|تهران بزرگ · Greater Tehran|
|• Mayor||Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf|
|• City Council||Chairman Mehdi Chamran|
|• Urban||730 km2 (280 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,274 km2 (492 sq mi)|
|Elevation||900 to 1,830 m (2,952 to 6,003 ft)|
|• Density||12,896/km2 (33,400/sq mi)|
|• Population Rank in Iran||1st|
|Population Data from 2015 Census and Statistical Centre of Iran Metro area figure refers to Tehran Province.|
|Time zone||IRST (UTC+03:30)|
|• Summer (DST)||IRDT (UTC+04:30)|
Tehran (Persian: تهران – Tehrān, pronounced [tehˈrɒːn] ( listen)) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 9 million in the city and 16 million in the wider metropolitan area, Tehran is the most populous city of Iran, the 2nd-most populous city in Western Asia and the 3rd-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 29th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.
In the Classical era, part of the present-day city of Tehran was occupied by a Median city that in the Avesta occurs as Rhaga. It was destroyed by the Mongols in the early 13th century, and remains now as a city in Tehran Province, located towards the southern end of the modern-day city of Tehran.
Tehran was first chosen as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty in 1796, in order to remain within close reach of Iran's territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Persian Wars, and to avoid the vying factions of the previously ruling Iranian dynasties. The capital has been moved several times throughout the history, and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran.
The city was the seat of the Qajars and Pahlavis, the two last imperial dynasties of Iran. It is home to many historical collections, such as the royal complexes of Golestan, Sa'dabad, and Niavaran, as well as the country's most important governmental buildings of the modern period.
Large scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, and Tehran has been a destination for the mass migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century.
The most famous landmarks of the city include the Azadi Tower, a memorial built during the Pahlavi period, and the Milad Tower, the world's 17th tallest freestanding structure, which was built in 2007. Tabiat Bridge, which was completed in 2014, is considered the third contemporary symbol of the city.
The majority of the people of Tehran are Persian-speaking people, and roughly 99% of the population understand and speak Persian; but there are also large populations of other Iranian ethnicities in the city such as Azerbaijanis, Armenians, Lurs, and Kurds who speak Persian as their second language.
Tehran is served by the Mehrabad and Khomeini international airports, a central railway station, the rapid transit rail system of the Tehran Metro, as well as a trolleybus and a BRT system, and has a large network of highways.
There have been plans to relocate Iran's capital from Tehran to another area; due mainly to air pollution and the city's exposure to earthquakes. To date, no definitive plans have been approved. A 2016 survey of 230 cities by consultant Mercer ranked Tehran 203rd for quality of living. According to the Global Destinations Cities Index in 2016, Tehran is among the top ten fastest growing destinations.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Economy
- 4 Infrastructure
- 5 Education
- 6 Culture
- 7 Twin towns and partner cities
- 8 Panoramic view
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The present-day city of Tehran was a suburb of an important Median city that was known as Rhaga in Old Persian. In the Avesta's Videvdat (i, 15), Rhaga is mentioned as the twelfth sacred place created by the Ohrmazd. In Old Persian inscriptions, Rhaga appears as a province (Behistun 2, 10–18). It was a major area for the Iranian tribes of Medes and Achaemenids. From Rhaga, Darius the Great sent reinforcements to his father Hystaspes, who was putting down the rebellion in Parthia (Behistun 3, 1–10). In some Middle Persian texts, Rhaga is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster, although modern historians generally place the birth of Zoroaster in Khorasan. Derived into Modern Persian as Rey, it remains now as a city located towards the southern end of the modern-day city of Tehran, which has been absorbed into the Greater Tehran metropolitan area.
Mount Damavand, the highest peak of Iran, which is located near Tehran, is an important location in Ferdowsi's Shahname, the long Iranian epic poem that is based on the ancient epics of Iran. It appears in the epics as the birthplace of Manuchehr, the residence of Keyumars, the place where Freydun binds the dragon fiend Aži Dahāka and the place where Arash the Archer shot his arrow from.
During the Sassanid era, in 641, Yazdgerd III issued his last appeal to the nation from Rey, before fleeing to Khorasan. Rey was dominated by the Parthian Mihran family, and Siyavakhsh—the son of Mihran the son of Bahram Chobin—who resisted the Muslim Invasion. Because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rey, they ordered the town to be destroyed and ordered Farrukhzad to rebuild the town anew.
In the 9th century, Tehran was a well known village, but less known than the city of Rey, which was flourishing nearby. The medieval writer Najm od Din Razi declared the population of Rey about 500,000 before the Mongol Invasion.
In the 10th century, Rey was described in detail by Muslim geographers. Despite the interest that Arabian Baghdad displayed in Rey, the number of Arabs in the city remained insignificant and the population mainly consisted of Persians of all classes. The Oghuz Turks invaded Rey discretely in 1035 and 1042, but the city was recovered during the Seljuk and Khwarazmian eras.
In the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Rey, laid the city to ruin and massacred many of its inhabitants. Following the invasion, many of the city's inhabitants escaped to Tehran, and the new residence took over its role.
In July 1404, Castilian ambassador Ruy González de Clavijo visited Tehran while on a journey to Samarkand, the capital of Timur who ruled Iran at the time. Clavijo later described Tehran as an unwalled region under the Timurid Empire.
Early modern era
When the Italian traveler Pietro della Valle passed through the city overnight in 1618, he mentioned it as "Taheran" in his memoirs, while Thomas Herbert mentioned it as "Tyroan". Herbert stated that the city had 3,000 houses in 1627.
