Teenage pregnancy in the United States

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Teenage pregnancy in the United States relates to girls under the age of 20 who become pregnant. 89% of these births take place out-of-wedlock.[1] In the 2010s, teen pregnancy has declined almost continuously.

An anti-teenage pregnancy poster

Pregnancies[edit]

According to the Centers for Disease Control, more than 4 out of 5, or 80%, of teenage pregnancies are unintended.[2] In 2010, of the majority of pregnancies to adolescent females in the United States, an estimated 60% ended in live birth, 15% ended in miscarriage, and 30% in abortion.[3] In 2012, there were 104,700 maternal hospital stays for pregnant teens; the number of hospital stays for teen pregnancies decreased by 47 percent from 2000-2012.[4]

In 2014, 249,078 babies were born to women aged 15 – 19 years old. This is a birth rate of 24.2 per 1000 women.[5] However, most adolescents who give birth are over the age of 18. In 2014, 73% of teen births occurred in 18-19 year olds. Pregnancies are much less common among girls younger than 15. In 2008, 6.6 pregnancies occurred per 1,000 teens aged 13–14. In other words, fewer than 1% of teens younger than 15 became pregnant in 2008.[6] Pregnant teenagers tend to gain less weight than older mothers, due to the fact that they are still growing and fighting for nutrients with the baby during the pregnancy.[7]

Teen pregnancy is defined as pregnancies in women under the age of 20, regardless of marital status. Teen pregnancy rates have dropped 9% since 2013.[5] Between 1991 and 2014, teenage birth rates dropped 61% nationwide.[8]

Teenage birth rates, as opposed to pregnancies, peaked in 1991, when there were 61.8 births per 1,000 teens, and the rate dropped in 17 of the 19 years that followed.[9] 3 in 10 American girls will get pregnant before age 20. That are almost 750,000 pregnancies a year.[10] Nearly 89% of teenage births occur outside of marriage.[3] Of all women, 16% will be teen mothers.[11] The largest increases in unintended pregnancies were found among women who were cohabiting, had lower education, and low income.[2]

By ethnicity[edit]

Black, Latina, and American Indian youth experience the highest rates of teenage pregnancy and childbirth.[5] Studies show that Asians (23 per 1,000) and whites (43 per 1,000)[6][11] have lower rates of pregnancy before the age of 20. The pregnancy rate among black teens decreased 48% between 1990 and 2008, more than the overall U.S. teen pregnancy rate declined during the same period (42%).[6] The teen birth rate decline broken down by race in 2014 from 2013:[5]

  • 7% for Non-Hispanic Whites
  • 11% for Non-Hispanic Blacks
  • 9% Hispanic
  • 11% Asian/Pacific Islander
  • 12% American Indian/Alaska Natives

By region[edit]

Teen births (age 15–19) per 1,000 people by state (2014)
  14.7 - 18.5
  18.5 - 24.2
  24.2 - 29
  29 - 33.7
  33.7 - 38.5
  38.5 - 43.6
  43.6 - 48.6
  48.6 - 51.5

Teen birth rates in the United States are higher than that of many other developed countries.[3]

In 2013, the lowest birth rates were reported in the Northeast, while the highest rates were located in the south east.[3] For example, a 2001 study by UNICEF found that the US teenage birth rate was the highest among 28 OECD nations in the review;[12] in a 1999 comparison by the Guttmacher Institute, U.S. teen pregnancy and teen birth rates were the second-highest among the 46 developed countries studied.[13][14] In 2002, the U.S. was rated 84th out of 170 World Health Organization member countries based on teenage fertility rate.[15]

Sexually active teens in the US are less likely to use any contraceptive method, including condoms, and are especially less likely to use highly effective hormonal methods, primarily the pill, than their peers in other countries. Among adolescents who had sex in the past month: almost 25% of males and 40% of females did not use a condom.[3] The research also found that US teens who become pregnant are less likely to choose abortion. This could be due to the fact that the resources for abortions are not readily available. 75% of women in rural areas have to drive at least 50 miles for abortion services.[16] 87% of United States counties do not have an abortion provider.[16]

Birth and abortion rates of women and girls ages 15–19, 2010 [17][edit]

