Location of Tehran within Iran
|Region||Region 1 |
|• Governor||Hossein Hashemi|
|• Total||18,814 km2 (7,264 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 Census)|
|• Density||650/km2 (1,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IRST (UTC+03:30)|
|• Summer (DST)||IRDT (UTC+04:30)|
Tehran Province (Persian: استان تهران Ostān-e Tehrān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It covers on area of 18,909 square kilometres (7,301 sq mi) and is located to the north of the central plateau of Iran.
The province was put as part of First Region with its secretariat located in its capital city, Tehran, upon the division of the provinces into 5 regions solely for coordination and development purposes on June 22, 2014.
Tehran Province borders Māzandarān Province in the north, Qom Province in the south, Semnān Province in the east, and Alborz Province in the west. The metropolis of Tehran is the capital city of the province and of Iran. As of June 2005[update], this province includes 13 townships, 43 municipalities, and 1358 villages.
Tehran Province is the richest province of Iran as it contributes approximately 29% of the country's GDP. Furthermore, it houses approximately 18% of the country's population. Tehran Province is the most industrialized province in Iran; 86.5% of its population resides in urban areas and 13.5% of its population resides in rural areas.
The province gained importance when Tehran was claimed the capital by the Qajar dynasty in 1778. Today, Tehran, with a population of more than 7 million, is ranked amongst the 20 most populous metropolitan cities of the world.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Divisions
- 4 Tehran province today
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Parks, recreation and other attractions
- 7 Religious centers
- 8 See also
- 9 External links
- 10 References
The province of Tehran has over 12 million inhabitants and is Iran's most densely populated region. Approximately 86.5 percent reside in urban areas and 13.5 percent in rural areas of the province.
Mountain ranges such as The Alborz span the north; Savad Kooh and Firooz Kooh are located in the north east; Lavasanat, Qarah Daq, Shemiranat, Hassan Abad and Namak Mountains are in the southern areas; Bibi Shahr Banoo and Alqadr are situated in the south east and the heights of Qasr-e-Firoozeh being located to the east of the province.
Environmentally, the climate of Tehran province in the southern areas is warm and dry, but in the mountain vicinity is cold and semi-humid, and in the higher regions is cold with long winters. The hottest months of the year are from mid-July to mid-September when temperatures range from 28 °C (82 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F) and the coldest months experience 1 °C (34 °F) around December–January, but at certain times in winter it can reach −15 °C (5 °F). Tehran city has moderate winters and hot summers. Average annual rainfall is approximately 200 millimetres (7.9 in), the maximum being during the winter season. On the whole, the province has a semi arid, steppe climate in the south and an alpine climate in the north.
Tehran Province has several archeological sites indicating settlements dating back several thousand years. Until 300 years ago, Rey was the most prominent of the cities of the province. However, the city of Tehran rose to become the larger city and capital of Iran by 1778, and since then has been the political, cultural, economic, and commercial nucleus of Iran.
Tehran has over 1500 historical sites of cultural significance registered with the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran. The oldest of these in Tehran province are the remains of two sites in Firuzkuh County that date back to the 4th millennium BCE.
Tehran Province is sub-divided into fourteen Counties (shahrestan), listed below with their populations at the 2011 Census:
- Tehran shahrestan شهرستان تهران 8,293,140
- Damavand shahrestan شهرستان دماوند 100,690
- Rey shahrestan شهرستان رئ 319,305
- Shemiranat shahrestan شهرستان شميرانات 44,061
- Varamin shahrestan شهرستان ورامين 526,294
- Shahriar shahrestan شهرستان شهريار 624,440
- Eslamshahr shahrestan شهرستان اسلامشهر 485,688
- Robatkarim shahrestan شهرستان رباطكريم 195,917
- Pakdasht shahrestan شهرستان پاكدشت 291,397
- Firuzkuh shahrestan شهرستان فيروزكوه 38,712
- Qods shahrestan شهرستان قدس 290,663
- Malard shahrestan شهرستان ملارد 373,994
- Pishva shahrestan شهرستان پيشوا 75,454
- Baharestan shahrestan شهرستان بهارستان 523,636
The counties comprise a number of municipalities:
- Municipalities: Absard, Andisheh, Baghershahr, Baghestan, Boumehen, Chahardangeh, Damavand, Eshtehard, Eslamshahr, Ferdowsieh, Firouzkouh, Garmdarreh, Gharchak, Ghods, Golestan, Shahriar, Javadabad, Hassan Abad, Kahrizak, Kilan, Lavasan, Malard, Nasimshahr, Owshan Fasham Meygoun, Pakdasht, Pardis, Pishva, Robat Karim, Roudehen, Sabashahr, Safadasht, Shahedshahr, Shahriar, Sharifabad, Tehran, Vahidieh, Varamin,
Tehran province today
Tehran is the commercial heart of Iran. Tehran province has over 17,000 industrial units employing 390,000 people, 26% of all units in Iran. The province contains 30% of Iran's economy, and comprises 40% of Iran's consumer market. The province has three hydro dams namely Latiyan, Lar, and Amir Kabir as well as two natural lakes, providing the water supply of Tehran and the province.
