The pitch produced from the instrument is changed by placing a finger into the open end of the pipe and covering this opening by a half or third etc. and also by the strength of the players breathe.
This instrument is very common in Romania especially in the areas bordering with the Ukrainian Bukovina area where it is known as the tilinca. Don't confuse Romanian tilinca without top and the well-known Hungarian tilinko with top, more easy to play for beginners (in a way, a Romanian caval without fingerholes).
- Humeniuk, A. - Ukrainski narodni muzychni instrumenty - Kiev: "Naukova dumka", 1967
- Mizynec, V. - Ukrainian Folk Instruments - Melbourne: Bayda books, 1984
- Cherkasky, L. - Ukrainski narodni muzychni instrumenty // Kiev: "Tekhnika", 2003 - 262 pages. ISBN 966-575-111-5
- Bulgăr, Gheorghe (2002). Dicționar de arhaisme și regionalisme. Bucharest: Saeculum vizual.
- (in French) jouer de la tilinca moldave