US State Pregnancy rate Birthrate Abortion rate % aborted
Alabama 62 32 9 17
Alaska 64 27.8 17 30
Arizona 60 29.9 9 18
Arkansas 73 39.5 9 14
California 59 21.1 19 38
Colorado 50 20.3 10 20
Connecticut 44 11.5 20 52
Delaware 15 20.7 28 47
Washington, D.C. 90 28.4 32 41
Florida 60 22.5 19 38
Georgia 64 28.4 13 24
Hawaii 65 23.1 23 42
Idaho 47 23.2 7 17
Illinois 57 22.8 15 32
Indiana 53 28 7 16
Iowa 44 19.8 9 23
Kansas 53 27.6 5 12
Kentucky 62 35.3 6 12
Louisiana 69 35.8 10 18
Maine 37 16.5 10 31
Maryland 57 17.8 22 45
Massachusetts 37 10.6 14 46
Michigan 52 21.1 14 32
Minnesota 36 15.5 8 25
Mississippi 76 38 9 14
Missouri 54 27.2 9 19
Montana 53 26.4 10 21
Nebraska 43 22.2 5 14
Nevada 68 28.5 20 34
New Hampshire 28 11 8 35
New Jersey 51 13.1 24 55
New Mexico 80 37.8 15 22
New York 63 16.1 32 58
North Carolina 59 25.9 12 24
North Dakota 42 23.9 6 18
Ohio 54 25.1 12 25
Oklahoma 69 38.5 8 13
Oregon 47 19.3 12 29
Pennsylvania 49 13.8 15 35
Rhode Island 44 15.8 16 41
South Carolina 65 28.5 13 23
South Dakota 47 26.2 4 11
Tennessee 62 33 9 18
Texas 73 37.8 9 15
Utah 38 19.4 4 13
Vermont 32 14.2 9 34
Virginia 48 18.4 14 33
Washington 49 19.1 16 37
West Virginia 64 36.6 9 17
Wisconsin 39 18 7 21
Wyoming 56 30.1 8 17

Parenting as a teenager[edit]

There were 334,000 births among girls aged 19 or younger in 2011, representing 8% of all U.S. births.[6] Births to teen mothers peaked in 1991 at 62 births per 1,000 girls. This rate was halved by 2011 when there were 31 births per 1,000 girls.[6] About 25% of teenage mothers have a second child within 24 months of the first birth.[18]

Teenagers are becoming better contracepters because they realize that their sexual partners may not be a reliable coparent. Marriage rates over the 1990s through the 2010s with teenagers has drastically declined because of this realization. Since contraception has become more obtainable for teenagers, they are preventing unwanted pregnancies.[19]

For every 1,000 black boys in the United States, 29 of them are fathers, compared to 14 per 1,000 white boys.[6] The rate of teen fatherhood declined 36% between 1991 and 2010, from 25 to 16 per 1,000 males aged 15–19. This decline was more substantial among blacks than among whites (50% vs. 26%) and about half of the rate among teen girls.[6] Nearly 80% of teenage fathers do not marry the teenage mother of their child.[20] Teenage fathers have 10-15% lower annual earnings than teenagers who do not father children.[20]

Most female teens report that they would be very upset (58%) or a little upset (29%) if they got pregnant, while the remaining 13% report that they would be a little or very pleased.[6] Most male teens report that they would be very upset (47%) or a little upset (34%) if they got someone pregnant, while the remaining 18% report that they would be a little or very pleased.[6]

Parenting as a teenager has detrimental effects on the children. Children born to teenage mothers are more likely to: be born prematurely, 50% more likely to repeat a grade, live in poverty, and suffer higher rates of abuse.[18] The sons of teen mothers are 13% more likely to end up incarcerated, and the daughters of teenage mothers are 22% more likely to become teenage mothers.[18] More than 25% of teen mothers live in poverty during their 20s.[20]

Teenage pregnancy imposes lasting hardships on two generations: mother and child. Evidence from U.S. studies show that women who bear their first child at an early age bear more children rapidly and have more unwanted and out-of-wedlock births. Children of teenage parents are more likely to have lower academic achievements and tend to repeat the cycle of early marriage and early childbearing of their parents.[21]

Since the Great Recession, young people take three times longer to gain financial independence than it took for young people three decades ago. It is much harder for teenage parents to be able to support a family compared to the past due to the competitive work environment.[19]

Supporting teenage parents[edit]

More than 50% of teenage mothers do not graduate from high school.[10] Some high schools in the United States offer a program for pregnant and parenting teens to continue their education. These are sometimes referred to as "Teen Parent Programs".[22]

There are several benefits to these school based programs, the number one benefit being teens are able to continue their high school education. Studies have shown that when teen parents stay in school after being pregnant, they have a better chance of graduating high school.[23] Less than 2% of teen moms earn a college degree by age 30.[10] Many of these programs offer on-campus childcare. Some even require the pregnant and parenting teens to attend parenting classes or practicum classes. The parenting classes offer a place for these young parents to learn about the basic needs of a child. While, the practicum classes offer a hands on experience caring for the children in the childcare center.

