Tea Horse Road

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Map of the Tea-Horse route

The Tea Horse Road or Chamadao (simplified Chinese: 茶马道; traditional Chinese: 茶馬道), now generally referred to as the Ancient Tea Horse Road or Chamagudao (simplified Chinese: 茶马古道; traditional Chinese: 茶馬古道) was a network of caravan paths winding through the mountains of Sichuan, Yunnan and Tibet in Southwest China.[1] This was also a tea trade route. It is also sometimes referred to as the "Southern Silk Road" or "Southwest Silk Road."[citation needed]

There are numerous surviving archaeological and monumental elements, including trails, bridges, way stations, market towns, palaces, staging posts, shrines and temples along the route.[2]

"Ancient Tea Horse Road" is a historical concept with a specific meaning. It refers to a major traffic road formed by the exchange of tea and horses between Han and Tibet from the Tang and Song Dynasties to the Republic of China.

Road classification[edit]

Shaanxi-Gansu Tea Horse Road[edit]

Shaanxi-Gansu Tea Horse Road (陕甘茶马古道) is the main road for tea in mainland China to travel west and exchange for horses. It is one of the main routes of the ancient Silk Road.[3]

Tanggu Road[edit]

Beginning in the Han dynasty, the Tanggu Road (蹚古道) was formed by Shaanxi merchants and the ancient tea-horse market in the southwest frontier. Since the government of the Ming and Qing dynasties imposed government control on tea sales, tea sales were divided into regions, and the most prosperous tea and horse trading market was in Kangding.[3]

Yunnan-Tibet Tea Horse Road[edit]

The Yunnan-Tibet Tea Horse Road (滇藏茶马古道) was formed in the late sixth century AD. It started from Yiwu and Pu'er in Xishuangbanna, the main tea producing area of Yunnan, and entered Tibet through today's Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Lijiang City and Shangri-La, and went directly to Lhasa. Some were also re-exported from Tibet to India and Nepal, which was an important trade route between ancient China and South Asia.[3]

Sichuan-Tibet Tea Horse Road[edit]

The Ancient Sichuan-Tibet Tea-Horse Road (川藏茶马古道) is a part of the Shaanxi-Kangding-Tibet Tea-Horse Road. It starts from Ya'an, the tea producing area of Yazhou in the east, passes through Dajian Furnace (now Kangding), reaches Lhasa, Tibet in the west, and finally leads to Bhutan, Nepal and India. More than a thousand kilometres, it is an indispensable bridge and link between ancient Tibet and the mainland.[3]


Men laden with tea, Sichuan Province, China, 1908, Ernest Henry Wilson

Sichuan and Yunnan are believed to be the first tea-producing regions in the world. The first records of tea cultivation suggest that tea was cultivated on Sichuan's Mount Mengding [zh] between Chengdu and Ya'an earlier than 65 BC. Ya'an has been an important hub of tea trading till the 20th century.[citation needed]

From around a thousand years ago, the Tea Horse Road become a trade link from Yunnan to Tibet; and to Central China via Sichuan Province.[3][4][5][6][7] It is believed that it was through this trading network that tea (typically tea bricks) first spread across China and Asia from its origins in Pu'er county in Yunnan.[8][9] The route earned the name because of the common trade of Tibetan ponies for Chinese tea, a practice dating back at least to the Song dynasty, when the sturdy horses were important for China to fight warring nomads in the north.[10]

Both people and horses carried heavy loads. Tea porters sometimes carried over 60–90 kg (132-198 lb.), which was often more than their own body weight in tea.[11][12][13] Porters were equipped with metal-tipped staffs, both for balance while walking and to help support the load while they rested, so they didn't need to lay the bales down (as illustrated in the photo).

In addition to tea, the mule caravans carried salt and silk products from Chengdu, notably shujin (蜀锦; a type of Sichuan embroidery).[citation needed].

Historic Site[edit]

The Ancient Tea Horse Road is a complex network of roads, of which some of the ancient tea horse roads and related historical sites in Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces were listed as the seventh batch of China National Key Cultural Relics Protection Units[14] on 5 March 2013. There are numerous cultural heritage sites listed as National Key Cultural Heritage Protection Units, including ancient road sites, post stations, shops, pagodas, bridges and piers, as well as related guild buildings, religious buildings, mining and metallurgical sites and kiln sites, cliff carvings and inscriptions in the ancient tea horse road network.

