Tehran province

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Tehran Province
استان تهران
Azadi Tower (29358497718).jpg
Former building of Parliament of Iran
Tangeh Savashi
Tehran skyline view from top of Milad Tower
Jameh Mosque in Varamin
Tughrul Tower
From top left: Azadi Tower, Rudbar-e Qasran Road, Former building of Parliament of Iran, Tangeh Vashi, Tehran skyline view from top of Milad Tower, Jameh Mosque in Varamin, and Tughrul Tower in Rey
Counties of Tehran province
Counties of Tehran province
Location of Tehran province in Iran
Location of Tehran province in Iran
Coordinates: 35°42′42″N 51°24′25″E / 35.7117°N 51.4070°E / 35.7117; 51.4070Coordinates: 35°42′42″N 51°24′25″E / 35.7117°N 51.4070°E / 35.7117; 51.4070
RegionRegion 1[1]
 • Governor-generalAlireza Fakhari
 • Total18,814 km2 (7,264 sq mi)
 • Total13,267,637
 • Estimate 
 • Density710/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+03:30 (IRST)
ISO 3166 codeIR-23
Main language(s)Persian
HDI (2018)0.834[4]
very high · 1st

Tehran Province (Persian: استان تهران Ostān-e Tehrān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It covers an area of 18,814 square kilometres (7,264 sq mi) and is located to the north of the central plateau of Iran.

At the time of the National Census of 2006, the province had a population of 13,281,858 in 3,729,010 households.[5] The following census in 2011 counted 12,183,391 people in 3,731,480 households, by which time Karaj, Nazarabad, and Savojbolagh Counties had been separated from the province to become Alborz province.[6] The province was made a part of the First Region with its secretariat located in Tehran, upon the division of the provinces into 5 regions, solely for coordination and development purposes on June 22, 2014.[1] According to the latest census in 2016, the population of the province had increased to 13,267,637 in 4,288,563 households.[3]

Tehran province borders Mazandaran province in the north, Qom province in the south, Semnan province in the east, Alborz province in the west and Markazi province in the southwest. The metropolis of Tehran is the capital city of the province and of Iran.

Tehran province is the richest in Iran, as it contributes approximately 29% of the country's GDP. Furthermore, it houses approximately 18% of the country's population and is the most industrialized province in Iran, with nearly 94% of its residents living in the cities as of 2016.[3]

The province gained importance when Tehran was claimed the capital by the Qajar dynasty in 1778. Today, Tehran, with a population of 8 million, is ranked amongst the 40 most populous metropolitan cities of the world.


The Achaemenid collection of The National Museum of Iran in Tehran.
Tehran has been Iran's capital since 1778.

Tehran province has several archeological sites indicating settlements dating back several thousand years. Until 300 years ago, Rey was the most prominent of the cities of the province. However, the city of Tehran rose to become the largest city and capital of Iran by 1778, and since then has been the political, cultural, economic, and commercial nucleus of Iran.

Tehran has over 1,500 historical sites of cultural significance registered with the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran. The oldest of these in Tehran province is the remains of two sites in Firuzkuh County that date back to the fourth millennium BCE.


The province of Tehran has over 12 million inhabitants and is Iran's most densely populated region. Approximately 86.5 percent reside in urban areas and 13.5 percent in rural areas of the province.[7]

The largest rivers of this province are Karaj River and Jajrood River.

Mountain ranges such as The Alborz span the north; Savad Kooh and Firooz Kooh are located in the northeast; Lavasanat, Qarah Daq, Shemiranat, Hassan Abad and Namak Mountains are in the southern areas; Bibi Shahr Banoo and Alqadr are situated in the southeast and the heights of Qasr-e-Firoozeh been located to the east of the province.

Environmentally, the climate of Tehran province is stable and has four seasons, in winter its experiences cold and snowy conditions, in spring and autumn it experiences generally mild conditions with ample rain, and in summer it experiences warm to hot conditions, and is generally dry. In the mountains, however, it is cold and semi-humid all year round, and the higher regions are colder with long winters. The hottest months of the year are from mid-July to mid-September when temperatures range from 28 °C (82 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F) and the coldest months experience 1 °C (34 °F) around January–February, but at certain times in winter it can reach −20 °C (−4 °F). Tehran city has cold winters and warm to hot summers. Average annual rainfall is approximately 200 millimetres (7.9 in), the maximum being during the winter season mostly in the form of snow. On the whole, the province has a cold semi-arid, steppe climate in the south and an alpine climate in the north.