In the early 18th century, Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty ordered a palace and a government office to be built in Tehran, possibly to declare the city his capital, but he later moved his government to Shiraz. Eventually, the Qajar king Agha Mohammad Khan was the first to choose Tehran as the capital of Iran in 1776.
Agha Mohammad Khan's choice of his capital was based on a similar concern for the control of both the northern and the southern regions of Iran. He was aware of the loyalties of the inhabitants of the previous capitals Isfahan and Shiraz to the Safavid and Zand dynasties respectively, and was wary of the power of the local notables in these cities. Thus, he probably viewed Tehran's lack of a substantial urban structure as a blessing, because it minimized the chances of resistance to his rule by the notables and by the general public. Moreover, he had to remain within close reach of Azerbaijan and Iran's integral Caucasian territories in the North and South Caucasus, at that time not yet irrevocably lost per the treaties of Golestan and Turkmenchay to the neighboring Imperial Russia, which would follow in the course of the 19th century.
After 50 years of Qajar rule, the city still barely had more than 80,000 inhabitants.
Up until the 1870s, Tehran consisted of a walled citadel, a roofed bazaar, and a town where the majority of the population resided in the three main neighborhoods of Udlajan, Chale Meydan and Sangelaj. The first development plan of Tehran in 1855 emphasized the traditional spatial structure. Architecture, however, found an eclectic expression to reflect the new lifestyle.
The second major planning exercise in Tehran took place under the supervision of Dar ol Fonun. The map of 1878 included new city walls, in the form of a perfect octagon with an area of 19 square kilometers, which mimicked the Renaissance cities of Europe.
Late modern era
As a response to the growing social awareness of civil rights, on June 2, 1907, the first parliament of the Persian Constitutional Revolution passed a law on local governance known as the Baladie Law. The second and third articles of the law, on Baladie Community (or the city council), provided a detailed outline on issues such as the role of councils within the city, the members' qualifications, the election process and the requirements to be entitled to vote.
After the First World War, Reza Shah immediately suspended the Baladie Law of 1907, and the decentralized and autonomous city councils were replaced by centralist approaches of governance and planning.
From the 1920s to 1930s, the city was essentially rebuilt from scratch, under the rule of Reza Shah Pahlavi. Reza Shah believed that ancient buildings such as large parts of the Golestan Palace, Tekye Dowlat, the Toopkhane Square, the city fortifications and the old citadel among others, should not be part of a modern city. They were systematically demolished, and modern buildings in the pre-Islamic Iranian style, such as the National Bank, the Police Headquarters, the Telegraph Office and the Military Academy were built in their place. The Grand Bazaar of Tehran was divided in half and many historic buildings were demolished in order to build wide straight avenues in the capital. Many Persian gardens also fell victim to new construction projects.
The changes in the urban fabric started with the street-widening act of 1933, which served as a framework for changes in all other cities. As a result of this act, the traditional texture of the city was replaced with cruciform intersecting streets creating large roundabouts, located on the major public spaces such as the bazaar.
As an attempt to create a network for the easy movement of goods and vehicles in Tehran, the city walls and gates were demolished in 1937 and replaced by wide streets cutting through the urban fabric. The new city map of Tehran in 1937 was heavily influenced by the modernist planning patterns of zoning and gridiron networks.
During the Second World War, Soviet and British troops entered the city. Tehran was the site of the Tehran Conference in 1943, attended by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
The establishment of the planning organization of Iran in 1948 resulted in the first socio-economic development plan to cover 1949 to 1955. These plans not only failed to slow the unbalanced growth of Tehran, but with the 1962 land reforms that Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi called the White Revolution, Tehran's chaotic growth was further accentuated.
To bring back order to the city and resolve the problem of social exclusion, the first comprehensive plan of Tehran was approved in 1968. The consortium of Iranian consultants Abd ol Aziz Mirza Farmanian and the American firm of Victor Gruen Associates identified the main problems blighting the city to be high density suburbs, air and water pollution, inefficient infrastructure, unemployment and rural-urban migration. Eventually, the whole plan was marginalized by the 1979 Revolution and the subsequent Iran–Iraq War.
Tehran's most famous landmark, the Azadi Tower, was built by the order of the Shah in 1971. It was designed by Hossein Amanat, an architect who won a competition to design the monument, using Sassanid and Achaemenid elements. Formerly known as the Shahyad Tower, it was built in commemoration of the 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire.
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Tehran was rapidly developing under the reign of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Modern buildings altered the face of Tehran and ambitious projects were envisioned for the following decades. The majority of these projects, such as the Milad Tower, were continued after the 1979 Revolution when Tehran's urbanization had reached its peak, and the new government started many other new projects.
During the 1980–88 Iran–Iraq War, Tehran was the target of repeated Scud missile attacks and air strikes.
The 435-meter-high Milad Tower was completed in 2007, and has become a landmark of the city of Tehran. The 270-meter pedestrian overpass of Tabiat Bridge is another landmark of the city, which was designed by the award winning Leila Araghian and was completed in 2014.
