Tax rates in Europe

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This is a list of the maximum potential tax rates around Europe for certain income brackets. It is focused on three types of taxes: corporate, individual, and value added taxes (VAT). It is not intended to represent the true tax burden to either the corporation or the individual in the listed country.

Summary list[edit]

The quoted income tax rate is, except where noted, the top rate of tax: most jurisdictions have lower rate of taxes for low levels of income. Some countries also have lower rates of corporation tax for smaller companies. In 1980, the top rates of most European countries were above 60%. Today most European countries have rates below 50%.[1]

Country Corporate tax Maximum income tax rate Standard VAT rate
Albania[2] 15% 23%[3] 20%
Austria 25% 55%[4] 20%[5] (Reduced rates 10% + 13%)[6]
Belarus 18% 15% 20%[2]
Belgium[7] 29% (25% from 2020. For SME's 20% from 2018 on the first €100.000 profit)[7] 50% (excluding 13.07% social security paid by the employee and also excluding 32% social security paid by the employer) 21% (Reduced rates of 6% and 12%)[5]
Bosnia and Herzegovina[8][9] 10% 41-43% (Depending on administrative entity) 17%
Bulgaria[10] 10% 10% (additional 12.9% by the employee for social security contributions, i.e. health insurance, pension and unemployment fund); and additional 17.9% by the employer for various social security contributions)[11] 20%[5] (Reduced rates 9%)[6]
Croatia 18% (Reduced rate 12% for small business) 40% (excluding 35.2% total sum of insurances levied on income) 25% (Reduced rates 13% + 5%)(Reduced rates 9%)[6]
Cyprus 12.5% 35% 19% (Reduced rates 5% + 9%)(Reduced rates 9%)[6]
Czech Republic 19% 53.5% (15% income tax + 6.5% by employee + 25% by employer (2.3% healthcare + 21.5% social security + 1.2% state policy of employment) + 7% solidarity contribution (assuming income is above 1 277 328 CZK per year)) 21% (reduced rates of 15% and 10%)[5]
Denmark 22% 55.56% (including 8% social security paid by the employee but excluding 0.42–1.48% church tax imposed on members of the national Church of Denmark) 25% (reduced rate 0% on transportation of passengers and newspapers normally published at a rate of more than one issue per month)[5]
Estonia 20% CIT on distributed profit. 14% on regular distribution. 0% on undistributed profits. [12] 20% (+ 2.4% of unemployment insurance tax, 0.8% paid by employer, 1.6% paid by employee and 33% social security which is paid before gross wage by employer) around 57,8% in total 20% (reduced rate 9%)[5]
Finland 20% 25% to 67% depending on the net income and municipality, including 7.8%[13] [14][15] social insurance fees, employee unemplayment payment and employer unemployment payment, which is on average 18% (2018).[13] 24%[5][16] (reduced rate of 14% for groceries and restaurants, 10% for books, medicine, transport of passengers and some others)
France 33.3% (36.6% above 3.5M€, 15% below 38k€)[17] 49% (45% +4% for annual incomes above €250,000 for single taxpayers or above €500,000 for married couples) [18] + social security and social contribution taxes at various rates, for example 17,2 % for capital gains, interests and dividends. 20% (reduced rate of 10%, 5.5%, 2.1% and 0% for specific cases like some food, transportation, cultural goods, etc.)[5][19]
Germany 22.825% (few small villages) to 32.925% (in Munich) depending on the municipality. This includes the 15% CIT, 5.5% solidarity surcharge plus the trade tax payable to the municipality. 47.475% which includes 45% income tax and 5.5% solidarity surcharge based on the total tax bill for incomes above €256,304. The entry tax rate is 14% for incomes exceeding the basic annual threshold of €9,000. 19% (reduced rate of 7% applies e.g. on sales of certain foods, books and magazines, flowers and transports)[5]
Georgia 15% 20% 18%
Greece 29% 65.67% (45% for >€40,000+ 7.5% Solidarity Tax for >€40000)+(26.95% Social Security for employees or up to 47.95% for private professionals) 24%[5] (Reduced rates 13% and 5%)[6]
Hungary 9% 15% (additional contributions at 10% Social Security by employee and 22% Social Security by employer and health care 7% by employer) 27%[5][20][21] (Reduced rates 18% and 5%)[6]
Iceland 20%[22] 36.94% from 0 - 834.707 and 46.24% over 834.707 kr (2017)[23] 24% (12% reduced rate)[22]
Ireland 12.5% for trading income