The province contains 170 mines, over 330 square kilometres of forests, and over 12800 square kilometres of pasture.
Generally speaking, year round, regions such as the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains, especially in the mountains, valleys, and rivers and artificial lakes formed behind the great dams of Amir Kabir, Latiyan and Lar along with natural lakes of Jaban and Tarr provide considerable recreation for the province.
Moreover, due to excessive snowfall in the northern areas of the province during the winter season, the Alborz mountains form an excellent environment for winter sports such as skiing. Dizin, Shemshak, and Tochal are the most popular skiing resorts.
Tehran Province is covered with and connected to other provinces with a big Freeway and Expressway network:
- Freeway 2 (Tehran-Karaj Freeway): This freeway connects Tehran to the capital city of neighboring province of Alborz, Karaj and continues towards Tabriz and Europe.
- Freeway 5 (Tehran-Saveh Freeway): This Freeway connects city of Tehran to its southern suburbs such as Sabashahr, Robat Karim and Parand and continues towards Markazi Province to Saveh and Salafchegan. There are plans to continue the freeway towards Khuzestan.
- Freeway 7 (Tehran-Qom Freeway/Khalij-e-Fars (Persian Gulf ) Freeway): This Freeway connects Tehran City to its airport, Imam Khomeini International Airport and continues towards Qom and Esfahan.
- Tehran-Pardis Freeway: This freeway connects Tehran City to its northeastern suburds such as Pardis, Bumehen and Rudehen and joins Haraz Road and Firuzkuh Road.
- Tehran-Shomal Freeway: This under construction freeway will connect Tehran to Chalus and the touristic areas in Shomal.
- Makhsus Road: This road is the old road from Tehran to Karaj. Because trucks are not allowed on the freeway this road has a high congestion of trucks.
- Road 38: This road connects Tehran to Shahriar and Malard in southwestern Tehran and continues towards Buin-Zahra in Qazvin Province.
- Road 44: This Expressway connects Tehran to Mashhad.
- Road 65 (Saidi Expressway/Saveh Road): This road connects Tehran to its southern suburbs such as Chahardangeh, Eslamshahr and Golestan. It continues towards Saveh and further south towards Esfahan, Abadeh, Shiraz and finally the Persian Gulf coastal industrial city of Asaluyeh.
- Road 71 (Qom old Road): This road is the road that connected Tehran to Qom as a main road before the opening of the freeway in 1980. It is still an important transit road because trucks are not allowed in the freeway.
- (Damavand Road/Haraz Road): This road connects Tehran to cities like Rudehen, Abali and Damavand and continues towards Amol in Mazandaran province in Shomal. It is the most congested road from Tehran to Shomal after Chalous Road.
- Road 79 (Firuzkuh Road): This road connects Tehran to Firuzkuh and Qaemshahr and therefore Sari.
- Greater Tehran Expressway Network:
National Rail Network
The city of Tehran is connected to the North, South, West and East with railway. It has weekly trains for Istanbul. Tehran is the headquarters of RAJA (Iran national railway). There maybe plans to build high speed railway lines from Tehran to Mashhad and Esfahan.
Tehran is served by a system of metro of 3 urban lines (1, 2, 4) and one suburban line (5) serving Karaj and Tehran western suburbs. There are plans to extend the system to 8 urban lines and 4 express suburban lines.
Tehran Province has two main passenger airports:
It also has numbers of air force bases.
Parks, recreation and other attractions
- Darband (hiking trail)
- Chitgar Park
- Mellat Park
- Laleh Park
- Jamshidieh Park
- Niavaran Park
- Sa'ei Park
- Shatranj Park
- Tangeh Savashi
- Police Park
- Darabad hiking trail
- Darakeh hiking trail
- Jahan-e Kudak Park
- Azadi Sports complex
- Enghelab Sports Complex and Golf course
- Several caves, springs, and waterfalls outside Tehran.