Location and subdivisions
The City of Tehran is divided into 22 municipal districts, each with its own administrative center. 20 of the 22 municipal districts are located in Tehran County's Central District, while the districts 1 and 20 are respectively located in Shemiranat and Ray counties.
|Regions and municipal districts of Tehran|
|Municipal districts of Tehran|
Towers of Elahieh
Northern Tehran is the wealthiest part of the city, consisting of various districts, Major ones such as Niavaran, Zafaranieh, Velenjak, Farmanieh, Elahieh, Nelson Mandela Boulevard, Pasdaran, Gheytarieh, Gholhak, Zafar, Mirdamad Boulevard, Darrous, Vanak & Some others.
Tehran features a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with continental climate characteristics and a Mediterranean climate precipitation pattern. Tehran's climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Alborz Mountains to its north and the central desert to the south. It can be generally described as mild in the spring and autumn, hot and dry in the summer, and cold and wet in the winter.
Because the city is large with significant differences in elevation among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly north than in the flat southern part of Tehran. For instance, the 17.3 km (10.7 mi) Valiasr Street runs from Tehran's railway station at 1,117 m (3,665 ft) elevation above sea level in the south of the city to the Tajrish Square, and at 1,612 m (5,289 ft) elevation above sea level in the north. However, the elevation can even rise up to 1,900 m (6,200 ft) at the end of the Velenjak Street in the north of Tehran.
Summer is long, hot and dry with little rain, but relative humidity is generally low. Average high temperatures are between 35 and 40 °C (95 and 104 °F), and at nights it rarely drops below 23 °C (73 °F). Most of the light annual precipitation occurs from late autumn to mid-spring, but no one month is particularly wet. The hottest month is July, with a mean minimum temperature of 26 °C (79 °F) and a mean maximum temperature of 36 °C (97 °F), and the coldest is January, with a mean minimum temperature of −1 °C (30 °F) and a mean maximum temperature of 8 °C (46 °F).
The weather of Tehran can sometimes be unpredictably harsh. The record high temperature is 43 °C (109 °F) and the record low is −17 °C (1 °F). On January 5 and 6, 2008, after years of relatively little snow, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures covered the city in a thick layer of snow and ice, forcing the Council of Ministers to officially declare a state of emergency and close down the capital on January 6 and 7.
Tehran has seen an increase in relative humidity and annual precipitation since the beginning of the 21st century. This is most likely because of the afforestation projects, which also include expanding parks and lakes. The northern parts of Tehran are still more lush than the southern parts.
|Climate data for Tehran-Shomal (north of Tehran), Altitude: 1548.2 M from: 1988-2005|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.4
|Average high °C (°F)||6.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−11.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||63.1
|Average rainy days||12.3||10.9||12.3||10.0||8.9||3.3||3.4||1.6||1.3||5.8||8.6||10.7||89.1|
|Average snowy days||8.9||6.6||2.5||0.1||0.1||0||0||0||0||0||0.6||4.9||23.7|
|Average relative humidity (%)||67||59||53||44||39||30||31||31||33||44||57||66||46.2|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||137.2||151.1||186.0||219.1||279.8||328.7||336.6||336.8||300.5||246.8||169.4||134.1||2,826.1|
In February 2005, heavy snow covered all of the parts of the city. Snow depth was 15 cm (6 in) in south part of the city and 100 cm (39 in) in the north of city. A newspaper said it had been the worst weather for 34 years. 10,000 bulldozers and 13,000 municipal workers deployed to keep the main roads open.
On February 3, 2014, Tehran reached a heavy snowfall, specifically in the northern parts of the city, with a height of 2 meters. Within the one week successive snowfall roads were made impassable in some areas in north of Tehran along with a temperature variety of -8 °C to -16 °C.
On June 3, 2014, a severe thunderstorm with powerful microbursts created a haboob that engulfed the city in sand and dust. Five people were killed and more than 57 injured. This disaster also knocked numerous trees and power lines down. It struck between 5 and 6 PM, plummteing temperatures from 33 °C to 19 °C in just an hour. The dramatic temperature drop was accompanied by wind gusts reaching nearly 118 km/h.
A plan to move the capital has been discussed many times in prior years, due mainly to the environmental issues of the region. Tehran is rated as one of the world’s most polluted cities, and is also located near two major fault lines.
The city suffers from severe air pollution. 80% of the city's pollution is due to cars. The remaining 20% is due to industrial pollution. Other estimates suggest that motorcycles alone account for 30% of air and 50% of sound pollution in Tehran.
In 2010, the government announced that "for security and administrative reasons, the plan to move the capital from Tehran has been finalized." The Iranian Parliament named Shahroud, Esfahan and Semnan as three of the main candidates to replace Tehran as the capital. There are plans to relocate 163 state firms to the provinces and several universities from Tehran to avoid damages from a potential earthquake.
The officials are engaged in a battle to reduce air pollution. It has, for instance, encouraged taxis and buses to convert from petrol engines to engines that run on compressed natural gas. Furthermore, the government has set up a "Traffic Zone" covering the city center during peak traffic hours. Entering and driving inside this zone is only allowed with a special permit.
There have also been plans to raise people's awareness about the hazards of the pollution. One method that is currently being employed is the installation of Pollution Indicator Boards all around the city to monitor the current level of particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO).
The city of Tehran had a population of approximately 7.8 million in 2006. With its cosmopolitan atmosphere, Tehran is home to diverse ethnic and linguistic groups from all over the country. The native language of the city is the Tehrani accent of the Persian language, and the majority of people in Tehran identify themselves as Persians. However, historically, the original native dialect of the Tehran–Rey region is not Persian, which is linguistically Southwest Iranian and originates in Fars (Pars) in the south of the country, but a (now extinct) Northwest Iranian dialect belonging to the Central Iranian group.