25% for non-trading income

40% over €34,550 for single, €42,800 for married taxpayers. 23% [24]
Isle of Man 0%[25] 20% plus national insurance of under 12.8%[25] Same as United Kingdom (see below)[26]
Italy 27.9% (24% plus 3.9% municipal) 45.83% (43% income tax + 2.03% regional income tax + 0.8% municipal income tax) 22%[5] (Reduced rates 10%, 5%, 4%)[6]
Latvia 20% CIT on distributed profit. 0% on undistributed profits. 31.4%[27] 21% (reduced rates 12% and 0%)[28]
Liechtenstein 12.5% (2.5% on IP and royalties) 28% (max. 8% national and 20% municipal income tax) plus 4% of the taxpayer's net worth is subject to the same rate as wealth tax. 0% on capital gains. 8% / 2.5% (till 31.12.2017)

7.7% / 2.5% (from 01.01.2018)[29]

Lithuania 15% (5% for small businesses with up to 10 employees and up to €300,000 income) 55.2% (effective tax rates: 25.5% social insurance (nominally it is 31.2% payable by employer + 3% payable by employee), 15.6% income (nominal rates are 6% for health insurance nominal plus 15% direct income)), applies to annual income of over €15,000[30] annual tax allowance for children is €2,400 (per child) 21% (Reduced rates 5%, 9%)[6]
Luxembourg 29.22% (commercial activity); 5.718% on intellectual property income, royalties. 43.6% (40% income tax + 9% solidarity surcharge calculated on the income tax)[31] 17%[5] (Reduced rates 3%, 8%, 14%)[6]
Republic of Macedonia[32] 10% 37% [33] (includes income tax 10%, mandatory state pension 18%, mandatory public health insurance 7.3%, mandatory unemployment insurance 1.2%, mandatory personal injury insurance 0.5%) 18%
Malta 35% (6/7 or 5/7 tax refunds gives an effective rate of 5% or 10% for most companies[34]) 35% 18%[5] (Reduced rates 5%, 7%)[6]
Monaco 0% (>75% revenue within Monaco) or 33.33%[35]
Montenegro 9%[36] 12.65% (11% income tax + 15% of the income tax bill to the municipality)[36] 17%[36]
Netherlands 25% above €200,000 of profit and otherwise 20%[37] The Netherlands makes generous secret tax deals with huge multinationals.[38] 52%[39] (55.6% including income dependent tax reduction for incomes between €67,072-121,972)[40] 21%[41] (reduced rate of 6% and 0% for some goods and services)
Norway[42][43] 23%[44]) 46.9% (53.5% including 14.1% social security contribution by employer. All taxes include 8.2% pension fund payments). 25% (reduced rate of 15% for groceries, and 10% for transport and culture.)
Poland 19% 32% 23% (reduced rates of 5% and 8%)[5]
Portugal 21% 82.75% where 48% + 3% special contribution Income tax and (additional contributions at 11% Social Security by employee and 23.75% Social Security by employer) 23% (reduced rates 13% and 6%)
Romania <1 mil euro 1% of all sales, >1 mil euro 16% from profit 42.8% (10% income- out of gross minus pension & health & deductions, 25% pension- out of gross, 10% health- out of gross + 2.25% compulsory work insurance)[45] 19% (reduced rates of 9% and 5%)[46]
Russia 20% 13% straight tax + 29% social tax (paid by company) + social insurance from 0,5% to 2,5% depending on traumatism risk. In total ca. 43%. 18%
Serbia 15% 52% (capital gains tax 15%, standard income tax rate 10%, additional contributions by employee: 13% state pension fund, 6.5% state health fund, 0.5% unemployment fund; additional contributions by employer: 11% state pension fund, 6.5% state health fund, 0.5% unemployment; maximum contributions capped (amount changing monthly); additional tax for higher salaries (after 3 times average salary additional 10%, after 6 times average salary additional 15%)),[47][48][49] 20%
Slovakia 22% [50] 50% (income tax 19% + 25% for the part of annual income greater than € 35,022.31; additional contributions at 4% mandatory health insurance by employee and 10% by employer, 9.4% Social Security by employee and 25.2% by employer) 20%[5] (10% reduced rate)
Slovenia[51] 19% 50% 22%[5] (reduced rate 9.5%) – from 1 July 2013
Spain 25% 45% maximum Income tax rate. Not including employee contribution of 6.35% Social Security tax, 4.7% pension contribution tax, 1.55% unemployment tax, 0.1% worker training tax. Not including employer contribution of 23.6% Social security tax, 5.5% unemployment tax, 3.5% (or more) workers comp tax, worker training tax .06%, 0.2% FOGOSA tax (employment tax in case of company bankruptcy). 21%[5] (reduced rates 10% and 4%)
Sweden 22% (21.4% 2019, 20.6% 2021) 67% including social security paid by employer[52] 25%[5] (reduced rates 12% and 6%)
Switzerland 16.55% 22.5% (Kanton Zug, Gemeinde Walchwil) to 46% (Kanton Geneve), average rate 34%. These taxes do not include social security that is private and not income based (e. ) [53] 8% / 2.5% (till 31.12.2017)

