Dankal

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Tel Aviv Light Rail
Dankal Logo.svg
Tel Aviv Red Line LRT Carriage Prototype.jpg
Tel Aviv Light Rail-branded Mock-up trainset standing outside the light rail depot
MaterielRoulantMetroLegerTLV.jpg
Tel Aviv Light Rail Rolling Stock out of the CRRC factory in China, June 2019
Overview
OwnerNTA
Area servedTel Aviv metropolitan area
Transit typeLight rail interchange Light rail
Number of lines3 (Red Line, Green Line, Purple Line)
Number of stations34 (Red Line), 58 (Green Line), 43 (Purple Line)
Websitehttps://www.nta.co.il/
Operation
Operator(s)NTA
Map of the planned network as of 2020. All three light rail lines are under construction; the rest is subject to change.

Dankal (also Tel Aviv Light Rail) is a planned mass transit system for the Tel Aviv metropolitan area in central Israel. The system will include different modes of mass transit, including rapid transit (metro), light rail transit (LRT), and bus rapid transit (BRT). Overseen by the government agency NTA, the project will complement the intercity and suburban rail network operated by Israel Railways.

As of 2021, three LRT lines are under construction. Work on the Red Line, the first in the project, started on September 21, 2011, following years of preparatory works,[1] and is expected to be completed in late 2022 after numerous delays.[2][3] Construction of the Purple Line started in December 2018; work on the Green Line was set to begin in January 2019.[4]

The network was originally planned to be called "MetroTLV" but was changed to "Dankal".[5]

History[edit]

Tel Aviv Light rail, construction site on Yehuda Halevi Street

The first proposals for a tramway in the area were made by the Lebanese engineer George Franjieh in November 1892, about nine weeks after the inauguration of the Jaffa–Jerusalem railway. The plan called for a main line between southern and northeastern Jaffa, with spurs to the harbor and the eastern orchards. The plan was considered uneconomical and was shelved. A later plan called for a light railway from Jaffa to the nearby settlements of Rishon LeZion, Petah Tikva and Wilhelma.[6]

A Decauville light railway was built in Jaffa and Tel Aviv in World War I, connecting the port with the Yarkon River. It was used for about a decade after the war, and dismantled at a later date.

A subway system was first planned in the mid-1960s but a station at the Shalom Meir Tower was all that was completed of the project with no rails laid.[7]

Revised plan: Light Rail[edit]

In 2000, the plan for a subway was changed to one for light rail, and more plausible plans for a mass transit system in Tel Aviv were unveiled. After the first Red Line spanning 22 kilometres (14 mi) was approved, excavation began in late 2009, with construction of the underground stations starting in August 2015. The Red Line is expected to become operational in 2022.

In December 2006, the MTS group was awarded a BOT contract for the Red Line of the light rail, by which they are to build and operate the line for its first 32 years. MTS consisted of Africa Israel, Siemens of Germany, the Egged Bus Cooperative, Chinese infrastructure company CCECC, the Portuguese infrastructure firm Soares da Costa, and the leading Dutch transportation company HTM.[8] After many years of delays due to MTS financing issues, in December 2010 the government revoked MTS's concession and nationalized the project, putting it under the authority of NTA, the government agency which was in charge of overseeing the overall development of the rapid transit system in the Tel Aviv metro area.[9]

Current status[edit]

Construction on the first line, from Bat Yam to Petah Tikva, began in August 2015.[10][11] In February 2017, most of the stations on the Red Line were already under construction. The preparations for the construction of the second line (Green Line) started on February 5, 2017 on Ibn Gabirol Street in Tel Aviv. Infrastructure works for the Purple Line began in December 2018.[4]

Light rail[edit]

Primary line Color Service bullets
Red Line Red Red Line (Tel Aviv Light Rail) R1.svg Red Line (Tel Aviv Light Rail) R2.svg Red Line (Tel Aviv Light Rail) R3.svg
Green Line Green
Purple Line Purple

All three LRT lines are under construction. When complete, they will cover a network of 85 kilometres (53 mi).