Ethnic Azerbaijanis form by far the largest minority of the city, comprising about 25% to 1/3, of its total population. Other ethnic minority groups include Kurds, Armenians, Georgians, Bakhtiaris, Talysh people, Baloch people, Assyrians, Arabs, Jews and Circassians.
According to a 2010 census conducted by the Sociology Department of Tehran University, in many districts of Tehran across various socio-economic classes in proportion to population sizes of each district and socio-economic class, 63% of people in Tehran were born in Tehran, 98% know Persian, 75% identify themselves as ethnic Persian, and 13% have some degree of proficiency in a European language.
Tehran saw a drastic change in its ethno-social composition in the early 1980s. After the political, social and economic consequences of the 1979 Revolution and the years that followed, some Iranian citizens, mostly Tehranis, left Iran due to the pressures. The majority of Iranian emigrations have left for the United States, France, Germany, Sweden, and Canada.
With the start of the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988) following the Iraqi invasion, a second wave of inhabitants fled the city, especially during Iraqi air offensives on the capital. With most major powers backing Iraq at the time, economic isolation gave yet more reason for many inhabitants to leave the city (and the country). Having left all they had and having struggled to adapt to a new country and build a life, most of them never came back when the war was over. During the war, Tehran also received a great number of migrants from the west and the southwest of the country bordering Iraq.
The unstable situation and the war in neighboring Afghanistan and Iraq prompted a rush of refugees into the country who arrived in their millions, with Tehran being a magnet for many seeking work, who subsequently helped the city to recover from war wounds, working for far less pay than local construction workers. Many of these refugees are being repatriated with the assistance of UNHCR but there are still sizable groups of Afghan and Iraqi refugees in Tehran who are reluctant to leave, being pessimistic about the situation in their own countries. Afghan refugees are mostly Persian speaking Hazara or Tajik people, speaking a dialect of Persian, and Iraqi refugees are mainly Mesopotamian Arabic speakers who are often of Iranian origin.
The majority of Tehranis are officially Twelver Shia Muslims, which has also been the state religion since the Safavid conversion of Iran. Other religious communities in the city include followers of the Sunni and Mystic branches of Islam, various Christian denominations, Judaism, Zoroastrianism and the Baha'i Faith.
Tehran is the economic center of Iran. About 30% of Iran's public-sector workforce and 45% of its large industrial firms are located in the city and almost half of these workers are employed by the government. Most of the remainder of workers are factory workers, shopkeepers, laborers and transport workers.
Few foreign companies operate in Tehran because of the government's complex international relations. But before the 1979 Revolution, many foreign companies were active in this region. Today, many modern industries in the city include the manufacturing of automobiles, electronics and electrical equipment, weaponry, textiles, sugar, cement and chemical products. It is also a leading center for the sale of carpets and furniture. There is an oil refinery near Rey, south of the metropolitan Greater Tehran.
Tehran has had four airports. Mehrabad International Airport and Imam Khomeini International Airport are the remaining active ones. Dushan Tappe Airbase is closed and the former Qale Morqi Airbase has been converted into an amusement park named Velayat Park.
Tehran relies heavily on private cars, buses, motorcycles and taxis, and is one of the most car-dependent cities in the world. The Tehran Stock Exchange, which is a full member of the Federation Internationale des Bourses de Valeurs (FIBV) and a founding member of the Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges, has been one of the world's best performing stock exchanges in recent years.
Tehran has a wide range of shopping centers from traditional bazaars to modern shopping malls. The Grand Bazaar of Tehran and the Bazaar of Tajrish are the biggest old bazaars in Tehran. Shopping districts such as Valiasr, Shariati, and Mirdamad have a wide range of different shops. A few of the well known malls across the city include Tiraje and Hyperstar, and smaller shopping centers such as Tandis, Golestan, Palladium Mall, 7center and Safavie.
Most of the international branded stores and upper class shops are located in the northern and western parts of the city, while the rest of the shopping centers are located across the city. Tehran's retail business is growing with several newly built malls and shopping centers.
Tehran, as one of the main tourist locations in Iran, has a wealth of cultural attractions. It is home to royal complexes built during the two last monarchical periods of the country, including the Golestan, Sa'dabad and Niavaran complexes.
There are several historic, artistic and scientific museums in Tehran, such as the National Museum, Malek Museum, Ferdows Garden, Glassware and Ceramics Museum, Museum of the Qasr Prison, the Carpet Museum, Museum of Glass Painting (vitrai art) and the Safir Office Machines Museum. There is also the Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art in which works of famous artists such as Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso and Andy Warhol are featured.
Tehran is also home to the Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, claimed to be the largest jewel collection in the world. The collection comprises a set of crowns and thrones, some 30 tiaras, numerous aigrettes, jewel studded swords and shields, a vast amount of precious loose gems, as well as the largest collections of emeralds, rubies and diamonds in the world. It also includes other items collected by the Shahs of Iran. The imperial crown jewels are on display at the Central Bank of Iran.
Highways and streets
The metropolis of Tehran is equipped with a network of highways and interchanges.
Expressways in Abbas Abad
While the center of the city houses the government ministries and headquarters, the commercial centers are more located toward Valiasr Street, Taleghani Ave, and Beheshti Ave further north. Although administratively separate, Rey, Shemiran, and Karaj are often considered part of the larger Tehran metropolitan area.