7.7% / 2.5% (from 01.01.2018[54]

Ukraine 18% 17% 20%
United Kingdom 19% (17% from 2020)[55] 47% (45% income tax + 2% NI) - theoretically, NI could reach 12%, but in practice it's never combined with the higher income tax rate

62% for earnings between £100,000 - £123,000 (40% higher rate tax + removal of tax free personal allowance + 2% NI)

45% (additional rate) income tax on annual income above £150,000, 40% (higher rate) between £43,001 and £150,000, 20% (basic rate) between £0 and £43,000. There is also a National Insurance levy between 2% and 13.8% for employees and self-employed individuals but capital gains and dividend income is not subject to NI. The first £11,000 is tax-free if your annual income is below £100,000.

Capital gains is taxed at 10% (or 18% on residential property) for basic rate taxpayers and 20% (or 28% on residential property) for higher and additional rate taxpayers. Dividend income from UK companies is taxed at 7.5% for basic rate taxpayers, 32.5% for higher rate taxpayers and 38.1% for additional rate taxpayers.

20% (reduced rate of 5% for home energy and renovations, 0% for life necessities – groceries, water, prescription medications, medical equipment and supplies, public transport, children's clothing, books and periodicals)[5]

Per country information[edit]

Austria[edit]

Austrian income taxation is determined by §33 of Austrian Income Tax Code (Einkommensteuergesetz - EStG)

Annual Income [€] Taxation Rate [%]
0 - 11,000 0
11,001-18,000 25
18,001-31,000 35
31,001-60,000 42
60,001 - 90,000 48
>90,000 50

It should be noted that until the end of the year 2020 an additional tax (55%) will affect income of over 1 million €.

Portugal[edit]

Income tax in Portugal depends on the number of people in the household. The taxable income is calculated based on the number of household and marital status.

Taxable income Tax on this income
Up to €7,000 14.5%
€7,001 and €20,000 28.5%
€20,001 and €40,000 37%
€40,001 and €80,000 45%
Over €80,000 48%

Germany[edit]

German income tax comprises 5 income tax bands, with the first two being based on a totally Progressive tax rate and the rest being flat rate. Taxable income is derived after subtracting personal and child allowances from earned income. In addition a number of other deductions may be claimed by German taxpayers.

  • Personal allowance: €9,000 per adult
  • Child allowance: €7,428 per child
Annual income above Annual income below Marginal tax rate 2018[56]
€0 €9,000 0%
€9,000 €13,996 14% − 23.97%
€13,996 €54,949 23.97% − 42%
€54,949 €260,532 42%
€260,532 - 45%

In Germany, married couples are taxed jointly. This means that the tax liability for the couple is twice the amount resulting from the tariff when inserting the average income of both spouses. Due to the progressive tariff, filing jointly uniformly reduces the total tax burden if spouses' incomes differ.

Netherlands[edit]

Income tax in the Netherlands (Loonheffing) and social security contributions are combined in one payroll tax. There are no personal tax-free allowances

Annual income Above Annual income below Tax rate (including employee social security)[57] Tax rate (excluding employee social security)
€0 €19,882 33% 1.85%
€19,822 €33,589 41% 10.45%
€33,589 €57,585 42%* 42%*
€57,585 - 52%* 52%*
*) Exclusive income dependend standard tax reductions.