In Sichuan[edit]

The Ancient Tea Horse Road in Sichuan.[15]

Name Location positioning Description Picture Signpost
In Chengdu
Pingle Longshan ancient road Pingle Town, Qionglai City 30°20′12″N 103°20′10″E / 30.33667°N 103.33611°E / 30.33667; 103.33611 Located on the south side of Pingle Ancient Town, within the South Silk Road Ruins Scenic Area
Shuanmaling Ancient Road, Linje Linji Town, Qionglai City
Tiantai Mountain eart stream, Zijing Village ancient road Tiantaishan Town, Qionglai City 30°13′24″N 103°9′1″E / 30.22333°N 103.15028°E / 30.22333; 103.15028
Jiaguan Gongdian Ancient Road Jiaguan Town, Qionglai City 30°15′19″N 103°13′34″E / 30.25528°N 103.22611°E / 30.25528; 103.22611
Site of ancient fire (salt) well of oil press Huojing Town, Qionglai City 30°22′54″N 103°13′28″E / 30.38167°N 103.22444°E / 30.38167; 103.22444
Lining waist rock tea horse ancient road Chaoyanghu Town, Pujiang County 30°9′17.9″N 103°24′14.4″E / 30.154972°N 103.404000°E / 30.154972; 103.404000 The old stone pathway from the old pine tree on the top of the lined waist rock to the ancient pathway on the shore of Changtan Lake is 470 metres long.
Songmau Ancient Road (Lung Chi Section) Longchi Town, Dujiangyan City 31°3′46″N 103°32′4″E / 31.06278°N 103.53444°E / 31.06278; 103.53444
In Zigong
Lok Shan Square Ziliujing District
Huicaikou ancient salt Road Ziliujing District
Mugye Beach Pier Gongjin district 29°21′17″N 104°40′53″E / 29.35472°N 104.68139°E / 29.35472; 104.68139 It consists of two piers, the upper and the lower, and the boat trough was dug in the 35th year of the Kangxi era (1696) and the Pingkang Weir Gate was built in the 30th year of the Guangxu era (1904).
Gong Jing Old Street salt Road Gongjin district
Salt Wharf in Xian Town Yantan district
In Luzhou
Guangming Ancient Road Fuji Town, Lu county 29°07′23″N 105°24′29″E / 29.12306°N 105.40806°E / 29.12306; 105.40806 Located in Guangming Village, Fuzi Town, Lu County, it runs southeast–northwest, with an existing length of 1091m and a width of 1.7m~2.9m.[16]
Pauline Street Post Road Longmatan district It is 810 meters in length.
Shawan Post Road Jiangyang district
Fengming Post Road Hejiang County 28°42′48″N 105°52′50″E / 28.71333°N 105.88056°E / 28.71333; 105.88056
Bailu Post Road Hejiang County
Xiantan ancient post Road Hejiang County
Dashichuanqian post road Xuyong county
Monkey Ridge Chuanqian post road Xuyong county
Guandou Village Chuanqian post road Xuyong county
Chishui River tea horse post Road Xuyong county
Erlang Post Road Gulin county
In Ya'an
Guanyin Tower Yucheng district 29°59′26.4″N 102°59′25.5″E / 29.990667°N 102.990417°E / 29.990667; 102.990417
Jingju nunnery stone archway Mingshan district 30°4′33.5″N 103°3′13.9″E / 30.075972°N 103.053861°E / 30.075972; 103.053861
Yu Palace Mingshan district 30°4′40.6″N 103°2′52.7″E / 30.077944°N 103.047972°E / 30.077944; 103.047972
Ganlu Ling Quan courtyard stone archway Mingshan district 30°4′55.7″N 103°2′46.5″E / 30.082139°N 103.046250°E / 30.082139; 103.046250