A number of streets in Tehran are named after international figures, including:
- Henri Corbin Street – downtown Tehran
- Edward Browne Street – near the Tehran University
- Gandhi Street – Northern Tehran
- Muhammad Ali Jinnah Expressway – Western Tehran
- Iqbal Lahori Street – Eastern Tehran
- Patrice Lumumba Street – Western Tehran
- Bobby Sands Street – western side of the British Embassy
- Simón Bolívar Street – Northwestern Tehran
- Nelson Mandela Boulevard – Northern Tehran
According to the head of Tehran Municipality's Environment and Sustainable Development Office, Tehran was designed to have a capacity of about 700,000 cars but currently more than 5 million cars are on the roads. The automation industry has recently developed but international sanctions influence the production processes periodically.
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, Tehran's Mayor, driving a taxi
Tehran's transport system includes conventional buses, trolleybuses and the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). Buses have served the city since the 1920s. There are four bus terminals that also provide connections at low rates.[clarification needed] The terminals are located on the south, east, and west, and Bei-haqi Park-Drive.
The trolleybus system opened in 1992, using a fleet of 65 articulated trolleybuses built by Škoda. This was the first trolleybus system in Iran and remains the country's only such system. In 2005, trolleybuses were operating on five routes, all starting at Imam Hossein Square near Imam Hossein Station on the Tehran Metro Line 2. Two routes running northeastwards operate almost entirely in a segregated busway located in the middle of the wide carriageway (along Damavand Street), stopping only at purpose built stops located about every 500 metres along the routes, effectively making these routes trolleybus-BRT (but they are not called such). The other three trolleybus routes run south from Imam Hossein Square and operate in mixed-traffic. Both route sections are served by limited-stop services and local (making all stops) services. A 3.2-km extension from Shoosh Square to Rah Ahan Square and the railway station there opened in March 2010.
Tehran Bus Rapid Transit was officially inaugurated in 2008 by Tehran's mayor of the time, Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf. BRT has three lines with 60 stations in different areas of the city. As of 2011[update], BRT had a network of 100 kilometres (62 miles), transporting 1.8 million passengers on a daily basis. The city has also developed a bicycle sharing system that includes 12 hubs in one of Tehran's districts.
Railway and subway
Tehran has a central railway station that connects services round the clock to various cities in the country, along with a Tehran–Europe train line also running.
The feasibility study and conceptual planning of the construction of Tehran's subway system were started in the 1970s. The first two of the eight projected metro lines were opened in 2001.
Tehran is served by the international airports of Mehrabad and Khomeini. Mehrabad Airport, an old airport in Western Tehran that doubles as a military base, is mainly used for domestic and charter flights. Imam Khomeini Airport, located 50 kilometres (31 miles) south of the city, handles the main international flights.
Rapid Transit Bus at the Azadi Terminal
Parks and gardens
There are over 2,100 parks within the metropolis of Tehran, with one of the oldest being Jamshidieh Park, which was first established as a private garden for the Qajar prince Jamshid Davallu and was then dedicated to the last empress of Iran, Farah Diba. The total green space within Tehran stretches over 12,600 hectares, covering over 20 percent of the city's area.
The Parks and Green Spaces Organization of Tehran was established in 1960. It is responsible for the protection of the urban nature present in the city.
There are four parks in Tehran established exclusively for women, totaling about 80 hectares in area, in which the female mandatory dress codes are not required.
Tehran is the largest and most important educational center of Iran. There are a total of nearly 50 major colleges and universities in Greater Tehran.
Since the establishment of Dar ol Fonun by the order of Amir Kabir in the mid-19th century, Tehran has amassed a large number of institutions of higher education. Some of these institutions have played crucial roles in the unfolding of Iranian political events. Samuel M. Jordan, whom Jordan Avenue in Tehran was named after, was also one of the founding pioneers of the American College of Tehran.
Among major educational institutions located in Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, University of Tehran, and Tehran University of Medical Sciences are the most prestigious universities of Iran. Allameh Tabatabaei University, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), K.N.Toosi University of Technology, Shahid Beheshti University (Melli University), Kharazmi University, Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Shahed University and Tarbiat Modarres University are among the other universities of Iran located in Tehran.
Tehran is also home to Iran's largest military academy, and several religious schools and seminaries.
The oldest surviving architectural monuments of the city are from the Qajar and Pahlavi eras. Although, considering the area of Greater Tehran, monuments dating back to the Seljuk era remain as well; notably the Toqrol Tower. There are also remains of Rashkan Castle, dating back to the ancient Arsacid era, of which some artefacts are housed at the National Museum.
Tehran only had a small population until the late 18th century, but began to take a more considerable role in Iranian society after it was chosen as the capital city. Despite the regular occurrence of earthquakes during the Qajar period and after, some historic buildings have remained from that era.
Tehran is Iran's primate city, and is considered to have the most modernized infrastructure in the country; however, the gentrification of old neighborhoods and the demolition of buildings of cultural significance has caused concerns.
A view of the City Theater of Tehran
The National Garden
The National Garden
Previously a low-rise city due to seismic activity in the region, modern high rise developments in Tehran have been built in recent decades in order to service its growing population. There have been no major quakes in Tehran since 1830.
