Teeth cleaning twig
Chew sticks are twigs with a frayed end used to brush against the teeth, while the other end can be used as a toothpick. The earliest chew sticks have been dated to Babylonia in 3500 BC and an Egyptian tomb from 3000 BC; they are mentioned in Chinese records dating from 1600 BC and in the Tipitaka, the Buddhist Canon, purported to be giving account of events which took place in the north-western India around the 5th century BC.
In Africa, chew sticks are made from the tree Salvadora persica, also known as the "toothbrush tree".
Traditional Sikhs still use datun today as it is written in their scriptures:
ਦਾਤਨ ਕਰੇ ਨਿਤ ਨੀਤ ਨਾ ਦੁਖ ਪਾਵੈ ਲਾਲ ਜੀ ॥ (੨੩)
("Dear/beloved, natural twig brush everyday and pains you shall never get. (23)")
Sikhs strive to do good deeds for the environment so cleaning one's teeth in a natural way such as this method is a good eco-deed as it is renewable and without plastic packaging.
Teeth cleaning twigs can be obtained from a variety of tree species. Although many trees are used in the production of teeth cleaning twigs, some trees are better suited to clean and protect the teeth, due to the chemical composition of the plant parts. The tree species are:
- Salvadora persica
- Lime tree (Citrusaurantafolia)
- Garcinia mannii in West Africa
- Orange tree (Citrus × sinensis)
- African laburnum (Cassia sieberiana) 
- Tea tree
- Neem in the Indian subcontinent
- Vachellia nilotica, also called babool or kikar in the Indian subcontinent
- Dalbergia sissoo, also called sheesham in the Indian subcontinent
- Gouania lupuloides
- Acacia catechu
- Acacia nilotica
- and other trees with bitter roots.
United Kingdom, Europe and United States
- Pilu (Salvadora persica), neem, kicker, peepal tree, the Indian plum or ber fruit tree, the Java plum or jamun tree, the gum arabic tree, safed babul, apamarga, bael tree, dhak, madar ak, kamer, karanj, vijayasar, arjun, gular, bargad, mulhatti, tejovati, mango.
Many companies produce special cases for carrying, storing and protecting chew sticks, known popularly as "miswak holders".
Advantages and disadvantages
When compared to toothbrushes, teeth cleaning twigs have several advantages:
- More ecological in its life-cycle
- Lower cost (0-16% of the cost of a toothbrush)
- Independence from external supplier if made at home from privately owned trees
- Low maintenance, with some twigs need moistening with water if they become dry, to ensure the end is soft. The end may be cut afresh to ensure hygiene, and should not be stored near a sink. The twig is replaced every few weeks to maintain proper hygiene.
- No need for toothpaste
On the other hand, different species of trees have various levels of hardness just as synthetic toothbrushes would, so careful selection of the right hardness is required before use. Excessive scrubbing too can also bring the risk of gum damage.
- Babool (brand) of tooth paste in India, made from babool tree
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- Dantakaṭṭha sutta (AN 5.208) Mahāsaṅgīti Tipiṭaka Buddhavasse 2500
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