During telophase, the effects of prophase and prometaphase (the nuclear membrane and nucleolus disintegrating) are reversed. Two daughter nuclei form in each daughter cell, and phosphatases de-phosphorylate the nuclear lamins at the ends of the cell, forming nuclear envelopes around each nucleus. Two theories as to how this happens are:
- Vesicle fusion—When fragments of the nuclear membrane fuse to rebuild the nuclear membrane
- Reshaping of the endoplasmic reticulum—where the parts of the endoplasmic reticulum containing absorbed nuclear membrane envelop the nuclear space, reforming a closed membrane.
As the nuclear membranes re-form around each set of chromatids, the nucleoli also reappear. Spindle fibres degenerate.The chromosomes also unwind back into the expanded chromatin that is present during interphase. Telophase accounts for approximately 2% of the cell cycle's duration.
In land plant cells, vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus move to the middle of the cell along a microtubule scaffold called the phragmoplast. This structure directs packets of cell wall materials which coalesce into a disk-shaped structure called a cell plate. The cell plate grows out centrifugally and eventually develops into a proper cell wall, separating the two nuclei.
- Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. W H Freeman. 2000. pp. Section 13.4.
- Hetzer, Mertin (March 2, 2012). "The Nuclear Envelope". National Center for Biotechnology Information 2 (3): a000539. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a000539. PMC 2829960. PMID 20300205. Check date values in:
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- Media related to Telophase at Wikimedia Commons
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