Statistics show that less than 10% of teen parents earn their high school diploma by their eighteenth birthday.[24] These programs are trying to change those statistics. Currently (2016), San Diego County has 7 high schools that offer these teen parent programs.

Prevention[edit]

The United States has the highest rates of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases in developed countries.[25] The two primary reasons given by teenagers for not using protection is that the chance of becoming pregnant is small, and the failure to anticipate intercourse.[26] Teen pregnancies can be prevented. The best method of reducing the consequences of teenage parenthood is by providing reproductive health services to prevent teenagers from becoming pregnant in the first place.[19] Prevention can not only be beneficial on a micro level but it is also beneficial on a more macro scale. Nationally, teen pregnancies cost tax payers an average of $9.4 billion each year.[5] These costs are associated with health care, foster care, criminal justice, public assistance and lost tax revenue.[18] Teen pregnancies can be prevented by increasing access and education on the proper use of contraceptives,[2] as well as parental involvement. The best method of prevention is to integrate sex and STD education into the middle and high school science curriculum as well as addressing the effects of teenage pregnancies in the social studies curriculum.

International comparison[edit]

The teenage birth rate per 1,000 women aged 15–19, 2000–2009.[27]

There are large differences in adolescent pregnancy rates among developed nations like Canada, France, Great Britain, Sweden and the United States. The United States has the highest number of teen pregnancies and the highest number of STD’s compared to the other four countries. In France and Sweden during the late '90s, pregnancies were 20 per 1,000 women at ages 15–19.[28]

In Canada and Great Britain the levels were twice that, and the United States the level was 4 times as high with 84 per 1,000 teenage women pregnant. The likelihood of pregnant teenage girls having abortions across the four countries differ and exclude miscarriages. In the U.S. abortion rates for 15–19 years are 35% while in Sweden it was 69%. Leaving Great Britain with 39%, Canada with 46% and France with 51%.[29]

It has been suggested that the U.S. teen pregnancy rate is higher because of the prevalence of abstinence-only sex education. As a result, these adolescents are not fully aware of how to respond to sexual activity if it comes their way. The mentality of some education systems in the U.S. have the idea that if they do not teach safe sex, adolescents will refrain from sex[citation needed]. As the data concludes from above that compared to the other developed countries the U.S. is four times as likely to have a teen pregnancy. Yet the U.S. also uses less contraceptive, has more abortions[citation needed] and more prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases than the other developed countries.

In the U.S. all states are involved in sex education, but each state has differences in what they teach. Some states choose to go in detail others just cover the bases. Which include 39 states that require “some” education related to sexuality. There are 21 states that are required by law to teach sexuality and STD education. 17 states only require the teaching of STDs and not sexual education. There are also 11 states that have no requirement and leave it up to that state to decide whether or not they teach sex education.[30]

Modern decline[edit]

Although there is a noticeable decline in U.S. teen pregnancy, the current rate is still 2-4 times more than in Canada, France, Great Britain, and Sweden. The biggest difference in the rate of pregnancies in the United States compared to the other countries is that in America there is a very high unintended pregnancy rate. This unintended pregnancy rate is higher than the total teenage pregnancy rate in all of the four countries. [31]

