Tel es-Safi, 2008
Tell es-Safi in Mandatory Palestine
|Name meaning||The clear, or bright mound. (Name dates from the 12th century)|
|Also spelled||Tall al Safi|
|Date of depopulation||9–10 July 1948|
|Cause(s) of depopulation||Military assault by Yishuv forces|
Tell es-Safi (Arabic: تل الصافي, translit. Tall aṣ-Ṣāfī, "the white hill"; Hebrew: תל צפית, Tel Tzafit) was a Palestinian village, located on the southern banks of Wadi 'Ajjur, 35 kilometers (22 mi) northwest of Hebron which had its Palestinian population expelled during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war on orders of Shimon Avidan, commander of the Givati Brigade.
Archaeological excavations show that the site (a tell or hill city) was continuously inhabited since the 5th millennium BCE. It is believed to be the location of the Biblical Philistine city of Gath. On the Madaba Map, the name is Saphitha, while the Crusaders called it Blanche Garde. It is mentioned by Arab geographers in the 13th and 16th centuries. Under the Ottoman Empire, it was part of the district of Gaza. In modern times, the houses were built of sun-dried brick. The villagers were Muslim and cultivated cereals and orchards.
Today Tell es-Safi is an Israeli national park encompassing an archaeological site thought to have been the Philistine city of Gath mentioned in the Bible. The remains of the Crusader fort and the Arab village can also be seen on the tell.
Location and topography
Tell es-Safi sits on a site 300 feet (91 m) above the plain of Philistia and 700 feet (210 m) above sea level, and its white-faced precipices can be seen from the north and west from several hours distant. Tell es-Safi is situated between the Israeli cities of Ashkelon and Beit Shemesh and is one of the country's largest Bronze and Iron Age sites.
Bronze and Iron Ages
Stratigraphic evidence attests to settlement in the Late Bronze and Iron Age (I & II) periods. A large city in the Iron Age, the site was "enclosed on three sides by a large man-made siege-moat."
It is now widely accepted that Tell es-Safi was the site of the Philistine city of Gath. The identification was formerly opposed by Albright, who noted its proximity to Tel Miqne (Ekron), yet the recent excavations turned up more supportive evidence for Tell es-Safi. As Schniedewind writes, the big reason why Gath was so important for the Philistines in the eighth century BCE was its easily defended geographical position: Albright argued that Tell es-Safi was too close to Tel Miqne/Ekron to be identified with Philistine Gath. It is true that the sites are only 8 km apart. However, this seems to be a moot point now since there is no doubt that both Tell es-Safi and Tel Miqne were major sites in the Middle Bronze through the Iron Age. The real question is how to understand their proximity. First, the ideal agricultural features of this region of the southern coastal plain explain why these two sites were so close together. Additionally, we cannot be certain that the two sites flourished simultaneously. Literary sources ... suggest that Gath flourished in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages until its destruction by the Assyrians in the late eighth century B.C.E. The heyday of Ekron, on the other hand, was the seventh century B.C.E., after the site was taken over by the Assyrians as an agricultural administrative center (Dothan and Gitin 1993).
According to 2010 reports, Israeli archeologists have uncovered a Philistine temple and evidence of a major earthquake in biblical times. Other major finds were evidence of the destruction of Gath by Hazael King of Aram-Damascus around 830 BCE, and evidence of the first Philistine settlement in Canaan. Radiocarbon dating in 2015 showed an early appearance of Philistine material culture in the city.
The place appears on the Madaba Map as Saphitha.
Crusader and Ayyubid period
During the Crusades, the site was called Blanchegarde, ("White guard"), likely referring to the white rock outcrop next to the site. In 1142 a fort was built on the site by King Fulk, it was dismantled after being taken by Saladin in 1191, but reconstructed by Richard of England in 1192. King Richard was nearly captured while inspecting his troops next to the site. Shortly thereafter Blanchegard was retaken by Muslims forces. The remnants of the square castle and its four towers served as a place of some importance in the village well into the 19th century.
