت waqt time

Tausug words derived from Sanskrit

Tausug Word Meaning (Tausug) Sanskrit Word Pronunciation Meaning (Sanskrit)
Guru teacher गुरु guru teacher
Naga dragon नाग nāga serpent
Āgama religion आगम āgama religion
Lahu' eclipse राहु rāhu eclipse
Lupa appearance रूप rūpa appearance
Dukka grieve दुःख duḥkha suffering
Sutla' silk सूत्र sūtra to sew/thread

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tausug at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tausug". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Peneyra (1992), pp. 1–2.
  4. ^ a b c Tan, Evangeline K. (1967). "The phonology of Tausug: a descriptive analysis". open.library.ubc.ca. M.A.Thesis, University of British Columbia. p. 16.
  5. ^ Peneyra (1992), p. 1.
  6. ^ Peneyra (1992), pp. 4–5.
  7. ^ Peneyra (1992), pp. 7; 14–15.
  8. ^ Peneyra (1992), p. 32.
  9. ^ a b Zorc, David Paul (1977). The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction. Canberra, Australia: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. doi:10.15144/PL-C44. ISBN 0858831570.
  10. ^ Peneyra (1992), pp. 35–47.
  11. ^ [1]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Peneyra, Irma V. (1992). A grammatical sketch of the Tausug language. The Archive, Publication 6. Diliman: University of the Philippines.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]