The temple of Athena Alea at Tegea
|• Municipal unit||118.35 km2 (45.70 sq mi)|
|Elevation||650 m (2,130 ft)|
|• Municipal unit||3,544|
|• Municipal unit density||30/km2 (78/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Postal code||220 12|
Tegea (//; Greek: Τεγέα) was a settlement in ancient Arcadia, and it is also a former municipality in Arcadia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Tripoli, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 118.350 km2. Its seat was the village Stadio.
Ancient Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greece, containing the Temple of Athena Alea. The temenos was founded by Aleus, Pausanias was informed. Votive bronzes at the site from the Geometric and Archaic periods take the forms of horses and deer; there are sealstones and fibulae. In the Archaic period the nine villages that underlie Tegea banded together in a synoecism to form one city. Tegea was listed in Homer's Catalogue of Ships as one of the cities that contributed ships and men for the Achaean assault on Troy.
Tegea struggled against Spartan hegemony in Arcadia and was forced into some form of collaboration by 530 BCE, during king Anaxandridas II’s reign, maybe as one of the earliest members of what would become the Sparta-centered Peloponnesian League. In the 4th century Tegea joined the Arcadian League and struggled to free itself from Sparta. The Temple of Athena Alea burned in 394 BC and was magnificently rebuilt, to designs by Scopas of Paros, with reliefs of the Calydonian boar hunt in the main pediment.
Pausanias visited the city in the 2nd century CE. The "tombs" he saw there were shrines to the chthonic founding daemones: "There are also tombs of Tegeates, the son of Lycaon, and of Maira (or Maera), his wife." Maira was a daughter of Atlas, and Homer makes mention of her in the passage where Odysseus tells to Alkinous his journey to Hades, and of those whose ghosts he beheld there."
In the Middle Ages, through some unclear process, Tegea received the name of Amyklion (later usually shortened to Amykli and Nikli) by the 10th century. In 1082, it became the seat of the Diocese of Amyclae, a suffragan see of the Metropolis of Lacedaemon. Nikli and the rest of Arcadia were captured by the Crusaders in c. 1206–09, becoming part of the new Frankish Principality of Achaea, which soon came to encompass most of the Peloponnese. The Chronicle of the Morea depicts Nikli as a site of some importance and fortified, which fell to the Crusaders only after a siege. It became the seat of a secular barony, while a Roman Catholic bishop was installed in the episcopal see. Nikli was still in Frankish hands in 1280, but was lost to the resurgent Byzantines by 1302, who also restored the local see to the Orthodox clergy.
The site of ancient Tegea is now located within the modern village of Alea (referred to as Piali before 1915). Alea is located about 10 kilometers southeast of Tripoli. The municipality of Tegea has its seat at Stadio.
Tegea and Crete
In ancient times, the people of Tegea said that Cydon, Archedius, and Gortys, the surviving sons of their king Tegeates, migrated voluntarily to Crete, and that the cities Kydonia, Gortyna, and Catreus, were named after them. Yet the Cretans denied this; instead they tried to portray these three characters as the offspring of the local heroes Minos and Rhadamantus.
The municipal unit Tegea is subdivided into the following communities (constituent villages in brackets):
- Kerasitsa, where the politician Gregoris Lambrakis was born in 1912
- Magoula (Magoula, Giokareika)
- Psili Vrysi (Psili Vrysi, Bouzaneika)
- Stadio (Stadio, Agios Sostis, Akra)
- Stringos (Stringos, Demiri)
- Aristarchus of Tegea, poet (5th century BC)
- Anyte of Tegea, poet (3rd century BC)
- Cepheus, mythical king and an Argonaut
- Echemus, mythical king
- Gregoris Lambrakis, politician
- Telephus, mythical king
- "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.
- Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
- "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece.
- Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8. 45. 1
- "This sanctuary had been respected from early days by all the Peloponnesians, and afforded peculiar safety to its suppliants" (Pausanias, Description of Greece iii.5.6)
- Description of Greece viii.4.8.
- Compare the origin of Sparta.
- The Calydonian boar and the head of Atalanta have been removed to the National Archaeological Museum of Athens
- Pausanias, Guide to Greece 8.48.6
- Bon 1969, p. 522.
- Gritsopoulos 1939, p. 109.
- Konti 1985, pp. 94–95.
- Bon 1969, pp. 67–70.
- Bon 1969, pp. 522–523.
- Bon 1969, pp. 112, 146, 182, 523–524.
- William Ridgeway, The Early Age of Greece, Volume 1 Cambridge University Press, 2014 (originally 1901) ISBN 1107434580
- Bon, Antoine (1969). La Morée franque. Recherches historiques, topographiques et archéologiques sur la principauté d’Achaïe (in French). Paris: De Boccard.
- Gritsopoulos, Tasos (1939). "Η μετά της επισκοπής Αμυκλών ένωσις της πατριαρχικής εξαρχίας Τριπολιτζάς". Deltion of the Christian Archaeological Society (in Greek). 4: 108–117.
- Konti, Voula (1985). "Συμβολή στην ιστορική γεωγραφία της Αρκαδίας (395-1209)" (PDF). Byzantina Symmeikta (in Greek). 6: 91–124.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia article Tegea.|
- Perseus site: Tegea Photo gallery of archaeologuical sites and bibliography.
- (Roy George), Temple of Athena Alea at Tegea
- GTP – Ancient Tegea
- GTP – Municipality of Tegea
- GTP – Alea, the present name of Tegea
- Tegea – black-and-white photo essay of the site and related artifacts
- Tegean Ancient Army – a brief peer-reviewed essay discussing the army of the ancient Tegea