The village was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine, and in 1596 it appeared in the tax registers being in the nahiya (subdistrict) of Gaza under Gaza Sanjak, with a population of 88 Muslim households; an estimated 484 persons. The villagers paid a fixed tax rate of 25% on a number of crops, including wheat, barley and sesame, and fruits, as well as goats and beehives; a total of 13,300 akçe.
In 1838 Edward Robinson noted Tell es-Safieh as a Muslim village, located in the Gaza district. He further described it as "an isolated oblong hill or ridge, lying from N.to S. in the plain, the highest part being towards the South. The village lies near the middle; lower down." The Sheikh, Muhammed Sellim, belonged to the 'Azzeh family of Bayt Jibrin. After his family had taken part in the rebellion of 1834, his father and uncle had been beheaded, and remaining family was ordered to take up residence at Tell es-Safi.
In 1863 Victor Guérin visited, and noted two small Muslim walīs. An Ottoman village list of about 1870 counted 34 houses and a population of 165, though the population count included men, only.
In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Tell al-Safi as a village built of adobe brick with a well in the valley to the north. James Hastings notes that the village contained a sacred wely.
In 1896 the population of Tell es-safije was estimated to be about 495 persons.
British Mandate era
In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Tal al-Safi had a population of 644 inhabitants, all Muslims, increasing in the 1931 census to 925, still all Muslim, in a total of 208 inhabited houses.
The villagers of Tall al-Safi had a mosque, a marketplace, and a shrine for a local sage called Shaykh Mohammad. In the 1945 statistics, the total population was 1,290, all Muslims, and the land area was 27,794 dunams of land. Of this, a total of 19,716 dunums of land were used for cereals, 696 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards, while 68 dunams were classified as built-up (urban) areas.
1948, and after
In 1948, Tell es-Safi was the destination for the women and children of Qastina, sent away by the menfolk of Qastina at this time, but they returned after discovering there was insufficient water in the host village to meet the newcomers' needs.
On 7 July Givati commander Shimon Avidan issued orders to the 51st Battalion to take the Tall al-Safi area and "to destroy, to kill and to expel [lehashmid, leharog, u´legaresh] refugees encamped in the area, in order to prevent enemy infiltration from the east to this important position." According to Benny Morris, the nature of the written order and, presumably, accompanying oral explanations, probably left little doubt in the battalion OC's minds that Avidan wanted the area cleared of inhabitants.
In 1992, Walid Khalidi wrote that the site was overgrown with wild vegetation, mainly foxtail and thorny plants, interspersed with cactuses, date-palm and olive trees. He noted the remains of a well and the crumbling stone walls of a pool. The surrounding land was planted by Israeli farmers with citrus trees, sunflowers, and grain. A few tents belonging to Bedouin were occasionally pitched nearby.
- Palmer, 1881, p. 275
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 50
- Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 23
- Morris, 2004, p. xix, village number #292. Also gives cause of depopulation
- Morris, 2004, p. 436
- Negev and Gibson, 2005, p. 445
- Hastings and Driver, 2004, p. 114
- Archaeology: The Science of the Human Past, Mark Sulton
- Wigoder, 2005, pp. 348-9.
- Gath in the Bible gath.wordpress.com
- Bromiley, 1982, pp. 411-413
- Horton Harris (2011). "The location of Ziklag: a review of the candidate sites, based on Biblical, topographical and archaeological evidence". Palestine Exploration Quarterly. 143 (2): 119–133. doi:10.1179/003103211x12971861556954.