Imperial Tea Garden Mingshan district 30°4′59.8″N 103°2′45.8″E / 30.083278°N 103.046056°E / 30.083278; 103.046056
Tianti ancient path Mingshan district 30°4′43.3″N 103°2′51.7″E / 30.078694°N 103.047694°E / 30.078694; 103.047694
Ganxipo Tea horse ancient Road post site Tianquan county 30°05′25.6″N 102°41′44.3″E / 30.090444°N 102.695639°E / 30.090444; 102.695639
Bian tea official warehouse Tianquan county 30°01′14.8″N 102°49′47.9″E / 30.020778°N 102.829972°E / 30.020778; 102.829972
Feixian Pass and South Boundary Archway Lushan county 30°01′35.4″N 102°53′46.1″E / 30.026500°N 102.896139°E / 30.026500; 102.896139
Saddle waist cliff inscription Lushan county
Rebuild the road monument of Daxiangling Bridge Xingjing County
The site of Gongxing Tea from the Qing dynasty Xingjing County 29°47′39.4″N 102°50′28.8″E / 29.794278°N 102.841333°E / 29.794278; 102.841333 Also known as the ginger family compound
Qingxi Pass Site of Tang dynasty Hanyuan county
Ruins of Qingxi ancient city in the Qing dynasty Qingxi town, Hanyuan County
Ruins of the 24 Daoguai Ancient Road Hanyuan county
Yangquanmen Ancient Road site Qingxi town, Hanyuan County 29°36′5″N 102°37′48″E / 29.60139°N 102.63000°E / 29.60139; 102.63000
In Aba
Baizhangfang ancient plank road Ganbao Township, Li County It is found on the north bank of the Zaguzhi River near the Baodian Temple in Zaguzhi Township, Gambao Township, Li County
Stone carvings of Sui and Tang Dynasties in Putou Mountain Putou Township, Li County
Kegu Plank Road Kegu Township, Wenchuan County 31°30′9.1″N 103°34′17.1″E / 31.502528°N 103.571417°E / 31.502528; 103.571417 Located on the north bank of the Miscellaneous Valley Brain River in Keku Township, Wenchuan County, the surviving site is 158 metres long and 0.4–2 metres wide, including two Qing dynasty inscriptions. 克枯栈道
Poyong ancient Road Maerkang City
In Ganzi
Hualinping Tea Horse Ancient Road Xinglong Town, Luding County 29°42′55.9″N 102°18′14.6″E / 29.715528°N 102.304056°E / 29.715528; 102.304056
Fo'er Cliff tea Horse ancient Road Lengqian Town,Luding county 29°46′28.2″N 102°13′40.1″E / 29.774500°N 102.227806°E / 29.774500; 102.227806
Yingge Mouth Tea Horse Ancient Road Batang County 29°59′11″N 99°7′30″E / 29.98639°N 99.12500°E / 29.98639; 99.12500
In Liangshan
Ganluo Qingxi Gorge ancient road Pingba Township, Ganluo County 29°08′07.0″N 102°34′37.5″E / 29.135278°N 102.577083°E / 29.135278; 102.577083
Dingshan Bridge and Lingguan Inscriptions in Yuexi Dingshan Township, Yuexi County 28°35′49.0″N 102°29′48.8″E / 28.596944°N 102.496889°E / 28.596944; 102.496889
Dengxiangying Ancient Post Xide County 28°27′59.0″N 102°20′38.1″E / 28.466389°N 102.343917°E / 28.466389; 102.343917
Xide Mianshan Camp site Xiande County Mianshan Town 28°22′31.8″N 102°19′40.5″E / 28.375500°N 102.327917°E / 28.375500; 102.327917
Yalong River in Mianning, including Mianning County
Songpingguan Huili County

