||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Italian Wikipedia. (June 2013)|
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside of it. The context is usually a particular occupation (that is, a certain trade, profession, or academic field), but any ingroup can have jargon. The main trait that distinguishes jargon from the rest of a language is special vocabulary—including some words specific to it and, often, narrower senses of words that outgroups would tend to take in a broader sense. Jargon is thus "the technical terminology or characteristic idiom of a special activity or group". Most jargon is technical terminology, involving terms of art or industry terms, with particular meaning within a specific industry. A main driving force in the creation of technical jargon is precision and efficiency of communication when a discussion must easily range from general themes to specific, finely differentiated details without circumlocution. A side effect of this is a higher threshold for comprehensibility, which is usually accepted as a trade-off but is sometimes even used as a means of social exclusion (reinforcing ingroup-outgroup barriers).
The philosopher Étienne Bonnot de Condillac observed in 1782 that "every science requires a special language because every science has its own ideas". As a rationalist member of the Enlightenment, he continued: "It seems that one ought to begin by composing this language, but people begin by speaking and writing, and the language remains to be composed."
Various kinds of language peculiar to ingroups can be named across a semantic field. Slang can be either culture-wide or known only within a certain group or subculture. Argot is slang and jargon purposely used to obscure meaning to outsiders. Conversely, a lingua franca is used for the opposite effect, helping communicators to overcome unintelligibility, as are pidgins and creole languages. For example, the Chinook Jargon was a pidgin. Although technical jargon's primary purpose is to aid technical communication, not to exclude outsiders by serving as an argot, it can have both effects at once and can provide a technical ingroup with shibboleths. For example, medieval guilds could use this as one means of informal protectionism. On the other hand, jargon that once was obscure outside a small ingroup can become generally known over time. For example, the terms bit, byte, and hexadecimal (which are terms from computing jargon) are now recognized by many people outside computer science.
The French word is believed to have been derived from the Latin gaggire, meaning "to chatter", which was used to describe speech that the listener did not understand. Middle English also has the verb jargounen meaning "to chatter", which comes from the French word. The word may also come from Old French jargon meaning "chatter of birds".
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (March 2014)|
An industry term is a type of technical terminology that has a particular meaning within a specific industry. The phrase implies that a word or phrase is a typical one within a particular industry or business and people within the industry or business will be familiar with and use the term.
Precise technical terms and their definitions are formally recognised, documented, and taught by educators in the field. Other terms are more colloquial, coined and used by practitioners in the field, and are similar to slang. The boundaries between formal and slang jargon, as in general English, are quite fluid. This is especially true in the rapidly developing world of computers and networking. For instance, the term firewall (in the sense of a device used to filter network traffic) was at first technical slang. As these devices became more widespread and the term became widely understood, the word was adopted as formal terminology.
Technical terminology evolves due to the need for experts in a field to communicate with precision and brevity, but often has the effect of excluding those who are unfamiliar with the particular specialized language of the group. This can cause difficulties as, for example, when a patient is unable to follow the discussions of medical practitioners, and thus cannot understand his own condition and treatment. Differences in jargon also cause difficulties where professionals in related fields use different terms for the same phenomena.
With the rise of the self-advocacy movement within the disability movement, jargonised language has been much objected to by advocates and self-advocates. Jargon is largely present in every day language, in newspapers, government documents and official forms. Several advocacy organisations work on influencing public agents to offer accessible information in different formats. One accessible format that offers an alternative to jargonised language is Easy Read, which consists of a combination of plain English and images. Another alternative is a jargon buster, incorporated to certain technical documents. There is a balance to be struck - excessive removal of technical terminology from a document leads to an equally undesirable outcome - dumbing down.
Modern vs. postmodern opinions on the use of jargon
The summary below discusses two differing viewpoints of the use of jargon, as described by Stephen K. Roney in "Postmodernist Prose and George Orwell". In his article, Roney discusses modern vs. postmodern styles of language using the contrasting views of George Orwell and Judith Butler.
George Orwell believes in the modern style of language, deeming that good writing is clear and simple. In his essay “Politics and the English Language” he states the following arguments: technical language is nothing but an oratorical trick, simple language is required to clarify difficult concepts, while complex language is needed to explain simple concepts, and lastly, political language is structured to make lies seem like the truth. In short, Orwell is articulating that specialized language is not essential.
Butler presents several postmodernist rebuttals to Orwell’s arguments. She states that difficult concepts need to be expressed with specialized vocabulary, or jargon. She quotes Marcuse, who believes that if people could use plain language to describe something, they would. She is attempting to prove that jargon is natural and necessary. Butler also says: “language conditions thought”, meaning that the words we use shape the way we think. Roney responds to that by saying that if language fully conditioned thought, we would not be able to think about language. The last argument that Butler states is: “if you’re talking about something obscure, your language should be obscure to reflect this accurately".
Butler believes that specialized vocabulary is essential in writing and oratory because language should mirror reality. Orwell opposes most of her arguments with his modern style of language by saying that simplicity is the key to good writing and dialect because language should be easy for the audience to comprehend.
Many examples of jargon exist because of its use among specialists and subcultures alike. In the professional world, those who are in the business of filmmaking may use words like "vorkapich" to refer to a montage when talking to colleagues. In Rhetoric, rhetoricians use words like "arete" to refer to a person of power's character when speaking with one another.
- Architectural terminology
- Ballet terminology
- Binomial nomenclature
- Chemical nomenclature
- Computing jargon
- Corporate jargon
- Economics terminology that differs from common usage
- Fencing terminology
- Legal terms
- Language of mathematics
- Medical terminology
- Musical terminology
- Nautical terms
- Padonkaffsky jargon
- Poker terminology
- Scientific terminology
- Wine tasting descriptors
- Critical vocabulary
- Jargon File
- P convention
- List of plain English words and phrases
- Register (sociolinguistics)
- Specification (technical standard)
- Technical standard
- Three-letter acronym
- Variety (linguistics)
- "Jargon". Merriam Webster. Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 29 March 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
- Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law
- Quoted by Fernand Braudel, in discussing the origins of capital, capitalism, in The Wheels of Commerce, vol. II of Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century, 1979:234. Originally found in Condillac's work Le Commerce et le gouvernement considérés relativement l'un à l'autre (1776).
- Lundin, Leigh (2009-12-31). "Buzzwords– bang * splat !". Don Martin School of Software. Criminal Brief.
- "jargon". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Roney, Stephen (2002). "Postmodernist Prose and George Orwell". Academic Questions 15 (2): 13. doi:10.1007/s12129-002-1071-6. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- Green, Jonathon. Dictionary Of Jargon. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987 ISBN 0-7100-9919-3
- Nash, Walter. Jargon: Its Uses and Abuses. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993 ISBN 0-631-18063-X
- Sonneveld, H, Loenning, K: (1994): Introducing terminology, in Terminology, p. 1–6
- Wright, S. E.; Budin, G.: (1997): Handbook of Terminology Management, Volume 1, Basic Aspects of Terminology Management, Amsterdam, Philadelphia, John Benjamins 370 pp.
|Look up jargon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- The Jargon Wiki - A wiki based on The Jargon File.
- Business Jargon - Business Jargon and terminology.
- Easy Read by Mencap
- Business English dictionary for industry-specific jargon