Technikum (Polish education)
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A mass-education facility of "special middle education" category 1 step higher than PTU, but aimed to train low and middle level (depending on profile) industrial managers, foremen, coordinators, technical supervisors etc. or specializing in occupations that require skills more advanced than purely manual labor, especially in high-tech occupations (such as electronics). This category remained in use in post-USSR republics. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union many technikums in CIS countries were renamed to colleges. After graduation from a technikum/college, a student may apply to an institution of higher learning (i.e. university) as a freshman.
A student finishing the second level of compulsory education (gimnazjum) has to choose between three types of schools:
- liceum ogólnokształcące (high school, 3 years), designed mainly for those who want to pass matura and begin higher studies,
- zasadnicza szkoła zawodowa (vocational school, 3 years), designed for those who want to start working immediately after finishing their compulsory education,
- technikum (professional technical school, 4 years), after which students have both qualifications to start working and possibility to pass matura and begin studies.
Technikum, unlike vocational school, covers the same knowledge of general subjects (like Mathematics, Biology, Polish as a national language, History) as the liceum ogólnokształcące. The amount of professional knowledge is also extended with respect to vocational school.
People who have finished technikum and have passed the final exams (organized by an external, state unit - Centralna Komisja Egzaminacyjna - Central Examination Committee) in their profession obtain a title consisting of the word technik and the profession they have learnt (for example technik elektryk - electrical industry technician), where the word technician (technik) cannot be used by those who finished three-year vocational school. Their title contains only the name of profession, for example elektryk (electrician).
Examples (in alphabetical order):
- Technikum Budowlane: Vocational Technical High School for Construction
- Technikum Ceramiczne: Vocational Technical High School for Ceramics
- Technikum Chemiczne: Vocational Technical High School for Chemistry
- Technikum Drogowe Zespołu Szkół Budowlanych: Vocational Technical High School for Road Construction
- Technikum Drzewne: Vocational Technical High School for Woodworking
- Technikum Elektryczne: Vocational Technical High School for Electrical Science
- Technikum Usług Fryzjerskich: Vocational Technical High School for Hairdressing
- Technikum Gastronomiczne: Secondary Technical School of Catering (Note: not a cooking school, per se)
- Technikum Handlowe: Vocational Trade High School [clarification needed]
- Technikum Hodowlane: Vocational Technical High School for Agricultural Studies
- Technikum Hotelarskie: Vocational Technical High School for Hotel Administration
- Technikum Informatyczne: Vocational Technical High School for Computer Science
- Technikum Łączności: Vocational Technical High School for Telecommunications
- Technikum Mechaniczne: Vocational Technical High School for Mechanical Studies
- Technikum Obsługi Turystycznej: Vocational School for Tourism and tourism-related enterprise
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