- Latyan Lake
- Lavizan Forest Park
- Vard-Avard Forest Park
- Khajeer National Park
- Kaveer National Park
- Tar Lake
- Amir Kabir Lake
- Lar Protected Natural Habitat
- Varjeen Protected Natural Habitat
Mosques, shrines, mausoleums, and tombs
- Soltani Mosque, built by Fath Ali Shah
- Atiq Mosque, built in 1663.
- Mo'ezz o-dowleh mosque, built by Fath Ali Shah
- Haj Seyd Azizollah mosque, built by Fath Ali Shah
- Al-javad mosque, Iran's first modernist design mosque.
- The Old Sepahsalar mosque, another prominent Qajar era mosque.
- The new Sepahsalar mosque (Madreseh e Motahari)
- Filsuf o-dowleh Mosque, Qajar era
- Moshir ol-Saltaneh Mosque, Qajar era
- Mo'ayyer ol-Mamalik Mosque, Qajar era
- Shahr Banu Mausopleum
- Javan-mard Qassab Mausoleum, a pre-Islamic semi-mythical hero
- Dozens of Imam-zadeh shrines, hundreds of years old, including that of Imam Zadeh Saleh.
- Dozens of Saqa Khanehs: traditional places of prayer
- Several Tekyehs: traditional places for mourning Muharram ceremonies for Husayn ibn Ali.
- Ebn-e Babooyeh cemetery, where numerous Iranian figures, such as Takhti and Ali Akbar Dehkhoda, are buried.
- Zahir o-dowleh cemetery, housing the tombs of art and cultural figures such as Iraj Mirza, Mohammad Taghi Bahar, Forough Farrokhzad, Abolhasan Saba, Ruhollah Khaleghi, and Darvish-khan are buried.
- Kordan Tomb, Seljuqi era, Karaj.
- Maydanak Tomb, 13th century, Karaj
- The Polish cemetery north of Tehran, where numerous Western Allied soldiers of World War II are buried
- Surep Georg Church, 1790
- Thaddeus Bartoqimus Church, 1808
- Tatavus Church, from the Qajar era
- Enjili Church, 1867
- Assyrian Church
Colleges and universities
Tehran province's major universities are:
- Shariaty Technical College
- Allameh Tabatabaii University
- Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)
- Alzahra University
- Shamsipour Technical College
- Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University
- Farabi Institute of Virtual Higher Education
- Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST)
- Imam Hossein University
- Imam Sadeq University (ISU)
- Iran University of Medical Sciences
- K.N.Toosi University of Technology
- Shahed University
- Shahid Beheshti University
- Sharif University of Technology
- Tarbiat Modarres University (Professor Training University)
- Tehran University of Medical Sciences
- Tarbiat Moaalem University
- University of The Arts
- University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
- University of Tehran
- Islamic Azad University of Tehran-Science and Research
- Islamic Azad University of Pishva
- Islamic Azad University of Islamshahr
- Islamic Azad University of Karaj
- Islamic Azad University of Damavand
- Islamic Azad University of Roodehen
- Islamic Azad University of Tehran-Medical Sciences
- Islamic Azad University of Tehran-North
- Islamic Azad University of Tehran-South
- Islamic Azad University of Tehran-Central
- Islamic Azad University of Tehran-Region one
- Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
- University of Emam Reza
- Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM)
- Hadith College of Tehran
- Imam Ali University for Army Officers
- Comprehensive University of Technology
- Tehran University of Applied Science and Technology
- Tehran College of Environment
- Bagher Aloloum University
- International University of Iran
- Iran College of Tele-communications
- Medical University for the Islamic Republic of Iran's Army
- NAJA University of Police
- School of Economic Affairs (SEA)
- School of International Relations
- Shahed University of Medical Sciences
- Shahid Sattari University of Aeronautical Engineering
- University of Islamic Sects
- The Research Institute of The Petroleum Industry
- Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute
- Power and Water Institute of Technology(PWIT)
- Payame Noor University
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tehran province.|
- Official website of Tehran Governorship
- Tehran Province's Cultural Heritage Organization
- "Teheran, a province of Persia". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- همشهری آنلاین-استانهای کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند
- جمعیت و خانوار شهرستان های کشور بر اساس سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن 1390 (in Persian). Statistical Center of Iran. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- www.sci.org.ir/content/userfiles/_sci_en/sci_en/sel/j-shvro-84.html. Retrieved November 2011[dead link]
- Statistical Centre of Iran.
: According to the information released by the Office of the provincial governor, linked above.
||Alborz Province||Mazandaran Province|
|Markazi Province||Qom Province|