In Yunnan[edit]

There are 86 cultural heritage sites on the ancient tea horse route in Yunnan province, located in 21 counties and cities[17]

Name Location Positioning Description Picture
In Xiangyun County
Yunnanyi Ancient Road Yunnanyi Town, Xiangyun County 25°25′29″N 100°41′26″E / 25.4248°N 100.6905°E / 25.4248; 100.6905
Xiaoshao to Huangcaoshao Ancient Road Midian Town, Xiangyun County
Baisha Slope to Yongan Bridge ancient road Midian Town, Xiangyun County
Tiger Pass to Puchang River section of the ancient post road Midian Town, Xiangyun County
Xincun to Binchuan south boundary monument section of ancient post road Xiangyun Town, Xiangyun County
Zhenyang Gate Gulou East Street, Xiangcheng Town, Xiangyun County 25°28′45″N 100°33′34″E / 25.47926°N 100.55950°E / 25.47926; 100.55950
Yangbi section[18]
Dahe River street section Dahejiang Village, Pingpo Village Committee, Pingpo town, Yangbi Total length 240 meters
Liziyuan to the dam field section Liziyuan Village, Pingpo Village Committee, Pingpo town, Yangbi The total length is about 550 meters, including the original site of Voucher Bridge
Jinniu Village mud pass section Jiexin Village of Jinniu Village Committee, Cangshan West Town, Yangbi Total length 100 meters
County Bonan section Jie Village in Cangshan Xicheng town, Yangbi County Total length 900 meters
Shuangmo Lane, Xiajie Village Xiajie Village, Cangshan West Town, Yangbi County Total length 400 meters
Yongpin section
Jiaogou Mount section Yongpin County
Wanma Guichao Section Bonan Town, Yongping County Total length 140 meters
Iron Works to Little Flower Bridge Yongpin County Total length 1600 meters
Dahuajiao Section Yongpin County
Bonan Mount Section Yongpin County
Shanyang Old Street Section Yongpin County
Midu Section Yonghe Village, Mizhi Town, Midu County 25°10′03″N 100°31′21″E / 25.16741°N 100.52263°E / 25.16741; 100.52263
Heqing Xiangmian Mountain section Heqing County Songgui town, Jindun Township
Jianchuan section Shaxi Town, Jianchuan County 26°19′12″N 99°51′03″E / 26.31990°N 99.85081°E / 26.31990; 99.85081
Simao Section
Site of Caiyang River section Yutang Village Committee, Yixiang Town, Simao District, Pu 'er City (Caiyang River Nature Reserve)[19]
Site of Jiejipo section Simao District, Pu 'er City
Site of Cha 'an Tang Cha Ma Ancient Road In Ninger County, it starts at Minzhu Village, Ninger Town and ends at Old Fat Tian Group, Xingguang Village, Mohei Town 23°09′37″N 101°08′11″E / 23.16031°N 101.13630°E / 23.16031; 101.13630 27 kilometres in length, 7 kilometres better preserved
The ancient site of the Korie Tea Horse Road Ninger County, starts from Nakoli Village, Tongxin Township, and ends at the foot of Sanjia village, Nanping Town, Simao District 22°54′48″N 101°02′18″E / 22.91337°N 101.03830°E / 22.91337; 101.03830 4.38 km in length
Site of Peacock Screen Tea Horse Ancient Road Ninger County, starting from the Peacock Screen group in Starlight Village, Mohei Town, and ending in Bian village, Mohei Town 23°12′21.4″N 101°09′55.6″E / 23.205944°N 101.165444°E / 23.205944; 101.165444 Approximately 27 km in length, 12 km better preserved
Yulong County
Seventy-two lines Yulong County Taian Township, Longpan Township
Shangri-la City[21]
Twenty-four turn sections Tiger Leaping Gorge, Shangri-La, starts at Yunuo Village of Yongsheng Village Committee and ends at Yongkuk Village of Sanba Village of Jiangbian Village Committee 38 km in length
Twelve rail section Tiger Leaping Gorge Township, Shangri-La City, starting at Huajiao Slope, Hongqi Village Committee and ending at a village, Hongqi Village Committee 8 km in length
Twelve rail section Jinma Village, Yanhe Village, Guji Village, Rhinoceros Village, Lushi Town, Fengqing County
Gongshan Wengli section[22] East bank of Nujiang River, Wuli Village, Zhongluo Town, Gongshan County 1182m in length
Lamping Section Lamping County Also known as "old me well section"[23]
Longyang District, Baoshan City[24]
Shui Shi Kan Terraced Cloud Road Shuizhai Village, Pingpo Village, Shuizhai Township, Longyang District, Baoshan City
Shuizhaipu ancient street and horse shop Laojie, Shuizhai Village, Shuizhai Township, Longyang District, Baoshan City
