Telecommunications in Belarus
- Telephone lines in use: 3,9741 million (2011).
- Mobile/cellular: 10.3 million (2011).
- The phone calling code for Belarus is +375.
Minsk has a digital metropolitan network; waiting lists for telephones are long; fixed line penetration is improving although rural areas continue to be undeserved; intercity - Belarus has developed a fibre-optic backbone system presently serving at least 13 major cities (1998). Belarus's fibre optics form synchronous digital hierarchy rings through other countries' systems.
Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe Fibre-Optic Line (TAE) and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fibre-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations.
In 2006 it was announced that Belarus and Russia completed the second broadband link between the two countries, the Yartsevo-Vitebsk cable. The capacity of this high speed terrestrial link which based on DWDM and STM technology is 400Gbit/s with the ability to upgrade in the future.
Belarus has 4 GSM operators (TM velcom, MTS, life and Diallog), the NMT-450 and CDMA-2000 operator.
Radio and television
- Television broadcast stations: 100 of which 59 are privately owned.
- Radio broadcast stations: 173 with 24 privately owned, including 30 FM stations.
- Radios: 3.02 million (1997).[dated info]
- Country code: .by
The state telecom monopoly, Beltelecom, holds the exclusive interconnection with Internet providers outside of Belarus. Beltelecom owns all the backbone channels that linked to the Lattelecom, TEO LT, Tata Communications (former Teleglobe), Synterra, Rostelecom, Transtelekom and MTS ISP's. Beltelecom is the only operator licensed to provide commercial VoIP services in Belarus.
Until 2005-2006 broadband access (mostly using ADSL) was available only in a few major cities in Belarus. In Minsk there were a dozen privately owned ISP's and in some larger cities Beltelecom's broadband was available. Outside these cities the only options for Internet access were dial-up from Beltelecom or GPRS/cdma2000 from mobile operators. In 2006 Beltelecom introduced a new trademark, Byfly, for its ADSL access. As of 2008 Byfly was available in all administrative centres of Belarus. Other ISPs are expanding their broadband networks beyond Minsk as well.
- According to a 2006 survey of 1,500 adults by Satio, a third of Belarusians use the Internet—38% of the urban population and 16% of the rural population.
- A 2006 study by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development indicates 56.5% of Belarus' population were internet-users.
- The International Telecommunications Union showed Internet penetration (Internet users per 100 population) in 2009 at 27% for Belarus, 42% for Serbia, 37% for Romania, 29% for Russia, and 17% for Ukraine.
- According to Internet World Stats, Internet penetration in June 2010 was 47.5%. For comparison, Internet penetration in the Ukraine was 33.7%, in Romania 35.5%, Russia 42.8%, and Serbia 55.9%.
The most active Internet users in Belarus belong to the 17–22 age group (38 percent), followed by users in the 23–29 age group. Internet access in Belarus is predominantly urban, with 60 percent of users living in the capital Minsk. The profile of the average Internet user is male, university educated, living in the capital, and working in a state enterprise. The Ministry for Statistics and Analysis estimates that one in four families in Belarus owns a computer at home. The popularity of Internet cafés has fallen in recent years, as most users prefer to access the Internet from home or work. Russian is the most widely used language by Belarusians on the Internet, followed by Belarusian, English, and Polish.
In June 2011 E-Belarus.org listed:
- 2 ISPs in the Brest region, 4 in the Gomel region, 1 in the Grodno region, 26 in the Minsk region, 1 in the Mogilev region, and 1 in the Vitebsk region
- 4 ADSL providers
- 3 technology parks
- 2 educational networks
- more than 30 Internet cafes and Wi-Fi Hotspots
Limited free expression
Many western human rights groups state that civil rights and free expression are severely limited in Belarus, though there are some individuals and groups that refuse to be controlled and some journalists have disappeared.
Because the Belarus government limits freedom of expression, several opposition media outlets are broadcast from nearby countries to help provide Belorussians an alternative points of view. This includes the Polish state-owned Belsat TV station and European Radio for Belarus (Eŭrapéjskaje Rádyjo dla Biełarúsi)
In the 2011 Freedom House Freedom of the Press report, Belarus scored 92 on a scale from 10 (most free) to 99 (least free), because the government allegedly systematically curtails press freedom. This score placed Belarus 9th from the bottom of the 196 countries included in the report and earned the country a "Not Free" status.
- "Развитие связи в Беларуси", BELTA 6 May 2011
- Beltelecom, Rostelecom complete cross-border fibre tie-up
- "Mass media in Belarus", Belarus.by, the Official Website of the Republic of Belarun, July 2016
- "ONI Country Profile: Belarus", OpenNet Initiative, 18 November 2010
- Минский Курьер: №1096 Пятница 22 Декабря 2006г Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Information Economy Report 2007-2008", United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD.org), 6 February 2008, ISBN 978-92-1-112724-9
- "Estimated Internet users 2000 to 2009", spreadsheet, International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
- "Internet Usage in Europe", Internet World Stats, 30 June 2010
- "ITC in Belarus", E-Belarus.org. Retrieved 13 June 2011
- "Attacks on the Press in 2003 – Belarus", Committee to Protect Journalists, February 2004, available at UNHCR.org
- "Dissent hits Belarus via Warsaw", Gordon Fairclough, Wall Street Journal, 29 January 2011
- "Country report: Belarus", Freedom of the Press 2011, Freedom House, 21 April 2011
- The Ministry of Information of the Republic of Belarus (Belarusian)
- The Ministry of Communications and Informatization of the Republic of Belarus (Belarusian)
- Media in Belarus, e-Belarus.org
- Mass media in Belarus on the official website of the Republic of Belarus
Major telecommunications operators in Belarus (in Belarusian):