Tel Aviv–Jerusalem bus 405 suicide attack
|Tel Aviv–Jerusalem bus 405 suicide attack|
|Location||Near Kiryat Yearim in Israel|
|Date||July 6, 1989UTC+02:00)(|
|Perpetrator||Abd al-Hadi Rafa Ghanim of Palestinian Islamic Jihad|
The Tel Aviv–Jerusalem bus 405 attack was a suicide attack on 6 July 1989 carried out by Abd al-Hadi Ghanim of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad. On a crowded Egged commuter bus line No. 405 en route from Tel-Aviv to Jerusalem (Israel), Ghanim seized the steering wheel of the bus, running it off a steep cliff into a ravine in the area of Qiryat Ye'arim. 16 civilians died in the attack—including two Canadians and one American, and 27 were wounded.
On 6 July 1989, Egged commuter bus line No. 405 began its regular route from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. When the bus passed Neve Ilan, Ghanim attacked the driver, seized the steering wheel of the bus and pulled the bus over a steep precipice into a ravine in the area of Qiryat Ye'arim. The driver was unable to stabilize the bus; as a result the vehicle rolled down the depth of the ravine and caught fire. Some of the passengers were burned alive.
Sixteen civilians were killed in the attack, including two Canadians and one American, and 27 were wounded. Students from the Telz-Stone yeshiva who heard the screaming rushed to the scene to administer first aid. One of them, Yehuda Meshi Zahav, went on to found ZAKA, a volunteer rescue service organization.
The perpetrator, who survived the crash, received medical treatment for his injuries in an Israeli hospital. After the attack, it was revealed that the perpetrator was a 25-year-old Palestinian Islamic Jihad militant named Abd al-Hadi Rafa Ghanim who originated from the Nusseirat refugee camp in the Gaza Strip. Ghanim was convicted and given 16 life sentences for murder, hijacking and terrorism. On 18 October 2011, Ghanim was released to Gaza as part of the Gilad Shalit prisoner exchange between Israel and Hamas.
In popular culture
- In the NBC drama Heroes, the character Hana Gitelman, along with her grandmother and mother, were on board when the attack happened. Of the three, Hana was the sole survivor and in the series, she is turned into a superhero.
- Israeli singer Ruhama Raz recorded the song "As Rachel Waited" (כחכות רחל), which she wrote in memory of her sister, Miriam Tzerafi, who was killed in the attack.
- This Week In History: Terror attack on Bus 405, Jerusalem Post
- גדות, יפעת (6 July 2009). פיגוע אוטובוס 405  (in Hebrew). News1. Retrieved 6 July 2009.
- Levy, Elior (13 October 2011). "Names of prisoners in Shalit deal trickle through Arab media". Ynetnews. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- "As it happened: Mid-East prisoner exchange". BBC News. 18 October 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- Miriam Tzerafi (in Hebrew)
- An eyewitness account of the driver who survived the attack (in Hebrew)
- MEMRI account of Palestinian media glorifying the terrorist
- Newspaper article reporting the attack
- Jay Levinson and Elie Shmeltzer, "Disaster Victim Identification: Bus 405," Journal of Disaster Management, Volume 2/4 (April 1990).
- Jay Levinson, "The Crash of Bus 405: Victim Identification," International Criminal Police Review (INTER-POL, France), (May–June 1992).