Guanpo ancient Road flagstone road Beiniujiao Pass, Guanpo Village, Guanpo Village Committee, Banqiao Town, Longyang District, Baoshan City
Shek Ma Shan to Wu Tau Tong Ancient Road 3 km west of Qinggangba Village, Hanzhuang Town, Longyang District, Baoshan City
The Old Stone Path of the Seventy-Six Roads in Lingshui Turnip Shuijing Pass, Shuijing Village Committee, Pupiao Town, Longyang District, Baoshan City
The stone path of the ancient road in the Pan Serpent Valley Pansnake Valley, 1 km west of Dapangqing Village, Ma Street Village Committee, Puxiang Town, Longyang District, Baoshan City
Huiren Bridge Site 2 km west of Daojie Village, Daojie Village Committee, Luyang District, Baoshan City, on the Nujiang River
Gaoligong Mountain Beizhai public house Dongpo ancient road East slope of Gaoligongshan Beizai Gongfang, Mangkuan Township, Longyang District, Baoshan City
Gaoligong Mountain Nanzhai public house Dongpo ancient road Gao Li Gong Shan Nan Zhai Public House, Bai Hua Lin Village, Mang Kuan Township, Longyang District, Baoshan City
Ancient Eastern Slope Trail at Dafengkou, Gaoligong Mountain Gaoligong Mountain Fengkou Pass, 25 kilometers west of Xiangshu Village, Hemu Village Committee, Lujiang Town, Longyang District, Baoshan City
Gaoligong Mountain Chengmendong Dongpo ancient road Longyang District, Baoshan City Lujiang Town Ba Wan Village Committee Pumanshao Village 4 km west of the high east side of the Li Gong Mountain watershed highland
A bowl of water on the old stone path on the Western slope Longyang District Banqiao Town, Baoshan City
Mang-wide double rainbow cable bridge 2 km east of Scalding Xi Village, Mangkuan Township, Longyang District, Baoshan City on the Nu River
Tengchong section[25]
Beizhai public House west slope ancient road flagstone road Jietou town,Tengchong City 25°32′39.1″N 98°45′33.4″E / 25.544194°N 98.759278°E / 25.544194; 98.759278
Chengmen Cave west slope ancient stone road Mangba Town, Tengchong City 24°56′00.8″N 98°44′41.5″E / 24.933556°N 98.744861°E / 24.933556; 98.744861
Terracotta paved ancient flagstone road Mangba Town, Tengchong City 24°59′36.1″N 98°36′40.3″E / 24.993361°N 98.611194°E / 24.993361; 98.611194
Fengfengkou west slope ancient road SLATE road Mangba Town, Tengchong City 24°58′07.9″N 98°45′13.7″E / 24.968861°N 98.753806°E / 24.968861; 98.753806
Big break field slope ancient trough valley road Zhonghe Town, Tengchong City 25°01′24.1″N 98°14′10.9″E / 25.023361°N 98.236361°E / 25.023361; 98.236361
Olive Slope ancient road flagstone road Mangba Town, Tengchong City 24°58′35.3″N 98°39′38.5″E / 24.976472°N 98.660694°E / 24.976472; 98.660694
Nanzhai public House west slope ancient road flagstone road Qushi Town, Tengchong City 25°17′26.7″N 98°44′00.2″E / 25.290750°N 98.733389°E / 25.290750; 98.733389
Huangzhuyuan paved ancient road flagstone road Mangba Town, Tengchong City 24°58′07.8″N 98°45′13.7″E / 24.968833°N 98.753806°E / 24.968833; 98.753806
Yubi Slope ancient stone Road Tengchong Street,Tengchong City 25°00′30.5″N 98°33′28.5″E / 25.008472°N 98.557917°E / 25.008472; 98.557917
Victory blockhouse Houqiao Town, Tengchong City 25°20′31.4″N 98°11′12.0″E / 25.342056°N 98.186667°E / 25.342056; 98.186667
Longchuan County[26]
Shanmu Longshan north slope ancient road Longchuan County Huiguo Township Shanmulong Village 24°32′15″N 98°05′41″E / 24.53750°N 98.09472°E / 24.53750; 98.09472 5 km in length, 3.2 km extant
Fir cage Shanxi slope ancient road Longchuan County Huiguo Township Shanmulong Village
Lianghe County
Maofu Ancient Road flagstone Road Maofu Ha Zhai, Maofu Village, Jiubao Township, Lianghe County 24°47′43″N 98°11′56″E / 24.79516°N 98.19876°E / 24.79516; 98.19876
Deqin County
A Dunzi section Deqin County
Meili section Deqin County
Lijiang Ancient City District
Qiu Tang Guan Tea horse ancient road section Gucheng District, Lijiang City
Shuhe Tea horse ancient road section Gucheng District, Lijiang City
Horseshoe print stone path Gucheng District, Lijiang City
Yuan County, Puer Town
The Ruins of Guang'en Bridge Minjiang Village, Enle Town, Zhenyuan County
Stone carving of the Passing Gate at Xiaoshuijing Liangzi Yuan County
The ancient tea and horse route in the Wailing Mountains Yuan County

