From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Developer(s)Oleg A. Paraschenko
Stable release
December 2010
Written inPython
Operating systemCross-platform
LicenseMIT/X Consortium license

TeXML [tɛχːml] is – as a process – a TeX-based alternative to XSL-FO.

TeXML has been developed as an open-source project with the aim to automatically present XML data as PDF with sophisticated layout properties.

By means of an auxiliary structure definition, TeXML overcomes the syntax-based differences between TeX and XML.

Technically, the markup elements of TeX are described by using the XML syntax.


TeXML is a further development of a specification originally defined by Douglas Lovell at IBM, where Structure and Transformation have to be distinguished.

  • Structure
The XML definition of the TeXML structure can be considered as being completed since 1999 (TeXML.dtd).
It represents the markup link between TeX and XML.
  • Transformation
The transformation processes run smoothly since the end of 2010, a productive application of the technology is possible.
The original approach of using a Java application was published by IBM at IBM alphaWorks, but is no longer present. It was presented in a paper

at the 1999 annual meeting of the TeX Users Group.[1]


TeXML is used to generate Technical Documentation from XML data.

After the transformation TeXML → TeX, the entire LaTeX-defined range of TeX macros is available.

By means of using TeX macros, it is possible to publish XML data having configurable layout options.


  • TeXML allows automatic publication of XML data by means of a typesetting engine, which was originally designed for manual typesetting.
  • In contrast to publication using the XSL-FO technique layout properties of XML data can be manipulated by using exception rules in the intermediate code.
  • Exception rules are learned by the publication process, the layout properties are thus enhanced with each generation cycle.
  • High-speed publishing processes, an increase in speed of up to 100 times compared to XSL-FO based processes, especially in the case of large documents.

TeXML structure[edit]

TeXML structure.jpg

The Document Type Definition (DTD) of the TeXML structure consists of the XML elements:

  • Root element: TeXML
  • Encoding commands: cmd
  • Encoding environments: env
  • Encoding groups: group
  • Encoding math groups: math and dmath
  • Encoding control symbols: ctrl
  • Encoding special symbols: spec
  • PDF literals: pdf

Composition of a TeXML document[edit]

An example of an XML document, which has already been transformed into the TeXML structure:

<TeXML escape="0">
<env name="document">
Misinterpretation of special characters as being functional characters is called "Escaping", thus: $, ^, >

TeXML process[edit]

The TeXML process transforms XML data which are described in the auxiliary intermediate TeXML structure to TeX:

Misinterpretation of special characters as being functional characters is called "Escaping", thus: \textdollar{}, \^{},

Supporting processes[edit]

Works on the "Data Collection Level" (XML) and on the "Publication Level" (TeX) are supported by different tools, for example:

  • Data Collection Level: XML editors
Eclipse (IDE), open source
– other free XML editors
  • Publication Level: synchronization between code and generated PDF by means of pdfSync:
– Windows PC: editor MiKTeX
– Mac OS X: editor TeXShop


External links[edit]

  1. ^ [1], TUG-99