Tehran Province map

Administrative divisions[edit]


Tehran Province Population History
Administrative Divisions 2006[5] 2011[6] 2016[3]
Baharestan County1 523,636 536,329
Damavand County 96,860 100,690 125,480
Eslamshahr County 447,192 485,688 548,620
Firuzkuh County 37,416 38,712 33,558
Karaj County2 1,709,481
Malard County3 373,994 377,292
Nazarabad County2 128,666
Pakdasht County 240,841 291,397 350,966
Pardis County4 169,060
Pishva County5 75,454 86,601
Qarchak County5 269,138
Qods County3 290,663 316,636
Ray County 292,016 319,305 349,700
Robat Karim County 608,530 195,917 291,516
Savojbolagh County2 215,086
Shahriar County 1,044,707 624,440 744,210
Shemiranat County 37,778 44,061 47,279
Tehran County 7,882,843 8,293,140 8,737,510
Varamin County 540,442 526,294 283,742
Total 13,281,858 12,183,391 13,267,637
1Separated from Robat Karim County
2Separated from Tehran province
3Separated from Shahriar County
4Separated from Tehran County
5Separated from Varamin County


According to the 2016 census, 12,452,230 people (nearly 94% of the population of Tehran province) live in the following cities: Abali 2,758, Absard 10,648, Ahmadabad-e Mostowfi 14,077, Andisheh 116,062, Arjomand 1,124, Baghestan 83,934, Baqershahr 65,388, Bumahen 79,034, Chahardangeh 49,950, Damavand 48,380, Eslamshahr 448,129, Fasham 6,945, Ferdowsieh 34,221, Ferunabad 21,682, Firuzkuh 17,453, Golestan 239,556, Hasanabad 43,922, Javadabad 4,844, Kahrizak 37,527, Kilan 2,882, Lavasan 18,146, Malard 281,027, Nasimshahr 200,393, Nasirshahr 28,644, Pakdasht 236,319, Parand 97,464, Pardis 73,363, Pishva 59,184, Qarchak 231,075, Qods 309,605, Robat Karim 105,393, Rudehen 28,533, Sabashahr 53,971, Safadasht 32,476, Salehabad 58,683, Shahedshahr 25,544, Shahriar 309,607, Sharifabad 18,281, Shemshak 3,423, Tehran 8,693,706, Vahidieh 33,249, and Varamin 225,628.[3]

The following table shows the ten largest cities of Tehran province:[3]

Rank Name County 2016
1 Tehran Tehran 8,693,706
2 Eslamshahr Eslamshahr 448,129
3 Shahriar Shahriar 309,607
4 Qods Qods 309,605
5 Malard Malard 281,027
6 Golestan Baharestan 239,556
7 Pakdasht Pakdasht 236,319
8 Qarchak Qarchak 231,075
9 Varamin Varamin 225,628
10 Nasimshahr Baharestan 200,393

Tehran province today[edit]

Tehran is the commercial heart of Iran. Tehran province has over 17,000 industrial units employing 390,000 people, 26% of all units in Iran. The province contains 30% of Iran's economy, and comprises 40% of Iran's consumer market. The province has three hydro dams namely Latiyan, Lar, and Amir Kabir as well as two natural lakes, providing the water supply of Tehran and the province.[citation needed]

The province contains 170 mines, over 330 square kilometres of forests, and over 12800 square kilometres of pasture.[citation needed]

Generally speaking, year round, regions such as the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains, especially in the mountains, valleys, and rivers and artificial lakes formed behind the great dams of Amir Kabir, Latiyan and Lar along with natural lakes of Jaban and Tarr provide considerable recreation for the province.

Moreover, due to excessive snowfall in the northern areas of the province during the winter season, the Alborz mountains form an excellent environment for winter sports such as skiing. Dizin, Shemshak, and Tochal are the most popular skiing resorts.


Road transport[edit]

Freeways (In blue) and main Roads (In green) in Tehran Province

Tehran Province is covered with and connected to other provinces with a big Freeway and Expressway network:

Rail network[edit]

National Rail Network[edit]

The city of Tehran is connected to the North, South, West and East with the railway. It has weekly trains for Istanbul. Tehran is the headquarters of RAJA (Iran national railway). There may be plans to build high speed railway lines from Tehran to Mashhad and Isfahan.

Tehran Metro[edit]

Hassan Abad Sq. Metro station

Tehran is served by a system of metro of three urban lines (1, 2, 4) and one suburban line (5) serving Karaj and Tehran western suburbs. There are plans to extend the system to eight urban lines and express express suburban lines.


Tehran Province has two main passenger airports:

It also has a number of air force bases.

Parks, recreation and other attractions[edit]

A view of Tehran and Alborz Mountains
The Niavaran Public Library is nestled snugly within the Niavaran city park.
View of Mount Damavand (itself located in Mazandaran province) as seen from the Dizin ski resort.
Milad tower

Religious centers[edit]

Mosques, shrines, mausoleums, and tombs[edit]


Higher education[edit]

Tehran province's major universities are:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b همشهری آنلاین-استان‌های کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند
  2. ^ "توجه: تفاوت در سرجمع به دليل گرد شدن ارقام به رقم هزار مي باشد. (in Persian)". Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1395 (2016)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 23. Archived from the original (Excel) on 12 December 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  4. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  5. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 23. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  6. ^ a b "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)" (Excel). Iran Data Portal (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 23. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  7. ^ www.sci.org.ir/content/userfiles/_sci_en/sci_en/sel/j-shvro-84.html. Retrieved November 2011 Archived 2021-02-22 at the Wayback Machine

External links[edit]