In Guizhou[edit]

Name Location location Description picture
Guiyang Section[27]
Changpolin Old Road Baiyun district Located in the Changpo Ling Forest Park, the masonry is about 3 km long and was built in the Ming dynasty.
Centipede Slope ancient Road, including Centipede Bridge Saparing town, Xiuwen County The post road is now about 5 km long; the Centipede Bridge is a three-hole arch bridge, 41m long and 5m wide, spanning the Cat Cave River.
Old Black Mud Post Road Qingzhen City black mud sentinel village Built during the Hongwu period of the Ming dynasty, it is now 5 km long and built of green stone.
Black Mud Wharf Qingzhen City black mud sentinel village Built in the 16th year of the Daoguang era of the Qing dynasty (1836).
Qing Yan Ancient Road Huaxi District Qingyan Town Built during the Wanli period of the Ming dynasty, it is now 8 km long.
Bijie Section[28]
Qixingguan Ancient Post Road Yangjiawan Township, Qixingguan District The surviving ancient post road is 2 km long and 1-2m wide.
Seven Star Pass Cliffs Yangjiawan Township, Qixingguan District
Bijie Shaanxi Association House Chengguan Town, Qixingguan District Also known as the "Spring and Autumn Ancestral Hall", it is located at No. 41, South China Road, Chengguan Town. It was first built during the Qianlong period, sitting west to east, and consists of a street shop, a theatre building, a large hall, a bell tower, a drum tower and a north and south wing.
Sibao Old Road Weining County[29] Yan chang town Located in the southern part of the village of Sibao in the town of Yancang, it was built in the Ming dynasty during the Hongwu period and survives for about 10 km.
Ying Hong Ancient Road Jinduo Township, Weining County Located in Ying Hong Village, Jindou Township, the masonry is about 3 km long, with the existing section from Guanyin Yan to the old town street along the Kedu River.
Six Hole Bridge Long Beach Caohai Town, Weining County It was built in the Qing dynasty during the Xianfeng period and repaired during the Tongzhi period. North-west-south-east, 345m long, of which 328m is the length of the embankment and 3m wide. The dike and the bridge are united, the bridge spans the Dazhong River and is a three-hole stone arch bridge, 17m long and 4.5m wide, with a net span of 3.6m and a height of 2.2m; the dike and the bridge are built of material stone, and willows are planted all over the dike.
Kedu Bridge Jinduo Township, Weining County
Kam Tong Ancient Road Huangniatang Township, Dafang County The existing 2 km long, built in the Ming dynasty, is paved with stone.
Goya Old Road Shuangshan Township and Zhuyuan Township, Dafang County Built in the 17th year of the reign of Hongwu (1384), it is now about 5 km long.
Guli Old Road Guli Township, Qianxi County Built in the 17th year of the reign of Hongwu (1384), it is now about 2 km long.
Parrot's Beak Old Road Shuitang Township, Hezhang County Located in the village of Shuitang in the township of Shuitang, it was built in the Ming dynasty during the Hongwu period and is about 3–4 km long.
Yishenglong Trading Company Drumfield Street, Jinsha County Also known as "Rome Street Salt House", it is located at 133 Rome Road, Chengguan Town, and was built in the Qing dynasty. The building is laid out in the "Dragon Gate" style, consisting of a stable, a main room, a north and south wing, a salt storehouse, and a fire-fighting wall.
Ancient Road of the Yutang River Jinsha County
Yidu Rock Carving Qingchi Township, Jinsha County
Qing Chi Jiangxi Association House Qingchi Township, Jinsha County
Luo Qi's Mei's Festival of Filial Piety Jinsha County Built in the fifth year of the Daoguang era (1825), it is approximately 9 metres high.
Anshun section
Jigongbei Old Post Station Guanglin County
Guangsoling Ancient Post Road, including the ruins of the Ba Ling Bridge Guanglin County
Goshulou Sekidai Guanglin County
Beikou Ancient Post Road Guanglin County
Anlong Ancient Post Road Guanglin County
Panjiang Bridge Stone Carving Group Guanling County, Anshun City and Qinglong County, Qianxinan Prefecture
Liupanshui Section
The ancient road from Daitieguan to Canziyao (Liuzhi section) Liuzhi District
Old Soft Bridge Post Road with Welcome Bridge Panzhou City
Xiaojiezi Ancient Road Panzhou City
Huopu Ancient Road Panzhou City
Chating Ancient Road Panzhou City
Mothballed Old Road Panzhou City Also known as the Golden Land Ancient Road.
Plumtree Old Road Panzhou City Also known as the Great Water Well Ancient Road.
Pingguan to Shengjingguan Ancient Road Panzhou City
Shaoshang Ancient Road Panzhou City Also known as the Two Rivers Water Gully Ancient Road.
Shiguan Old Road Panzhou City
Qianxinan section
Panjiang Bridge Stone Carving Group Qinglong County, Qianxinan Prefecture, Guanling County, Anshun City
Pan River Bridge Old Road Qinglong County
The Ancient Road of Halfpond Qinglong County
Angul Pahang Angu Township, Qinglong County Built in 1826, it is a brick and porcelain structure with four columns and three single doors.[30]
Pinehill Temple Pu'an County[31]
Daitieguan to Canziyao Ancient Road (Pu'an section) Pu'an County
Ma Ling Old Road (with wooden bridge) Yilong New District