The Azadi Tower, a memorial built during the late Pahlavi era, has long been the most famous symbol of the city of Tehran. Originally constructed in commemoration of the 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire, it combines elements of the architecture of the Achaemenid and Sassanid eras with medieval Iranian architecture. The Milad Tower, which is the sixth tallest tower and the 17th tallest freestanding structure in the world, is the city's second landmark tower. Leila Araghian's Tabiat Bridge, the largest pedestrian overpass in Tehran, was completed in 2014 and is considered to be the third contemporary landmark of the city.
Many styles of graffiti are seen in Tehran. Some are slogans painted by governmental organizations, which are mostly about the Revolution of 1979, and some are works of art by citizens, representing themes such as protest, freedom and peace.
During the protests of the Iranian presidential election of 2009, many graffiti art works were created by people supporting the Green Movement. They were removed from the walls by the Basij forces.
In recent years, Tehran Municipality has been using graffiti in order to beautify the city. Several festivals have also been held to celebrate graffiti art in Tehran. One of them was held in October 2014, organized by the Tehran University of Art.
Cuisine and restaurants
Tehran has many modern and traditional restaurants and cafes, serving both traditional Iranian and cosmopolitan cuisine. One of the most popular dishes of the city is chelow kabab. Pizzerias, sandwich shops and kebab shops make up the majority of food outlets in the city.
A restaurant in Darband
During the Qajar era, Tehran was home to the royal theater of Tekye Dowlat located at the southeast of the Golestan Palace, in which traditional and religious performances were observed. It was destroyed and replaced with a bank building in 1947, following the modernization of Tehran under the reign of Reza Shah of the Pahlavi Dynasty.
Before the 1979 Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become the most famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes in the Middle East, with the Roudaki Hall of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet. The hall was inaugurated by Emperor Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Empress Farah Diba on October 26, 1967, and now continues to operate with Vahdat Hall as its official name. It is home to the Tehran Symphony Orchestra, the Tehran Opera Orchestra, and the Iranian National Ballet Company.
The City Theater of Tehran was opened in 1972, with its main building designed by architect Ali Sardar Afkhami, and contains several performance halls.
There are many movie theaters in Tehran, with most of them located downtown. The complexes of Mellat Cinema and Gallery, Azadi Cinema, and Cinema Farhang are among the well known cinema complexes in Tehran.
Festivals such as Fajr International Film Festival, Fajr International Music Festival, Fajr International Theater Festival, International Puppet Theater Festival of Tehran, and Tehran International Animation Festival are also observed in the city.
Football and volleyball are the city's most popular sports, while wrestling, basketball, and futsal are also major parts of the city's sporting culture.
Tochal Ski Resort is the world's fifth highest ski resort at over 3,730 meters (12,240 feet) above sea level at its highest point. It is also the world's nearest ski resort to a capital city. The resort was completed in 1976, shortly before the 1979 Revolution.
Tochal is equipped with a 8-kilometre-long (5 mi) gondola lift that covers a huge vertical distance. There are two parallel chair ski lifts in Tochal that reach 3,900 meters (12,800 feet) high near Tochal's peak (at 4,000 m/13,000 ft), rising higher than the gondola's 7th Station. This altitude is higher than any of the European ski resorts.
From the Tochal peak, one has a spectacular view of the Alborz range, including the 5,610-metre-high (18,406 ft) Mount Damavand, a dormant volcano. Located at the bottom of the lifts in a valley behind the Tochal peak is the Tochal Hotel, located at 3,500 metres (11,500 feet), where a T lift takes skiers up the 3,800 metres (12,500 feet) of Shah-Neshin peak.
The first football club of Tehran was founded in 1920 and named the Iran Club, which was dissolved in 1923. Today, the oldest football club in the city is Rah Ahan Crystal F.C., which was founded in 1937. The city has hosted the final of the 1968 AFC Asian Cup and the 1976 AFC Asian Cup. Persepolis and Esteghlal, which are the city's biggest clubs and two of the biggest clubs in Asia, compete in the Tehran derby. Tehran is also home to Ararat F.C., a popular Armenian-Iranian football team based at the Ararat Stadium. The stadium is named after Mount Ararat, and is dedicated to the Armenian community of the city.
Tehran is also the site of Iran's national football stadium at the Azadi Complex, which has a capacity of 100,000. Azadi Football Stadium is one of the largest stadiums in the world, where many of the top matches of Iran's Premier League are held. In 2005, FIFA ordered Iran to limit spectators allowed into the Azadi Stadium because of a fatal crush due to inadequate safety procedures. Other stadiums in Tehran include Ararat Stadium, Dastgerdi Stadium, Takhti Stadium, and Shirudi Stadium. During the qualification process for the 2018 FIFA World Cup both Iraq and Afghanistan played their home matches in Tehran and on 29 March 2016 the city hosted 3 World Cup qualifiers on the same day, Iran defeated Oman 2-0 at the Azadi Stadium, while Afghanistan defeated Singapore 2-1 at the Takhti Stadium and Iraq triumphed 1-0 against Vietnam at the PAS stadium. also several FIVB Volleyball World League courses have been hosted in Tehran.
Tehran is host to five major football clubs, namely:
|Rah Ahan F.C.||Association football||1937||Azadegan League (IPL)|
|Ararat F.C.||Association football||1944||Tehran Province League|
|Esteghlal F.C.||Association football||1945||Iran Pro League (IPL)|
|Naft F.C.||Association football||1950||Iran Pro League (IPL)|
|Persepolis F.C.||Association football||1963||Iran Pro League (IPL)|
|Paykan F.C.||Association football||1967||Iran Pro League (IPL)|
Smaller clubs of the city include:
- The 7th Asian Games were held from September 1 to September 16, 1974 in Tehran. The Azadi Sport Complex was built for the Games. This was the first time Asian Games were hosted in Western Asia. Tehran played host to 3,010 athletes from 25 countries/NOCs, which was at the time the highest number of participants since the inception of the Games.
