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Tell Judaidah

Coordinates: 36°16′03″N 36°35′12″E / 36.26750°N 36.58667°E / 36.26750; 36.58667
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Tell Judaidah
Tell Judaidah is located in Turkey
Tell Judaidah
Shown within Turkey
Alternative nameTell al-Judaidah, Tell Judeideh
LocationHatay province, Turkey
RegionAmuk valley
Coordinates36°16′03″N 36°35′12″E / 36.26750°N 36.58667°E / 36.26750; 36.58667
TypeTumulus (Tell)
PeriodsPre-pottery, Chalcolithic, Bronze, Iron, Classical
Site notes
Excavation dates1935-1937 1995-1996
ArchaeologistsRobert Braidwood, K. Aslihan Yener

Tell Judaidah (Tell al-Judaidah, Tell Judeideh) is an archaeological site in south-eastern Turkey, in the Hatay province. It is one of the largest excavated ancient sites in the Amuq valley, in the plain of Antioch. Settlement at this site ranges from the Neolithic (6000 BC) through the Byzantine Period.


Decorated tube, Tell Judaidah, Amuq H, 2750-2500 BC, bone - Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago - DSC07687

The site rises about 30 meters above the plain. Maximum extent is 370 meters (East to West) and 250 meters (North to South). On the west of runs a stream, Nahr al-Judaidah or Kizil Irk. The remains of a c. 5th century Early Christian church were at the surface.

American archaeologist James Breasted of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago inspired the start of work at the site.[1] Excavations by an Oriental Institute team led by Robert Braidwood beginning in September 1935, and revealed the existence of human settlements in the Amuk valley in the Neolithic period as early as 6,000 BC. Virgin soil was reached at about 30 meters below the summit of the mound. Rich discoveries of pottery helped to establish the sequence of successive ceramic shapes in the areas of the Eastern Mediterranean.[2][3][4][5] Also found was a cylinder seal, dated between the 13th and 14th centuries BC, showing "two goats leap toward the branches held by a cross-legged god, who is accompanied by genii bearing flowing vases".[6]

Horse with saddle, Amuq Valley, Tell Judaidah, Amuq J, Early Bronze Age IV, 2300-2000 BC, found in Amuq P level, ceramic - Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago - DSC07642

Archaeological discoveries at Tell Judaidah included crucibles with tin rich copper encrustations, indicating a very early use of advanced metallurgical techniques around 4500 BC, including the use of metal alloys.[7] Among a hoard of bronze objects was a bronze lugged axe found in Level II and context dated to between Early Dynastic II period and middle Akkadian period.[8] A cache of six very early copper statuettes were discovered here dating to the period of 3400-2750 BC. Half were male and half were female. These are known as 'Amuq G figurines'. They were cast using a lost wax process.[9] 'Wheel-made Plain Simple Ware' was also discovered dating to the same Amuq G period.[10]

The site was visited in 1995 by a team from the Oriental Institute led by K. Aslihan Yener in response to bulldozer damage to the mound. Some soundings were also conducted. Examination revealed the remains of a 1.5 meter thick building wall of mud bricks on stone foundations, radiocarbon dated to c. 3000 BC. [1]


Tell Judaidah was occupied from the Halaf period, through the Uruk period, Helladic period, Syro-Hittite period, Hellenic period, Roman period, and up until Byzantine times.[2]

Tell Dhahab[edit]

Tell Dhahab is located in near proximity to Tell Judaidah and is associated with it. It was excavated in 1938 in conjunction with the original Chicago expedition to Tell Judaidah. In recent decades, the site sustained serious damage. Scott Branting visited and evaluated the site in 1995 and 1998 seasons. Distinct stratigraphic phases were observed starting with Amuq Phase A. The following pottery styles were found: Dark faced burnished ware, Washed Impressed Ware, Plain Simple Ware, Reserved Slip Ware. Red Black Burnished Ware appeared in Amuq Phase H.[11][12]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b K. Aslihan Yener, The Amuq Valley Regional Project 1995-98, American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 163, 2000
  2. ^ a b [1]Robert J. Braidwood, "Mounds in the Plain of Antioch: An Archeological Survey", Oriental Institute Publications 48, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1937
  3. ^ [2]Robert J. Braidwood and Linda S. Braidwood, "Excavations in the Plain of Antioch I: The Earlier Assemblages Phases A–J", Oriental Institute Publications 61, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960
  4. ^ Simone Mantellini, Regional approach and archaeological survey in Northern Syria. An overview, in: Ebla and its landscape. Early state formation in the ancient Near East, Paolo Matthiae i Nicolo Marchetti, eds. 2013, p. 240.
  5. ^ C. W. McEwan, "The Syrian Expedition of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago", American Journal of Archaeology, XLI, pp. 8-16, 1937
  6. ^ Kantor, Helene J., "Ivory Carving In The Mycenae Period", Archaeology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 14–25, 1960
  7. ^ Nancy H. Demand, "The Mediterranean Context of Early Greek History", Wiley-Blackwell, 2011 ISBN 9781405155519
  8. ^ R. Maxwell-Hyslop, "Bronze Lugged Axe- or Adze Blades from Asia", Iraq, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 69–87, 1953
  9. ^ Marchetti, N., "A Middle Bronze I ritual deposit from the Amuq Plain: Note on the dating and significance of the metal anthropomorphic figurines from Tell Judaidah.", Vicino Oriente 12, pp. 117-132, 2000
  10. ^ Excavations at Tell Judaidah, Winter 1996 The Oriental Institute of The University of Chicago
  11. ^ [3]Timothy P. Harrison, "The 1998 Amuq Valley Regional Project Survey", The 21st International Symposium of Excavations, Surveys and Archaeometry, University of Toronto, 1999
  12. ^ M. V. Seton Williams, "Neolithic Burnished Wares in the Near East", Iraq, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 34–50, 1948

Further reading[edit]

  • Excavations at Tell Judaidah, The Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
  • Adriaens, Mieke, et al., "Tin Bronze Metallurgy in Transformation: Analytical Investigation of Crucible Fragments from Tell Judaidah, Amuq (Turkey) Dating to circa 3000-2900 BC.", Proceedings of the 31st International Symposium on Archaeometry, Budapest, 27 April-1 May 1998/E. Jerem and KT Biro (eds.)-Archaeolingua Central European Series 1-BAR International Series 1043 (II). 2002
  • Braidwood, Robert J., " A Note on a Multiple-Brush Device Used by Near Eastern Potters of the Fourth Millennium B. C.", Man, vol. 39, pp. 192–94, 1939
  • [4]Gerber, Christoph J., "Bemerkungen zur Stratigraphie von Tell Judaidah (Amuq Phase G).", Publications de l'Institut Français d'Études Anatoliennes 11.1, pp. 205-211, 2000
  • [5]R. C. Haines, Excavations in the Plain of Antioch, Vol. II: The Structural Remains of the Later Phases: Chatal Hüyük, Tell Al-Judaidah, and Tell Tayinat, Oriental Institute Publication 95, University of Chicago Press, 1970, ISBN 0-226-62198-7
  • Krogman, W. M., "Ancient Cranial Types at Chatal Hüyük and Tell aljudaidah, Syria, from the late fifth millennium B. C. to the mid-seventh century A. D.", Belleten, Vol. XIII, No. 51. pp. 407-477, 1949

External links[edit]