France[edit]

Income tax in France depends on the number of people in the household. The taxable income is divided by the number of persons belonging to the household. Each adult counts as one person while the first two children count as half each. From the third child onwards each child counts as one person. Therefore, a household comprising 2 adults and 3 children is considered to be a household of 4 persons for tax purposes

Annual income Above Annual income below Tax rate[58]
€0 €5,963 0%
€5,963 €11,896 5.5.%
€11,896 €26,420 14%
€26,420 €70,830 30%
€70,830 - 41%

Finland[edit]

The total Finnish income tax includes the income tax dependable on the net salary, employee unemployment payment, and employer unemployment payment. [59] [60] The tax rate increases very progressively rapidly at 13 ke/year (from 25% to 48%) and at 29 ke/year to 55% and eventually rearches 67% at 83 ke/year, while little decreases at 127 ke/year to 65%. The middle-income person will get 44 euros from every 100 euros the employer puts on the work. The GP will then again get from every extra 100 euros that the employer puts on the work only 33 euros. Some sources do not include the employer unemployment payment, for instance Veronmaksajat -organisation. [61] [62]

Annual income at Tax rate (including employer unemployment payment)
€13,000 25%
€33,000 57%
€47,000 60%
€83,000 67%
€94,000 66%
€127,000 65%

Spain[edit]

Spanish income tax includes a personal tax free allowance and an allowance per child. In 2012 a special temporary surcharge was introduced as part of austerity measures to balance the budget. The personal allowance currently stands at €5,151.

  • 1st child €1,836
  • 2nd child €2,040
  • 3rd child €3,672
  • 4th & subs €4,182
Annual income above Annual income below Tax rate (excluding temporary surcharge) Tax rate (including temporary surcharge)[63]
€0 €5,150 0% 0%
€5,150 €17,707.20 24% 24.75%
€17,707.20 €33,007.20 28% 30%
€33,007.20 €53,407.20 37% 40%
€53,407.20 €120,000.20 43% 47%
€120,000.20 €175,000.20 44% 49%
€175,000.20 €300,000.20 45% 51%
€300,000.20 - 45% 52%

Italy[edit]

  • Personal Allowance: €800 per adult[citation needed]
  • Allowance per child: €1,120
Annual income Above Annual income below Tax rate[64]
€0 €15,000 23%
€15,000 €28,000 27%
€28,000 €55,000 38%
€55,000 €75,000 41%
€75,000 - 43%

United Kingdom[edit]

Income tax for the United Kingdom is based on 2016/17 tax bands. The current tax free threshold on earnings is £11,500.[65] The relief is tapered by £1 for every £2 earned over £100,000.

Annual income above Annual income below Tax rate[66]
£0 £11,850 0%
£11,500 £45,000 20%
£45,000 £150,000 40%
£150,000 - 45%