- The 1976 AFC Asian Cup was the sixth edition of the Asian Nations Cup, the football (soccer) championship of Asia (AFC). It was hosted by Iran. The field of six teams was split into two groups of three. Iran won their third title in a row, beating Kuwait 1–0 in the final.
- The first West Asian Games was organized in Tehran from 19 to 28 November 1997. The success of the games led to the creation of the West Asian Games Federation (WAGF) and the intention of hosting the games every two years.
Twin towns and partner cities
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Tehran is twinned with:
|Country||City||State / Province / Region / Governorate||Date|
|South Korea||Seoul||Seoul National Capital Area||1963|
|United States||Los Angeles||California||1972|
|United Kingdom||London||Greater London||1993|
|Cuba||Havana||La Habana Province||2001|
|Venezuela||Caracas||Venezuelan Capital District||2001|
|South Africa||Pretoria||Gauteng||2002[dead link]|
|Russia||Moscow||Central Federal District||2004[dead link]|
|China||Beijing||Beijing Municipality||2006[dead link]|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Sarajevo||Sarajevo Canton||2016|
- Tehran. Daft Logic.
- Tehran, Environment & Geography. Tehran.ir.
- جمعیت و خانوار شهرستانهای کشور براساس سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن 1390 (in Persian). Statistical Center of Iran. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- Excluding the population of the city Karaj
- "World's largest urban areas in 2006 (1)". City Mayors. Retrieved 2010-09-25.
- George Erdösy, "The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity", Walter de Gruyter, 1995. p. 165: "Possible western place names are the following: Raya-, which is also the ancient name of Median Raga in the Achaemenid inscriptions (Darius, Bisotun 2.13: a land in Media called Raga) and modern Rey south of Tehran"
- "Tehran (Iran) : Introduction – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- Arch Daily: Tabiat Pedestrian Bridge / Diba Tensile Architecture, 17 Nov 2014
- "Chand Darsad Tehranihaa dar Tehran Bedonyaa Amadand"(How many percent of Tehranis were born in Tehran)-Actual census done by the University of Tehran – Sociology Department, accessed December, 2010 
- Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi, Peter McDonald, Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi, "The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and Reproduction", Springer, 2009. pp 100–101: "The first category is 'Central' where the majority of people are Persian speaking ethnic Fars (provinces of Fars, Hamedan, Isfahan, Markazi, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Yazd and Tehran..."
- Mareike Schuppe, "Coping with Growth in Tehran: Strategies of Development Regulation", GRIN Verlag, 2008. pp 13: "Besides Persian, there are Azari, Armenian, and Jewish communities in Tehran. The vast majority of Tehran's residents are Persian-speaking (98.3%)"
- Behrooz, Samira; Karampour, Katayoun. A Research on Adaptation of Historic Urban Landscapes; The Case of The Historical City of Tehran. Tehran Historical City Office.
- Press TV: 7,000-year-old human skeleton recovered in south Tehran, 14 January 2015
- V. Minorsky, C.E. Bosworth, "Al-Rayy", Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition, vol 8:471–473
- Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, Sarah Stewart, "Birth of the Persian Empire", I.B.Tauris, 2005. p. 37
- A. Tafazolli, "In Iranian Mythology" in Encyclopædia Iranica
- (Bulddan, Yackubl, 276)
- "Encyclopaedia Britannica", Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York, 1911, OCLC 14782424
- "Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy ...". Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728-730 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014 ISBN 1598849484
- Vahid Vahdat Zad (2011). "Spatial Discrimination in Tehran's Modern Urban Planning 1906-1979". Journal of Planning History vol. 12 no. 1 49-62. Retrieved 2013-04-11.
- Chaichian, Mohammad (2009). Town and Country in the Middle East: Iran and Egypt in the Transition to Globalization. New York: Lexington Books. pp. 95–116. ISBN 9780739126776.
- Buzbee, Sally. "Tehran: Split Between Liberal, Hard-Line". Associated Press via The Washington Post. Thursday 4 October 2007.
- Hundley, Tom. "Pro-reform Khatami appears victorious after 30 million Iranians cast votes.." Chicago Tribune. 8 June 2001.
- "Climate of Tehran". Irantour.org. Retrieved 2010-11-12.
- Heavy Snowfall in Tehran (in Persian). irna.com
- I.R. OF IRAN SHAHREKORD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION (IN PERSIAN). 1988-2010
- Heavy Snowfall in Tehran (Feb 2005). BBC
- Heavy Snowfall in Tehran (In Persian).
- Rare snow blankets Iran's capital Tehran.
- Deadly Dust Storm Engulfs Iran's Capital.
- "Car exhaust fumes blamed for over 80% of air pollution in Tehran". Payvand.com. 2006-11-22. Retrieved 2010-09-25.
- "Motorcycles Account for 30% of Air Pollution in Tehran". Payvand.com. 2006-11-22. Retrieved 2010-11-12.
- "For Security and Administrative [sic] Reasons: Plan to Move Capital From Tehran Finalized". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2010-09-25.
- "Iran Moots Shifting Capital from Tehran". Payvand.com. 2006-11-22. Retrieved 2010-09-25.