Historical value[edit]

The ruins of Guangen Bridge[edit]

The site of Guangen Bridge is located in Minjiang Village, Zhen Yuan County and Enle Old Street river bank, built in the early Qing dynasty, the bridge is 188 meters long, with stone piers and wooden frames, and more than 50 tiled houses on both sides. Qing Yongzheng five years (1727) flooding washed away, the Qing dynasty Yongzheng eight years (1730) and the Qing dynasty Daoguang three years (1823), the county Tan on the restoration of the wide grace bridge.

Qing dynasty Daoguang six years (1826), the county Zhang Zhao additional repaired the Guangen Bridge. Qing dynasty Tongzhi's first year (1862), this bridge was burned again.

In the middle of the Republic of China, repaired into a stone pier wooden surface bridge. Early liberation of China, the bridge was washed away by the river, now only four stone piers, the rest were covered by the river bank sediment, stone pier part in 1973 to build the Enable Bridge with stone was demolished. Now the west bank pier is 4.2 meters high, 12.6 meters wide, and 9.7 meters long, complete preservation.[14]


"Bunakuo" is the translation of the Naxi language, Chinese means "artemisia plain", because of the wild artemisia growing everywhere and the name, as known as "Guangle village". The administrative area belongs to Jinan Town of Gucheng District, which was the largest market town on the eastern route of the ancient tea horse road in ancient times, and is rich in cultural relics, natural landscapes, ethnic culture and other tourism resources. The natural scenery of Leidashan Mountain, the culture of Guzong created by the Tibetan descendants of the Guzong people who migrated from Yanjing in Tibet, and the local Naxi Dongba culture are intertwined here.[32]

Safeguard procedures[edit]

On March 5, 2013, the Tea Horse Ancient Road was announced by The State Council of the People's Republic of China as the seventh batch of national key cultural relic protection units.[14]


