Telecommunications in Haiti
Telecommunications in Haiti include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet.
Radio and television
- Radio stations: Government-owned radio network; more than 250 private and community radio stations with about 50 FM stations in Port-au-Prince alone (2007).
- Television stations: Several TV stations, including one government-owned; cable TV subscription service is available (2007).
- Television sets: 38,120 (1997).[needs update]
- Radio and TV stations in Haiti in 2010:
Number of radio and television stations Department AM FM VHF UHF Cable Satellite OUEST 4 66 7 30 3 * SUD-EST 3 18 1 3 * * NIPPES 0 5 0 0 0 0 SUD 3 19 9 2 2 * GRANDE-ANSE 5 12 2 0 - - CENTRE 2 10 3 0 - - ARTIBONITE 6 42 6 1 - - NORD-EST 1 9 9 9 - - NORD 7 30 8 2 - - NORD-OUEST 3 15 2 1 * * TOTAL 34 226 36 38 - -
- Land lines
In 2012, there were 50,000 main lines in use ranking Haiti 163rd in the world.
Natcom, the result of the privatization of Télécommunications d'Haiti S.A.M. (Teleco) in 2010, has a monopoly on the provision of landline services throughout the country. The Vietnamese company Viettel bought a 60% share, with the Haitian government keeping the remaining 40% of the company.
Teleco was constantly hobbled by political interference which affected its performance. A net generator of revenues for the government in the 1970s and early 1980s, Teleco's fortunes then began to decline.
- Mobile cellular
Despite wide-ranging poverty, Haiti increased its mobile phone coverage rate from 6% to 30% in one year (May 2006 to May 2007). Haiti is now the driving force in mobile phone growth in the Caribbean, while radio remains the primary information medium for most Haitians.
- 6.1 million mobile lines (102nd in the world) covering 61.6% of the population (2012).
- Four major cell phone providers: Comcel/Voila, Digicel, Haitel, and NatCOM.
- Comcel, a subsidiary of Trilogy International Partners, LLC, was a TDMA company which launched its service in September 1999.
- Digicel Haiti, an affiliate of the pan-Caribbean Digicel Group won Haiti's first GSM license in June 2005 and launched service in early 2006.
- Haitel, an independent company founded by Franck Ciné, a Haitian-American and former MCI Inc executive, adopted CDMA technology.
In May 2006, Comcel and Haitel had a total of about 500,000 subscribers - a cell phone coverage rate of 6% for a population of 8.2 million. Digicel entered the market in May 2006. After one year of operations, May 2006-May 2007, Digicel went from zero to 1.4 million subscribers. The other two cell phone providers, Comcel and Haitel, responded by cutting their prices and offering new services such as Voilà, a GSM service by Comcel, and CDMA 2000 by Haitel. As a result, Comcel and Haitel increased their subscribers from 500,000 to 1 million. As of April 2012, Digicel has about 3.5 million cell phone subscribers in Haiti. In May 2007, Digicel started offering two BlackBerry services with Internet, one for enterprises and one for individuals. On March 30, 2012, Digicel completed the acquisition of Comcel / Voila, its main competitor in the Haitian market.
- Haiti's telecommunications infrastructure is among the least developed in Latin America and the Caribbean (2010).
- Domestic facilities are barely adequate.
- International facilities are slightly better.
- Haiti's country code top-level domain is .ht and is managed by NIC.ht Consortium FDS/RDDH. As of March 2009, it had 1155 domain names registered.
- Internet users: 1.1 million, 118th in the world; 10.9% of the population, 168th in the world (2012).
- Fixed broadband: unknown (2012).
- Mobile broadband: 15,781 subscriptions, 137th in the world; 0.2% of the population, 144th in the world (2012).
- Internet hosts: 555 hosts, 181st in the world (2012).
- IPv4: 124,160 addresses allocated, less than 0.05% of the world's total, 13 per 1000 people.
There are 5 Internet service providers serving the country. Among them are Multilink, H@inet and Access Haiti. In June 2010, Viettel (Natcom) announced that it would provide high speed Internet throughout the country by laying 3,100 km (1,900 mi) of optical fiber.
The Haitian telecommunications authority, CONATEL, decided in October 2010 to allow the introduction of 3G services by the mobile telephone service providers. This will enable them to deploy faster mobile internet access speeds throughout their networks than what is currently available with GPRS/EDGE.
Internet censorship and surveillance
The law provides for freedom of speech and press, and the government and elected officials generally respect these rights in practice. The independent media are active and express a wide variety of views without restriction. However, there have been incidents of local officials harassing or threatening journalists and others who criticized the government. Journalists complain about defamation lawsuits that the government threatens or files against the press for statements made about public officials or private figures in the public arena.
Defamation carries both criminal and civil penalties. Some journalists practice self-censorship on stories related to drug trafficking or allegations of business and political corruption, likely due to past patterns of retribution against activists and journalists engaged in investigative reporting. The law prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence, but the government does not always respect these prohibitions in practice.
- Radio Télévision Nationale d'Haïti (TNH), state radio and television broadcaster of Haiti, part of the Ministry of Culture.
- Media of Haiti
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- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State.
- "Communications: Haiti", World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 7 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
- "Report of CONATEL" (PDF). contael.gouv.ht. Retrieved July 2010.
- Dialing Procedures (International Prefix, National (Trunk) Prefix and National (Significant) Number) (in Accordance with ITY-T Recommendation E.164 (11/2010)), Annex to ITU Operational Bulletin No. 994-15.XII.2011, International Telecommunication Union (ITU, Geneva), 15 December 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- Le Nouvelliste : "Et la Téléco devient Natcom" (French).
- LaPresse Affaires : "Réseau cellulaire Digicel en Haïti: 2,2 millions d'abonnés en quatre ans" (French).
- NIC.ht Consortium FDS/RDDH
- Consortium FDS/RDDH : Statistics (French).
- Calculated using penetration rate and population data from "Countries and Areas Ranked by Population: 2012", Population data, International Programs, U.S. Census Bureau, retrieved 26 June 2013
- "Percentage of Individuals using the Internet 2000-2012", International Telecommunications Union (Geneva), June 2013, retrieved 22 June 2013
- "Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
- "Active mobile-broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants 2012", Dynamic Report, ITU ITC EYE, International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved on 29 June 2013.
- Select Formats, Country IP Blocks. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Site is said to be updated daily.
- Population, The World Factbook, United States Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed on 2 April 2012. Note: Data are mostly for 1 July 2012.
- Le Nouvelliste : "Viettel promet l'Internet à haut débit et à bon marché" (French) .
- CONATEL : "Les services mobiles par téléphone, à l’aube d’énormes bouleversements au benefice du consommateur Haïtien" (French).
- "Haiti", Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 22 March 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2013.