-  Archived December 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Chand Darsad Tehranihaa dar Tehran Bedonyaa Amadand"(How many percent of Tehranis were born in Tehran)-actual census done by University of Tehran sociology department. Retrieved December, 2010 
- Windfuhr, Gernot L. (1991). "Central Dialects". In Yarshater, Ehsan. Encyclopædia Iranica. 5. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 242–252. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- "Tehran". Looklex Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2013-07-04.
- "Iran-Azeris". Library of Congress Country Studies. December 1987. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Country Study Guide-Azerbaijanis". STRATEGIC INFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENTS-USA. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Chand Darsad Tehranihaa dar Tehran Bedonyaa Amadand" (How many percent of Tehranis were born in Tehran). Retrieved December, 2010 
- Lakshman, Nikhil. "Indian Prime Minister in Tehran". Rediff.com. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
- "Tehran (Iran) : People – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- Anthony H. Cordesman (September 23, 2008). "The US, Israel, the Arab States and a Nuclear Iran. Part One: Iranian Nuclear Programs" (PDF). Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved 2010-09-25.
- Chaichian, Mohammad (2009). Town and Country in the Middle East: Iran and Egypt in the Transition to Globalization. New York: Lexington Books. pp. 98–103. ISBN 9780739126776.
- "Iran blocks share price gains". BBC News. 2003-08-06. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- ": Tibf :". Tibf.ir. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- Tehran. An Educational Website about Tehran[dead link]
- "Smogglarm i många världsstäder". Göteborgs-Posten. 2015-12-19.
- "'Tehran's overpopulation will cause ecological ruin'". Payvand.com. 2006-11-22. Archived from the original on 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
- Murray, Alan (2000). World Trolleybus Encyclopaedia, pp. 57 and 99. Yateley, Hampshire, UK: Trolleybooks. ISBN 0-904235-18-1.
- Trolleybus Magazine No. 265 (January–February 2006), pp. 16–17. National Trolleybus Association (UK). ISSN 0266-7452.
- Trolleybus Magazine No. 298 (July–August 2011), pp. 89–90. National Trolleybus Association (UK).
- Turquoise Partners: Iran Investment Monthly (February 2011). Retrieved April 30, 2011
- IRNA: Mokhtari: There are over 2,100 parks in Tehran, 15.2.2015
- Municipality of Tehran: About Tehran Parks & Green Space Organization
- ITTO: The Tehran Zoological Garden
- Karimian, Hossein. "Anjomane Asare Melli". Ancien Rey.
- Tehran Capital City of Iran. Tehran
- Urschel, Donna. "The Style of Tehran – Library of Congress". Loc.gov. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "Women to blame for earthquakes, says Iran cleric". The Guardian. 2010-04-19.
- Tehran International Tower Website. Tehran International Tower Website
- "Milad Tower, a perfect product for a perfect project". NBN (Nasl Bartar Novin). n.d. Archived from the original on November 17, 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-10.
- Andrew Burke, Mark Elliott. Iran (Lonely Planet Country Guide). p. 114. Lonely Planet Publications, 5th Edition, 2008. ISBN 978-1-74104-293-1.
- Tehran Graffiti War (France 24)
- Deutsche Welle (Persian)
- Kiann, Nima (2015). The History of Ballet in Iran. Wiesbaden: Reichert Publishingi
- The history of Iranian cinema, Part I by Masoud Mehrabi
- Iranian Cinema: Before the Revolution
- Lines of Telecabin. tochal.org
- Esteqlal F.C. Official Website. Estqlal F.C.
- Persepolis F.C. Official Website. Persepolis F.C.
- 7th Asian Games. ocasia.org
- West Asian Games. West Asian Games
- New Economic Spaces in Asian Cities: From Industrial Restructuring to the Cultural Turn. Routledge and the Taylor & Francis Group. 2012. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
- "Sister Cities of Los Angeles". Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- "Tehran - Iran". Sister Cities of Los Angeles, Inc. Retrieved 2015-06-03.
- The city is no longer listed as a sister city in the Municipality of Tehran's website: 
- "Atlas of Tehran Metropolis". Tehran Municipality. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-14.
- "Tehran, Havana named sister cities". Payvand.com. 2006-11-22. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
- "Ettela't International" (PDF). Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- "Gulf Region". Dfa.gov.za. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "Тверская 13" 4.12.04. el.mos.ru (in Russian)
- Goldkorn, Jeremy. "Tehran-Beijing direct flights?". Danwei.org. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "Documents aimed at expansion of relations between Belarus and Iran signed in Tehran". Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- "Minsk City Executive Committee". Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- "Tehran, Ankara to Sign Sister City Agreement Today". FarsNews. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
- The Capitals of Georgia and Iran to become twin cities 22 May 2015
- All Tehran’s sister cities.
- Sarajevo mayor's Tehran visit to give impetus to city diplomacy 30 October 2016
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tehran.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tehran.|
- Google Map: Tehran
- Tehran Municipality website
- Tehran Geographic Information Center
- Tehran Traffic Control Center
- Official Tehran Yellow pages (Ketabe Avval)
- Tehranimages. A photographic project focusing on neglected pieces of architecture in downtown Tehran, Iran.
- Tehran's detailed development plan PressTV (2012)
- Tehran today – Part I Part II Part III PressTV (2010)
- Modernized Iranian architecture in Tehran Press TV (2010)
- Tehran's hazardous air quality PressTV (2010)
|Capital of Iran (Persia)