Line Length No. of stations Status Opening Primary
municipalities
Terminals
Red Line[12] 23 km (14 mi)[13] 34 (10 underground) Being Tested. November 2022. Tel Aviv, Petah Tikva, Bnei Brak, Ramat Gan, Bat Yam
Green Line[14] 35 km (22 mi)[13] 62 (4 underground)[15] Under construction.[16] 2026 est. Tel Aviv, Herzliya, Holon, Rishon LeZion
Purple Line[17] 27 km (17 mi)[17] 43[17] Under construction.[4] 2026 est. Tel Aviv, Ramat Gan, Kiryat Ono, Giv'at Shmuel, Or Yehuda, Yehud Tel Aviv Central Railway Station

Red Line[edit]

About 11 km (6.8 mi)[18] of the 22 kilometres (14 mi) Red Line is to be built underground, with the remaining overground segment constructed as a light rail/tram. It is to have 34 stops, 10 of which will be underground, with an average distance of about 1000 meters between underground stops and of about 500 metres between overground stops. The line would run from Bat Yam in the southwest, through Jaffa and central Tel Aviv, and carry on to Petah Tikva, through Ramat Gan and Bnei Brak. An interchange is planned for Tel Aviv Central railway station. It has been forecast that by 2020, 100 million passengers would be using this line annually.[citation needed]

Stations (underground in italics): Nissenbaum, HaAmal, Kaf Tet BeNovember, Yoseftal, Bar Ilan, Balfour, Jabotinsky, Rothschild, HaAztmaut, Machrozet, HaBaashat, Issakov, Erlich, Ben Tzvi, Salame, Elifelet, Allenby, Carlebach, Yehudit, Shaul HaMelech, Arlozorov, Abba Hillel, Bialik, Ben-Gurion, Aharonowitz. From Aharonowitz, one branch continues to Shenkar, Rabin, Beilinson, Dankner, Orlov, Pinsker, Petah Tikva Central Bus Station (Terminal); another continues to Em HaMoshavot and the Kiryat Aryeh Maintenance Depot.

The work on Allenby station began on February 8, 2015.

In May 2021, a test run of the red line began in Petah Tikva.

Green Line[edit]

The second or Green Line, in the tender phase, is a 35 kilometres (22 mi) line with 62 stops that would run from the west of Rishon LeZion northwards through Holon through central Tel Aviv splitting into two branches: one to Herzliya in the north and the other one to Ramat HaHayal neighborhood in Tel Aviv in the northeast. Only its central Tel Aviv segment, four of the 62 stations, be underground, from Levinski Street through Ibn Gabirol Street until the Yarkon River.[19] The expected annual passenger forecast is 65 million. NTA is including the design and boring of the Green Line's tunnels as part of Red Line's tunnels overall contract so that work on the Green Line's underground portion can commence immediately following the completion of the Red Line tunnels. The preparations for the construction of this line begun in February 2017 in Ibn Gabirol street in Tel Aviv.[citation needed]

Purple Line[edit]

The third, or Purple Line, is envisaged as a 27 kilometres (17 mi) line with 43 stops and will connect Sheba Hospital through Giv'at Shmuel and Kiryat Ono, and will connect Arlozorov in Tel Aviv to Yehud and Or Yehuda through Ramat Gan. This line will be over-ground for its entire route.

Cancelled lines[edit]

Yellow Line[edit]

This line would have begun in Kfar Saba then continued on to Hod Hasharon, Herzliya, Ramat Hasharon on Sokolov Street, before joining Ben-Gurion Street in Ramat Gan, then Yitzhak Rabin Street in Givataim, then Moshe Dayan Street in Tel Aviv, Mikveh Israel, it would end in Holon after crossing Ariel Sharon Park. Parts of it were superseded by the M1 metro line.

Metro[edit]

The rapid transit plan for the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, conceived and approved in 2016, called for three underground metro lines, centered on Tel Aviv: a north–south line (M1), an east–west line (M2), and a circular line (M3).[20] The lines are currently undergoing an individual approval process.

Line Length No. of stations Status Opening Primary
municipalities
Terminals
M1[21] 85 km (53 mi) 62 Planned NET 2032 Tel Aviv, Lod, Ramle, Be'er Ya'akov, Rehovot, Nes Ziona, Rishon LeZion, Holon, Ramat HaSharon, Herzliya, Ra'anana, Hod HaSharon, Kfar Sava
M2[21] 26 km (16 mi) 22 Planned NET 2032 Tel Aviv, Bat Yam, Giv'atayim, Ramat Gan, Bnei Brak, Petah Tikva Holon Wolfson Railway Station
Petah Tikva
M3[21] 39 km (24 mi) 25 Approved[22] NET 2032 Tel Aviv, Herzliya, Petah Tikva, Kiryat Ono, Or Yehuda, Azor, Holon, Bat Yam Herzliya Pituah
Bat Yam

Bus rapid transit[edit]

Most BRT lines planned for the Tel Aviv metropolitan area were cancelled in 2016 and replaced with metro lines. Only plans for the Brown Line were retained, however, no date for start of construction has been announced.

