Teeth cleaning twig
Chew sticks are twigs with a frayed end used to brush against the teeth, while the other end can be used as a toothpick. The earliest chew sticks have been dated to Babylonia in 3500 BC and an Egyptian tomb from 3000 BC; they are mentioned in Chinese records dating from 1600 BC.
In Africa, chew sticks are made from the tree salvadora persica, also known as the "toothbrush tree." In Islam, this tree is traditionally used to create a chew stick called miswak, as frequently advocated for in the hadith(written traditions relating to the life of Muhammad).
Teeth cleaning twigs can be obtained from a variety of tree species. Although many trees are used in the production of teeth cleaning twigs, some trees are better suited to clean and protect the teeth, due to the chemical composition of the plant parts. The tree species are:
- Salvadora persica
- Lime tree (Citrusaurantafolia)
- Orange tree (Citrussinensis)
- African laburnum (Cassia sieberiana) 
- Tea Tree
- Neem in Indian subcontinent
- Vachellia nilotica, also called Babool or Kikar in Indian subcontinent
- Dalbergia sissoo, also called Sheesham in Indian subcontinent
- Gouania lupuloides
- Acacia catechu
- Acacia nilotica
- and other trees with bitter roots.
When compared to toothbrushes, teeth cleaning twigs have several advantages:
- More ecological in its life-cycle
- Lower cost (0-16% of the cost of a toothbrush)
- Independence from external supplier if made at home from privately owned trees
- Low maintenance, with some twigs need moistening with water if they become dry, to ensure the end is soft. The end may be cut afresh to ensure hygiene, and should not be stored near a sink. The twig is replaced every few weeks to maintain proper hygiene.
- No need for toothpaste
- Excessive scrubbing can damage the gums.
- Babool (brand) of tooth paste in India, made from Babool tree
- Panati, Charles (2013). Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things. HarperCollins. pp. 208–209. ISBN 978-0-06-227708-4.
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- "Search Results - miswak (page 1) - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
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- Ra'ed I. Al Sadhan, Khalid Almas (1999). "Miswak (chewing Stick): A Cultural And Scientific Heritage.". Saudi Dental Journal 11 (2): 80–88.
- "Commercial teeth cleaning twig at 8-16% of toothbrush cost, twig from private owned tree at 0". Nzherald.co.nz. 2007-06-19. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
- "Over extensive scrubbing damages gums". Nzherald.co.nz. 2007-06-19. Retrieved 2011-01-17.