- William M. Schniedewind, The Geopolitical History of Philistine Gath. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 309 (Feb., 1998), pp. 69-77
- In the Spotlight, Jerusalem Post. 07/29/2010
- RADIOCARBON DATING SHOWS AN EARLY APPEARANCE OF PHILISTINE MATERIAL CULTURE IN TELL ES-SAFI/GATH, PHILISTIA, University of Melbourne
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 222
- Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 440
- Pringle, 1997, p. 93
- Rey, 1871, pp. 123-125; illustrated
- Le Strange, 1890, p.544
- Le Strange, 1890, p. 41
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 150. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 222
- Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, Appendix 2, p. 119
- Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 2, pp. 362- 367
- Guérin, 1869, pp. 90 -96
- Socin, 1879, p. 162
- Hartmann, 1883, p. 144 noted 80 houses
- Conder and Kitchener, 1882, pp. 415 - 416 Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 222
- Schick, 1896, p. 123
- Barron, 1923, Table V, Sub-district of Hebron, p. 10
- Mills, 1932, p. 34
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 94. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, 222
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 144
- Morris, 2004, p. 176
- Givati, Operation An-Far, 7 July 1948, IDFA 7011\49\\1. Cited in Morris, 2004, p. 436 According to Morris, Avraham Ayalon (1963): The Givati Brigade Opposite the Egyptian Invader "gives a laundered version of the order, - which I (unfortunately) used in the original edition of The Birth." The "laundered" version does not contain the words: "to destroy, to kill".
- Morris, 2004, p. 437
- Operation An-Far
- Looking for a Wider View of History, Israeli Archaeologists Are Zooming In
- Barron, J.B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Bliss, F.J.; Macalister, R.A.S. (1902). Excavations in Palestine During the Years 1898—1900. London. (pp. 28-43)
- Bliss, F.J. (1899). "Second Report on the Excavations at Tell Es-Safi". Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund. 31: 317-333.
- Bliss, F.J. (1900). "Third Report on the Excavations at Tell Es-Safi". Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund. 32: 16-86.
- Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1982). International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. II: E-J. ISBN 0-8028-3782-4.
- Clermont-Ganneau, C.S. (1896). [ARP] Archaeological Researches in Palestine 1873-1874, translated from the French by J. McFarlane. 2. London: Palestine Exploration Fund. ( p.440. )
- Conder, C.R.; Kitchener, H.H. (1882). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 2. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945. Government of Palestine.
- Guérin, V. (1869). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 1: Judee, pt. 2. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Hadawi, S. (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center.
- Hastings, James; Driver, S R (2004). A Dictionary of the Bible: Volume II: (Part I: Feign -- Hyssop). The Minerva Group, Inc. ISBN 9781410217240.
- Hartmann, M. (1883). "Die Ortschaftenliste des Liwa Jerusalem in dem türkischen Staatskalender für Syrien auf das Jahr 1288 der Flucht (1871)". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins. 6: 102–149.
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Khalidi, W. (1992). All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
- Le Strange, G. (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Macalister, R.A.S. (1925). A century of excavation in Palestine. London: The Religious Tract Society.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Morris, B. (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00967-6.
- Negev, Avraham; Gibson, S. (2005). Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 9780826485717.
- Palmer, E.H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Petersen, Andrew (2001). A Gazetteer of Buildings in Muslim Palestine (British Academy Monographs in Archaeology). 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-727011-0. (pp. 291–292)
- Pringle, Denys (1997). Secular buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: an archaeological Gazetter. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521 46010 7.
- Rey, E. G. (Emmanuel Guillaume) (1871). Etude sur les monuments de l'architecture militaire des croisés en Syrie et dans l'île de Chypre (in French). Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Robinson, E.; Smith, E. (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838. 2. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
- Robinson, E.; Smith, E. (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838. 3. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
- Schick, C. (1896). "Zur Einwohnerzahl des Bezirks Jerusalem". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins. 19: 120–127.
- Socin, A. (1879). "Alphabetisches Verzeichniss von Ortschaften des Paschalik Jerusalem". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins. 2: 135–163.
- Wigoder, Geoffrey (2005). The Illustrated Dictionary and Concordance of the Bible. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 9781402728204.
- Wilson, C.W., ed. (c. 1881). Picturesque Palestine, Sinai and Egypt. 3. New York: D. Appleton.(p.158 -p.161 )