Denmark[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Top Marginal Personal Income Tax Rates" (PDF). Tax Policy Center. 2008. Retrieved 2011-12-26. 
  2. ^ a b Federation of International Trade Associations : country profiles
  3. ^ "Tatimi mbi të Ardhurat Personale nga paga". Website of the Albanian Ministry of Finances. Retrieved 2017-02-22. 
  4. ^ New maximum tax rate from 2016-2020,"Einkommenssteuergesetz 1988 § 33","https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokument.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen&Dokumentnummer=NOR40174043, consulted 11 July 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t All current EU standard rates updated Nov 2014, EU VAT rates as at November 2014, http://www.vatlive.com/vat-rates/european-vat-rates/eu-vat-rates/, consulted 5 January 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "EU VAT Rates", All EU vat rates current and historical.
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ [3]
  10. ^ Bulgaria cuts corporate tax to 10 percent – Tax – Business – International Herald Tribune
  11. ^ https://home.kpmg.com/xx/en/home/insights/2011/12/bulgaria-other-taxes-levies.html
  12. ^ Andmevara, AS. "Income Tax Act – Riigi Teataja". www.riigiteataja.ee. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  13. ^ a b http://www.stm.fi/en/insurance/social_insurance_contribution (in English)
  14. ^ {fi} https://www.aamulehti.fi/uutiset/nain-vahan-lisasatasesta-jaa-sinulle-kateen-laskelman-tulos-yllattaa-ja-hatkahdyttaa-myos-keskituloisia-200785052
  15. ^ {fi} https://www.vero.fi/syventavat-vero-ohjeet/ohje-hakusivu/48846/valtion-tuloveroasteikko-2018/
  16. ^ [4]
  17. ^ "French corporate taxes (in French)". French government. 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  18. ^ "Individual income tax rates table". KPMG. 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-10. 
  19. ^ "French VAT since 2014 (in French)". French government. 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  20. ^ "VAT hike pushes Hungary's consumer price inflation to 5.1% in July". Realdeal.hu. 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  21. ^ "Hungary plans bigger budget cuts, VAT hike to 27 pct". 2012-01-01. Retrieved 2012-01-03. 
  22. ^ a b http://www.invest.is/doing-business/taxation/principal-taxes/
  23. ^ https://www.rsk.is/einstaklingar/stadgreidsla/stadgreidsla/2017#tab2
  24. ^ "VAT increase to 23% confirmed". Irish Times. 2011-12-06. Retrieved 2011-12-07. 
  25. ^ a b "Isle of Man Government - Rates and allowances". www.gov.im. Retrieved 2018-03-23. 
  26. ^ "Isle of Man Government - VAT rates". www.gov.im. Retrieved 2018-03-23. 
  27. ^ "Tax system in Latvia". http://fm.gov.lv. 17 January 2018. Retrieved 2018-02-27.  External link in |website= (help)
  28. ^ "41.pants. Piemērojamās nodokļa likmes" (in Latvian). likumi.lv. 14 December 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
  29. ^ Liechtenstein tax law
  30. ^ http://www.tax.lt/
  31. ^ http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-DU-13-001/EN/KS-DU-13-001-EN.PDF
  32. ^ Invest in Macedonia | Taxes and Rates
  33. ^ "Macedonia's income taxes (in Macedonia)". Public Revenue Office, Macedonia. 2013. Retrieved 2014-09-15. 
  34. ^ http://www.rsmmalta.com.mt/taxation-of-companies.aspx
  35. ^ [5]
  36. ^ a b c [6]
  37. ^ Dutch Tax Administration
  38. ^ "Netherlands accused of making more secret tax deals with global businesses". NL Times. 2016-12-07. Retrieved 2018-07-27. 
  39. ^ Dutch Tax Administration
  40. ^ https://www.belastingdienst.nl/wps/wcm/connect/bldcontentnl/belastingdienst/prive/inkomstenbelasting/heffingskortingen_boxen_tarieven/heffingskortingen/arbeidskorting/tabel_arbeidskorting_2017
  41. ^ "Netherlands 21% VAT rate increase is effective October 2012". 
  42. ^ The Norwegian tax reform 2004-2006 – regjeringen.no
  43. ^ Skatteetaten – Guide to Value Added Tax in Norway
  44. ^ Tax office
  45. ^ http://legislatiamuncii.manager.ro/a/23081/evolutia-salariului-minim-pe-economie-in-perioada-2013-2017.html
  46. ^ https://www.vatlive.com/vat-news/romania-cuts-vat-to-19-2017/
  47. ^ Personal Income Tax Law Serbia (official website)
  48. ^ Accurate Personal Income Tax Calculator as of September 2013 for Serbia
  49. ^ Maximum Contributions for State Funds by Accountant Association of Serbia
  50. ^ KPMG tax tables
  51. ^ Ministry of Finance – Tax Administration of the Republic of Slovenia
  52. ^ http://www.ekonomifakta.se/sv/Fakta/Skatter/Skatt-pa-arbete/Marginalskatt/
  53. ^ "Der Mythos vom Steuerparadies Schweiz". Neuer Zürcher Zeitung. Retrieved 2017-02-03. 
  54. ^ "Swiss voters approve VAT rate increase". Meridianglobalservices.com. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  55. ^ HM Revenue & Customs: Corporation Tax rates
  56. ^ {de} http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/estg/__32a.html
  57. ^ {nl} http://www.xperthr.nl/artikel/995/tabel-1-schijventarief-loonbelasting-en-premies-volksverzekeringen-%282011%29.aspx
  58. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-05-26. Retrieved 2012-04-18. 
  59. ^ {fi} https://www.aamulehti.fi/uutiset/nain-vahan-lisasatasesta-jaa-sinulle-kateen-laskelman-tulos-yllattaa-ja-hatkahdyttaa-myos-keskituloisia-200785052
  60. ^ {fi} https://www.vero.fi/syventavat-vero-ohjeet/ohje-hakusivu/48846/valtion-tuloveroasteikko-2018/
  61. ^ {fi} https://www.veronmaksajat.fi/luvut/Laskelmat/Palkansaajan-veroprosentit/
  62. ^ {fi} https://www.veronmaksajat.fi/luvut/Laskelmat/palkkakuitti/
  63. ^ {es} http://www.abc.es/20111231/economia/abci-tabla-recortes-201112310831.html
  64. ^ Redazione internet Agenzia Entrate. "Agenzia delle Entrate - Income tax for individuals". .agenziaentrate.gov.it. Archived from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2014-04-15. 
  65. ^ "Tax and tax credit rates and thresholds for 2016-17 - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2016-06-15. 
  66. ^ "HM Revenue & Customs: Income Tax allowances". Hmrc.gov.uk. Retrieved 2014-04-15. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]