Line Length No. of stations Status Opening Primary
municipalities
Terminals
Brown Line[23] 28 km (17 mi) Unknown Planned Rishon LeZion, Be'er Ya'akov, Ramle, Lod Rishon LeZion Moshe Dayan Railway Station
Lod Ganei Aviv Railway Station

Brown Line[edit]

The Brown Line is a planned BRT line that will serve the southern metropolitan area. Starting at Moshe Dayan Railway Station in western Rishon LeZion, it will continue east via central Rishon LeZion, bypassing Assaf HaRofeh Medical Center, until Ramle, where it splits into two branches: one continues to Lod in the northeast and the second continues to eastern Ramle in the east. There is a possibility of making it a light rail line eventually.

Cancelled lines[edit]

Blue Line[edit]

The Blue Line was the first BRT line not to pass via Tel Aviv. The line would have begun in Rehovot and continued to HaRishonim Railway Station in Rishon LeZion via Ness Ziona and ended at the Holon junction. This line was superseded by the M1 metro line.

Pink Line[edit]

The Pink Line was planned to serve the northern metropolitan area, beginning in northeastern Kfar Saba and continuing through its main streets until crossing Highway 4 to Ra'anana, continuing through Ahuza Street until western Ra'anana, and continuing to Herzliya and crossing it until the Marina area, where it would have terminated. This line was superseded by the M1 and M3 metro lines.

Orange Line[edit]

The Orange Line would have been the only line isolated from the system. It would serve only the city of Netanya in the northern metropolitan area. It would be a circular line that connects both sides of the city, crossing Highway 2.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Barkat, Amiram (September 20, 2011). "Work begins on Tel Aviv light rail". Globes. Retrieved April 15, 2012.
  2. ^ Cohen, Moshe (4 October 2020). "עבודות הרכבת הקלה בתל אביב נכנסות לשלב הסופי" [Red Line Works in Tel Aviv Entering Final Stage]. Maariv (in Hebrew). Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  3. ^ Hoffman, Carl (2016-09-01). "The project that could help determine Israel's future". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
  4. ^ a b c Gorodeisky, Sonia (December 25, 2018). "Work begins on second Tel Aviv light rail line". Globes. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  5. ^ "Can Israel pivot from cars to public transport?". Globes. 2021-10-13. Retrieved 2021-11-19.
  6. ^ Cotterell, Paul. "A Tramway Project in Jaffa". HaRakevet (6): 11–12.
  7. ^ "Tel Aviv's LRT dream". The International Light Rail Magazine. 2019-08-09. Retrieved 2021-11-19.
  8. ^ "6: Light Rapid Transit". HaRakevet (80): 4. March 2008. ISSN 0964-8763.
  9. ^ http://www.nrg.co.il/online/16/ART2/188/317.html The government officially nationalizes the construction of the Tel Aviv red line (Hebrew)
  10. ^ Morag, Gilad; Posek, Hillel (2015-04-18). "Tel Aviv light rail works expected to begin in the summer". Ynetnews. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
  11. ^ Lior, Ilan (2012-09-02). "Construction begins for Tel Aviv light rail, six years of traffic jams expected". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
  12. ^ The Red Line (in Hebrew)
  13. ^ a b Thomas, Tris (January 16, 2012). "Pre-Qualification call for Tel-Aviv Metro works". Tunnelling Journal. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
  14. ^ The Green Line (in Hebrew)
  15. ^ Maor, Tami (December 24, 2012). "Test Drilling for Green Line of Tel Aviv Light Rail". Tel Aviv Local (in Hebrew). Retrieved December 25, 2012.
  16. ^ The project that could help determine Israel's future, The Jerusalem Post, Carl Hoffman, January 9, 2016
  17. ^ a b c "Purple Line". www.nta.co.il. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  18. ^ "Tel Aviv Red Line tunnelling begins". Railway Gazette International. 20 February 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  19. ^ "Green Line". www.nta.co.il. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
  20. ^ "המטרו בגוש דן - צעד נוסף לקראת תחילת עבודות". Ynet (in Hebrew). 15 April 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  21. ^ a b c "Metro". www.nta.co.il. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  22. ^ "First Tel Aviv Metro line sent for cabinet approval". Globes. 26 April 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  23. ^ The Brown Line (in Hebrew)

External links[edit]