Telugu poetry

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Telugu poetry is verse originating in the southern provinces of India, predominantly from modern Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and some corners of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

Earliest available Telugu poetry has been found on the epigraphs, including victory inscriptions. During the period of patronage of Eastern Chalukya rulers around the 11th century, the language attained its present script, rich vocabulary and grammar rules. This standardization led to development in the quantity and quality of literature of Telugu Language, which was predominantly composed of poetry. This phase of development reached its zenith under the rule of Sri Krishna Deva Raya of Vijayanagara Empire.

Earliest poetry[edit]

The 6th or 7th century Sanskrit text Janashrayi-Chhandovichiti (or Janāśraya-chandas) deals with the metres used in Telugu, including some metres that are not found in Sanskrit prosody. This indicates that Telugu poetry existed during or around the 6th century.[1]

Epic poetry era[edit]

This era saw the beginning of the translation of the epic Mahabharata into Telugu by three great scholars Nannaya, Tikkana and Errana. These three scholars were reverently called as Kavitrayam (trinity of poets). They completed the great epic in three parts by adopting styles and setting standards, thereby paving way for the future writers. However, despite the best efforts of the scholars of this era, Telugu language used in the poetry included various words imported from Sanskrit and was thus out of reach of the common man.

Pre-Prabandha era[edit]

This includes various poets such as Nanne Choda and Somanadha who concentrated on using more native words and styles such as Dwipada to reach common man. Srinatha famous for his famous works, Sringara Naishadham, KasiKhandam and BhimaKhandam. This era also saw the most widely quoted Telugu poet Potana and his poem Srimad Bhagavatam. A folk-style rendering of poems was also initiated by Annamayya during this period.

Prabandha era[edit]

This era includes writers such as Allasani Peddana, Tenali Ramalinga Kavi and Dhurjati. It is considered as the Golden Age for Telugu literature. Telugu language received patronage of the Vijayanagara Empire. Most of the masterpieces of Telugu literature, such as Manu Charitra and Panduranga Mahatyam, were written in this era.

Post-Prabandha period[edit]

This era includes writers such as Pingali Surana who is famous for his Kalaa Purnodayam and Raaghava Paandaveeyam and Bhattumurthy / Ramarajabhushana, who wrote Vasucharitra and Narasa Bhoopaaleeyam.

Decline period[edit]

This era indicates degeneration of standards in the literature.[citation needed] Poets struggled for patronage and concentrated on styles such as Chitra Kavitvam and on composition of erotic literature to please their patrons. Some patrons tried to preserve the traditions but on the whole it was a dark age. There was some light seen at the end of tunnel when Tirupati Venkata Kavulu flourished at the end of this period. They started a new style of poetry Avadhanam and wrote Krishna Raayabaaram and Devi Bhagavatam.

Modern period[edit]

This started with Gurajada Apparao, who changed the face of Telugu poetry with his Muthayala Saralu, and was perfected by later writers in the Romanticism era including Rayaprolu and Devulapalli Krishna Sastri. Gurajada's attempt to reform Telugu poetry by shedding old rules and styles reached a zenith with Sri Sri. SriSri's famous work "Maha Prastanam" is an instant hit with every corners of society. Many writers followed his style and continue to enrich the literature.

Paryavaran Kavitodyamam[edit]

The Paryavaran Kavitodyamam movement started in 2008. It aims to bring awareness and concern among not only the elite class but also the masses through creative forms of literature.[vague] The Jagruthi Kiran Foundation initiated it under the leadership of Narayanam Narasimha Murthy, popularly known as "Vidyavachaspati". The movement has literary activities including Harita Kata. Lot of literature has been produced by various poets, writers on Environment. Magazines such as Malle Teega and Kadhakeli are associated with Jagruthi Kiran Foundation. More than 500 poets and writers are involved in this movement.

Other forms[edit]

While the mainstream poetry based on rhythm and meter is growing up, Telugu literature also saw a rise in folk-poetry.[vague] Most famous were Satakam, Dwipada and Padalu. These were mainly used by Bhakti Reformers to reach the common man and spread their ideas. Some notable writers are Annamayya, Vemana, Ramadasu and Somanadha. Tyagaraja's Kritis and Muvva gopala Padalu cannot be missed in this list. Tyagaraja Kriti's are considered most important compositions in Carnatic Music.

Some famous satakams are listed below.


Ismail Award
Given every Year for the first book of the poet, established in 2005.
CP Brown Award
Given Every year for Translations and the people who has worked for Telugu literary activities

See also[edit]


  1. ^ G. Ramakrishna; N. Gayathri; Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, eds. (1983). An Encyclopaedia of South Indian Culture. K.P. Bagchi. pp. 164–165. OCLC 948611193.

Further reading[edit]

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