Weatherford was born in Pocahontas, Virginia and was raised in neighboring Bluefield, West Virginia. From 1915 through 1920, he lived in New Orleans, Louisiana, where he learned to play jazz piano. He then moved to Chicago, Illinois, where he worked with such bands as that of Erskine Tate through the 1920s and with such jazz notables as Louis Armstrong and Johnny Dodds and impressed the young Earl Hines.
Weatherford then traveled, first to Amsterdam, then around Asia playing professionally. In the early 1930s, he led a band at the Taj Mahal Hotel in Bombay (now Mumbai), India. He joined Crickett Smith's band in Jakarta, Indonesia. Weatherford took over leadership of Smith's band in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in 1937.
During World War II, he led a band in Calcutta, where he made radio broadcasts for the U. S. Armed Forces Radio Service. Performers with Weatherford's band included Bridget Althea Moe, Jimmy Witherspoon, Roy Butler and Gery Scott.
- Yanow, Scott. "Artist Biography of Teddy Weatherford". AllMusic. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
- Shope, Bradley G. (2016). American Popular Music in Britain's Raj. Eastman Studies in Music. 131. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. ISBN 978-1-58046-548-9.
- Koerner, Brendan I. (2008). Now the Hell Will Start: One Soldier's Flight from the Greatest Manhunt of World War II. New York: The Penguin Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-59420-173-8.
- Fernandes, Naresh (October 8, 2011). "Happy Birthday, Bridget Moe". Taj Mahal Foxtrot. Retrieved March 25, 2016.
Bradley Shope, American Popular Music in Britain's Raj. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2016.