In the 21st century, the legacy of the Tea-Horse Road has been used to promote a railway that will connect Chengdu to Lhasa. This planned railroad, part of the PRC's 13th 5-Year Plan, is called the Sichuan-Tibet railway (川藏铁路); it will connect cities across the route including Kangding. Authorities claim it will bring great benefit to the people's welfare.[33]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2011). Traders of the Golden Triangle (A study of the traditional Yunnanese mule caravan trade). Chiang Mai. Cognoscenti Books. ISBN 978-1300701460.
  2. ^ Williams, Tim, Lin, Roland Chih-Hung and Gai, Jorayev. Final Technical Report on the results of the UNESCO/Korean Funds-in-Trust Project: Support for the Preparation for the World Heritage Serial Nomination of the Silk Roads in South Asia, 2013–2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Horse Corridor in Heaven". Shambhalatimes.org. 2010-01-18. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
  4. ^ "Tea-Horse Route". Chinatrekking.com. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
  5. ^ "The road line of the ancient tea-and-horse trade road". Yellowsheepriver.com. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
  6. ^ "Richness, Diversity and Natural Beauty on the Tea Horse Road". English.cri.cn. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved 2011-11-18.
  7. ^ "Strange Brew:The Story of Puer Tea 普洱茶". Retrieved 2011-11-28.
  8. ^ Jeff Fuchs. The Ancient Tea Horse Road: Travels with the Last of the Himalayan Muleteers, Viking Canada, 2008. ISBN 978-0-670-06611-7
  9. ^ Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, 'Pu'er Tea Traditions' in: China's Ancient Tea Horse Road. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2011.
  10. ^ Jenkins, Mark (May 2010). "The Tea Horse Road". National Geographic.
  11. ^ "Between Winds and Clouds: Chapter 2". Gutenberg-e.org. 2007-12-04. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
  12. ^ "Holiday". Weeklyholiday.net. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013.
  13. ^ "History and Legend of Sino-Bangla Contacts". Bd.china-embassy.org. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-05-19.
  14. ^ a b c "国务院核定公布第七批全国重点文物保护单位". www.gov.cn. Retrieved 9 December 2022.
  15. ^ "四川省人民政府关于公布四川省全国重点文物保护单位和省级文物保护单位保护范围的通知". 四川省人民政府. 2014-11-05. Retrieved 2017-10-02.
  16. ^ "泸州茶马古道上的"国宝"". 泸州新闻网. 2013-11-22. Archived from the original on 2014-07-08. Retrieved 2017-10-02.
  17. ^ 《国立西南联合大学旧址等298处文物保护单位保护范围和建设控制地带划定方案》(云南省文物局)
  18. ^ "漾濞彝族自治县文化和旅游局关于漾濞县各级文物保护单位文物安全直接责任单位和直接责任人的公告". 大理漾濞宣传网. 2020-03-16. Retrieved 2022-07-14.
  19. ^ "思茅区不可移动文物名录". 普洱市人民政府. 2020-11-19. Retrieved 2022-10-18.
  20. ^ "宁洱茶马古道". 普洱日报. 2022-07-22. Retrieved 2022-10-18.
  21. ^ 杨秀芸 (2020). "浅谈迪庆茶马古道及其相关的地名文化遗存". 文物鉴定与鉴赏 (24): 53–55. doi:WWJS202024018.
  22. ^ "关于茶马古道翁里段封闭施工的通告". 贡山县人民政府. 2021-12-20. Retrieved 2022-10-18.
  23. ^ "兰坪县人民政府关于公布国家级文物保护单位玉水坪遗址、茶马古道(老姆井段)保护范围的通知" (PDF). 兰坪县人民政府. 2014-10-21. Retrieved 2022-10-18.
  24. ^ 隆阳区文化和旅游局 (2022-06-28). "隆阳区不可移动文物汇总表(188项)". 隆阳区人民政府. Retrieved 2022-10-18.
  25. ^ "国家级文保单位:茶马古道腾冲段". 腾冲市文化和旅游局. 2021-06-04. Retrieved 2022-07-23.
  26. ^ "德宏民族团结月40年丨德宏文保丨 陇川杉木笼茶马古道". 德宏州人民政府. 2022-10-11. Retrieved 2022-10-18.
  27. ^ "我市五处文物纳入"茶马古道"全国重点文物保护单位". 贵阳日报. 2013-06-09. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-10-02.
  28. ^ "悠悠历史苍茫古道 "茶马古道"毕节段". 云贵旅游地理网. 2013-05-12. Archived from the original on 2017-10-03. Retrieved 2017-10-02.
  29. ^ "威宁报社:第七批全国重点文物保护单位名单出炉". 新华网. 2013-05-16. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-10-02.
  30. ^ "优势:晴隆县文化旅游资源". Archived from the original on 2020-06-04. Retrieved 2015-12-20.
  31. ^ "普安县情简介". 多彩贵州网. 2015-08-09. Archived from the original on 2017-10-02. Retrieved 2017-10-02.
  32. ^ "Lijiang Daily News - Bunakou". Lijiang Daily News. 2022-08-07. Retrieved 2022-12-05.
  33. ^ "Reviving the ancient tea-horse route". CCTV News. 2015-08-13. Retrieved 2022-12-09.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]