Telecommunications network

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A telecommunications network is a collection of terminal nodes[1] in which links are connected so as to enable telecommunication between the terminals.[1] The transmission links connect the nodes together. The nodes use circuit switching, message switching or packet switching to pass the signal through the correct links and nodes to reach the correct destination terminal. Each terminal in the network usually has a unique address so messages or connections can be routed to the correct recipients. The collection of addresses in the network is called the address space. Examples of telecommunications networks include:[2]

Benefits of telecommunications and networking[edit]

Telecommunications facilitates interaction and information transfer over large distances. Businesses use telecommunications to expand and grow their networks. With Internet, computer, and telephone networks, businesses can allocate their resources efficiently. These core types of networks will be discussed below: network: a network consists of and devices connected to one another. Information can be transferred from one device to the next. For example, an office filled with can share files together on each separate device. networks can range from a local area network (LAN) to a wide area network (WAN). The difference between the types of networks is the size. These types of networks work at certain speeds, also known as broadband. The Internet network connects worldwide. Internet network: access to the network allows users to use many resources. Over time the Internet network will replace books. This will enable users to discover information almost instantly and apply concepts to different situations. The Internet can be used for recreational, governmental, educational, and other purposes. Businesses in particular use the Internet network for research or to service customers and clients. Telephone network: the telephone network connects people to one another. This network can be used in a variety of ways. Many businesses use the telephone network to route calls and/or service their customers. Some businesses use a telephone network on a greater scale through a private branch exchange. It is a system where a specific business focuses on routing and servicing calls for another business. Majority of the time, the telephone network is used around the world for recreational purposes.

Network structure[edit]

In general, every telecommunications network conceptually consists of three parts, or planes (so called because they can be thought of as being, and often are, separate overlay networks):

  • The data plane (also user plane, bearer plane, or forwarding plane) carries the network's users' traffic, the actual payload.
  • The control plane carries control information (also known as signaling).
  • The management plane carries the operations and administration traffic required for network management. The management plane is sometimes considered a part of the control plane.

Example: the TCP/IP data network[edit]

Data networks are used extensively throughout the world to connect individuals and organizations. Data networks can be connected to allow users seamless access to resources that are hosted outside of the particular provider they are connected to. The Internet[3] is the best example of many data networks[1] from different organizations all operating under a single address space. Terminals attached to TCP/IP networks are addressed using IP addresses. There are different types of IP address, but the most common is IP Version 4. Each unique address consists of 4 integers between 0 and 255, usually separated by dots when written down, e.g. 82.131.34.56. TCP/IP are the fundamental protocols that provide the control and routing of messages across the data network. There are many different network structures that TCP/IP can be used across to efficiently route messages, for example:

There are three features that differentiate MANs from LANs or WANs:

  1. The area of the network size is between LANs and WANs. The MAN will have a physical area between 5 and 50 km in diameter.[3]
  2. MANs do not generally belong to a single organization. The equipment that interconnects the network, the links, and the MAN itself are often owned by an association or a network provider that provides or leases the service to others.[3]
  3. A MAN is a means for sharing resources at high speeds within the network. It often provide connections to WAN networks for access to resources outside the scope of the MAN.[3]

Datacenter networks also rely highly on TCP/IP for communication across machines. They connect thousands of servers, are designed to be highly robust, provide low latency that is typically up to hundreds of microseconds, and high bandwidth. Datacenter network topology plays a significant role in determining the level of failure resiliency, ease of incremental expansion, communication bandwidth and latency.[4]

Edholm's law[edit]

Edholm's law, proposed by and named after Phil Edholm in 2004,[5] holds that the bandwidth of telecommunication networks double every 18 months, which has proven to be true since the 1970s.[5][6] The trend is evident in the cases of Internet,[5] cellular (mobile), wireless LAN and wireless personal area networks.[6]

The MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) is the most important factor enabling the rapid increase in bandwidth.[7] The MOSFET (MOS transistor) was invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959,[8][9][10] and went on to become the basic building block of modern telecommunications technology.[11][12][13] Continuous MOSFET scaling, along with various advances in MOS technology, has enabled both Moore's law (transistor counts in integrated circuit chips doubling every two years) and Edholm's law (communication bandwidth doubling every 18 months).[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Design Elements - Telecommunication networks". Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2014-07-14.
  2. ^ "Telecommunication Network - Types of Telecommunication Networks". Archived from the original on 2014-07-15. Retrieved 2014-07-14.
  3. ^ a b c d "Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)". Erg.abdn.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2015-10-10. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
  4. ^ Noormohammadpour, Mohammad; Raghavendra, Cauligi (28 July 2018). "Datacenter Traffic Control: Understanding Techniques and Tradeoffs". IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials. 20 (2): 1492–1525. arXiv:1712.03530. doi:10.1109/COMST.2017.2782753.
  5. ^ a b c Cherry, Steven (2004). "Edholm's law of bandwidth". IEEE Spectrum. 41 (7): 58–60. doi:10.1109/MSPEC.2004.1309810.
  6. ^ a b Deng, Wei; Mahmoudi, Reza; van Roermund, Arthur (2012). Time Multiplexed Beam-Forming with Space-Frequency Transformation. New York: Springer. p. 1. ISBN 9781461450450.
  7. ^ a b Jindal, Renuka P. (2009). "From millibits to terabits per second and beyond - Over 60 years of innovation". 2009 2nd International Workshop on Electron Devices and Semiconductor Technology: 1–6. doi:10.1109/EDST.2009.5166093.
  8. ^ "1960 - Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Transistor Demonstrated". The Silicon Engine. Computer History Museum.
  9. ^ Lojek, Bo (2007). History of Semiconductor Engineering. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 321–3. ISBN 9783540342588.
  10. ^ "Who Invented the Transistor?". Computer History Museum. 4 December 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  11. ^ "Triumph of the MOS Transistor". YouTube. Computer History Museum. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  12. ^ Raymer, Michael G. (2009). The Silicon Web: Physics for the Internet Age. CRC Press. p. 365. ISBN 9781439803127.
  13. ^ "Transistors - an overview". ScienceDirect. Retrieved 8 August 2019.