In 2010 there was a rate of 57 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15–19. Most of those women reported that it was an unplanned pregnancy. This shows a 15% drop in pregnancies from 2008 to 2010. There is a huge decline in adolescent pregnancy for the nation as a whole. The cause of these declines are from abstaining from sex or better use of contraceptives.[32] Birth rates among younger teens ages 15–17 have also fallen faster – dropping by 50%, compared with a 39% decline among older teens ages 18 and 19.[33] Researchers have concluded that these declines stem from improvement in use of contraceptives.[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "An Analysis of Out-Of-Wedlock Births in the United States". The Brookings Institution. 1996-08-01. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
  2. ^ a b c "Unintended Pregnancy Prevention | Unintended Pregnancy | Reproductive Health | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
  3. ^ a b c d e "The Office of Adolescent Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services". Office of Adolescent Health. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
  4. ^ Witt WP, Wiess AJ, Elixhauser A (December 2014). "Overview of Hospital Stays for Children in the United States, 2012". HCUP Statistical Brief #186. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
  5. ^ a b c d e "About Teen Pregnancy | Teen Pregnancy | Reproductive Health | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "www.guttmacher.org" (PDF). Guttmacher Institute. June 2013. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
  7. ^ Chen, X.-K.; Wen, S. W.; Fleming, N.; Demissie, K.; Rhoads, G. G.; Walker, M. (2007-04-01). "Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population based retrospective cohort study". International Journal of Epidemiology. 36 (2): 368–373. doi:10.1093/ije/dyl284. ISSN 0300-5771.
  8. ^ "Data". thenationalcampaign.org. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
  9. ^ Timothy W. Martin (2011). "Birth Rate Continues to Slide Among Teens". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
  10. ^ a b c "11 Facts About Teen Pregnancy | DoSomething.org | Volunteer for Social Change". www.dosomething.org. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
  11. ^ a b "Policy Brief: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Teen Pregnancy" (PDF). The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2008. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
  12. ^ UNICEF. (2001). "A League Table of Teenage Births in Rich Nations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 29, 2006. (888 KB). Retrieved July 7, 2006.
  13. ^ Indicator: Births per 1000 women (15–19 ys) – 2002 Archived May 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. UNFPA, State of World Population 2003. Retrieved January 22, 2007.
  14. ^ "Core Health Indicators". World Health Organization. 2008. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
  15. ^ a b "Teen Moms + Abortion: Stats You Should Know". www.itsyoursexlife.com. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
  16. ^ Kost, Kathryn; Henshaw, Stanley (2014), U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births and Abortions, 2010:National and State Trends by Age, Race and Ethnicity (PDF), retrieved June 8, 2015
  17. ^ a b c d "Teenage Births: Outcomes for Young Parents and Their Children" (PDF). December 2008. Retrieved 2016-04-19.
  18. ^ a b c Furstenberg, Frank (2016-11-01). "Reconsidering Teenage Pregnancy and Parenthood". Societies. 6 (4): 33. doi:10.3390/soc6040033.
  19. ^ a b c "Statistics on Teenage Pregnancy" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-04-19.
  20. ^ Myers, Wendy S. "Babies Having Babies. (Cover Story)." Women In Business 42.4 (1990): 18-20. Academic Search Complete. Web. 25 Oct. 2016.
  21. ^ Martinez, D. (February 7, 2009). "Teen Parenting Program aims to keep young mothers in school". Valley Morning Star. Retrieved 29 April 2016. Saenz said the program, which follows a TEA curriculum, reaches out to girls and boys from middle school to high school who are facing a pregnancy to educate them about the parenting process, resources, federal programs and continuing their education.
  22. ^ Sadler L. S., Swartz M. K., Ryan-Krause P., Seitz V., Meadows-Oliver M., Grey M., Clemmens D. A. (2007). "Promising Outcomes in Teen Mothers Enrolled in a School-Based Parent Support Program and Child Care Center". Journal of School Health. 77 (3): 121–130. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2007.00181.x.
  23. ^ Van Pelt, Jennifer (March–April 2012). "Keep Teen Mom's In School- A School Social Work". Social Work Today. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  24. ^ Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.; Hall, David W. (2011-10-14). "Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Rates: Why We Need Comprehensive Sex Education in the U.S". PLOS ONE. 6 (10): e24658. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024658. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3194801. PMID 22022362.
  25. ^ Trussell, James (Spring 2017). "Teenage Pregnancy in the United States". Family Planning Perspectives. 6. doi:10.2307/2135482.
  26. ^ Live births by age of mother and sex of child bred, general and age-specific fertility rates: latest available year, 2000–2009 — United Nations Statistics Division – Demographic and Social Statistics
  27. ^ Darroch, Jacqueline; Singh, Susheela; Frost, Jennifer. "Differences in Teenage Pregnancy Rates Among Five Developed Countries: The Roles of Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use".
  28. ^ Darroch, Jacqueline; Singh, Susheela; Frost, Jennifer. "Differences in Teenage Pregnancy Rates Among Five Developed Countries: The Roles of Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use".
  29. ^ "Sex and HIV Education".
  30. ^ Darroch, Jacqueline; Singh, Susheela; Frost, Jennifer. "Differences in Teenage Pregnancy Rates Among Five Developed Countries: The Roles of Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use". Guttmacher Institute.
  31. ^ a b Boonstra, Heather. "What Is Behind the Declines in Teen Pregnancy Rates?". Guttmacher Institute.
  32. ^ Patten, Eileen; Gretchen Livingston (29 April 2016). "Why is the teen birth rate falling?". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 May 2017.

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